Three Errors of the Feeneyite Movement

1/ Misrepresentation of the Dogma "Outside the Church there is no salvation."

They present it as "without baptism of water there is no salvation."

St. Cyprian, the first Saint to use by writing the expression "extra ecclesiam nulla salus", in the very passage in which he uses it, shows that Baptism of water being inferior to Baptism of Blood, and this last one not being fruitful outside the Church, "because outside the Church there is no salvation," therefore baptism of water outside the Church cannot be fruitful. (It imprints the character, but does not give sanctifying grace, i.e. justification, and thus does not open Heavens door).

In the very next paragraph, St. Cyprian teaches, with all the Fathers, Doctors, Popes and unanimously all theologians, that Baptism of Blood (dying for the Catholic Faith) is the most glorious and perfect of all baptism, explicitly stating "even without the water".

And in the next paragraph, St. Cyprian teaches that Catholic Faithful who, with no fault of their self, were received in the Catholic Church without a valid baptism, could still go to Heaven (thus with the Catholic Faith and Charity, but without the waters of baptism: this is exactly the conditions of baptism of desire).

Why not then believe the Dogma of the Church "outside the Church there is no salvation" "in the same meaning and in the same words in eodem sensu eademque sententia" as the whole Catholic Church has taught it from the beginning, that is, including the "three Baptism"? Why then give a new meaning, a new interpretation to the Dogma?

It is worth reminding that this traditional interpretation of the Dogma, including the Three Baptism, is that of St. Cyprian, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Fulgence, St. Bernard, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Robert Bellarmine, St. Peter Canisius, St. Alphonsus of Liguori, Pope Innocent II, Pope Innocent III, the Council of Trent, Pope Pius IX, Pope St. Pius X, etc. and unanimously all theologians (before the modernists) !

It is worth reminding that St. Alphonsus says: "it is de fide that is, it belongs to the Catholic Faith that there are some men saved also by the baptism of the Spirit."

That traditional interpretation is approved by the council of Florence: the Council Fathers make theirs the doctrine of St. Thomas on baptism of desire, saying that for children one ought not to wait at least 40 or 80 days for their instruction, because for them there is "no other remedy" : that expression is taken from St. Thomas, IIIa qu. 68 a 3 and it refers explicitly to baptism of desire (see IIIa qu. 68 a 2), thus being approved by the Council of Florence! When one knows how much this Council espoused St. Thomass doctrine, it is astonishing to see Feeneyites opposing that Council to St. Thomas!

Against that rock of Tradition, all the arguments of the Feeneyites are of no value. But let us refute them too.

2/ The doctrine on Baptism of Desire is optional

They present it as a freely discussed question in the Church : "an academic difference to be settled by the Church" : each school of thought would then have to be accepted until the Pope later defines that doctrine. This is false.

The error here is to claim that only that which has already been defined belongs to the Deposit of Faith, and everything else is opened to free discussion.

The truth is that one ought to believe everything that belongs to the Deposit of Faith, both that which has already been defined and that which is not yet defined but is unanimously taught by the Church. Such is the doctrine on Baptism of desire, by their own admission. They write indeed: "this teaching [on three baptisms] indeed was and is the common teaching of theologians since the early part of this millennium." They should add: common teaching of Popes, of Doctors of the Church and of Saints! They should add that it is found even before this millennium in the very early years of the Church, without a single dissenting voice.

Therefore one ought to believe in the doctrine of three baptisms, as it belongs to the Catholic Faith, though not yet defined. Thus St. Alphonsus can explicitly say: "it is de fide"

If a point of doctrine is not yet defined, one may be excused in case of ignorance, or one may discuss some precision within the doctrine (as to how explicit the Catholic Faith must be in order to have baptism of desire), but one is not allowed to reject the doctrine itself, simply denying baptism of desire.

The example of St. Thomas and the Immaculate Conception is a false one. Indeed one must note that St. Thomas accepted the highest purity he saw possible for Our Lady, accepting even the feast of the Immaculate Conception as being the day of her "sanctification." He says explicitly: "Under Christ, Who [alone] did not need to be saved, being the universal Savior, the Blessed Virgin had the highest purity." The hard question in this point of doctrine was how to reconcile the fact that she is redeemed, and that she is immaculate. The truth is that Our Lady was sanctified in the very first moment of her conception by being preserved from original sin, and not in the second moment of her life by being purified : as this distinction was simply not taught before St. Thomas Aquinas, he cannot be criticized for not holding it. There was no unanimity before him as to how to reconcile these two points of doctrine. And therefore the parallel with baptism of desire does not stand at all! Never could a Pope define a doctrine contrary to what the Church has always taught.

And he who denies a point of doctrine of the Church, knowing that it is unanimously taught in the Tradition of the Church is not without sin against the virtue of Faith ("without which [Faith] no one ever was justified" ! Dz 799)

3/ Third error : The Council of Trent teaches that Baptism of Desire is sufficient for justification "but not for salvation".

The Council of Trent teaches that Baptism of Desire is sufficient for justification. It is very explicitly stated in Session 7 Canon 4 on the sacraments in general: "If anyone says that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary for salvation, but that they are superfluous; and that men can, without the sacraments or the desire of them, obtain the grace of justification by faith alone, although it is true that not all the sacraments are necessary for each individual, let him be anathema." (Dz 847).

Beware of ambiguous translations! In their recent flyer on "Desire, Justification and Salvation at the Council of Trent", they use an ambiguous translation of Session 6 Chapter 7 (Dz 799): "the instrumental cause [of justification] is the sacrament of baptism, which is the sacrament of faith, without which no man was ever justified" Now the Latin has "sine QUA nulli unquam contigit iustificatio" : thus the terms "without which" refer to the faith (feminine in Latin) and not to the sacrament (neutral in Latin: it would then have: sine quo). Thus in the translation found in "The Church Teaches" (TCT 563), one finds: " without [which] Faith no one has ever been justified." Why not use the established unambiguous English translation? Why replace it with an ambiguous one?

Now if they had read carefully the Council of Trent, they would have seen that this Council teaches: "it is necessary to believe that the justified have everything necessary for them to be regarded as having completely satisfied the divine law for this life by their works, at least those which they have performed in God. And they may be regarded as having likewise truly merited the eternal life they will certainly attain in due time, if they but die in the state of grace" In other words, salvation (which is at the end of the Christian life on earth) only requires perseverance in the state of grace received at justification (which is at the beginning of the Christian life on earth). Baptism is the sacrament of justification, the sacrament of the beginning of the Christian life. If one has received sanctifying grace (which is the reality of the sacrament, res sacramenti, of Baptism), he only needs to persevere in that grace to be saved. Perseverance in grace requires obedience to the Commandments of God, including the commandment to receive the sacrament of Baptism: thus there remains for him the obligation to receive baptism of water, but it is necessary for him no longer as mean (since he already received by grace the ultimate fruit of that mean), but only as precept. In case of circumstances not depending on our will and preventing us from fulfilling such a precept, "God takes the will as the fact." This is the principle applied by St. Cyprian, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, etc.

It is false to pretend that canon 4 on the Sacraments in general (where desire is explicitly mentioned in the expression "re aut voto") deals with justification as opposed to salvation and canon 5 on Baptism deals with salvation as opposed to justification. Indeed canon 4 (quoted above) deals explicitly with the necessity of sacraments "for salvation", the expression "grace of justification" in that context appears manifestly as being precisely the only essential requisite for salvation, as is taught explicitly in session 6 chapter 16 (see above). That which is said of the sacraments in general applies to each sacrament in particular, without having to be repeated each time. Simplistic reasoning, disregarding the explicit teaching of the Church on baptism of desire, only reach false conclusions.

That it is not necessary to repeat the clause "re aut voto" is so much the more true since baptism of desire is an exception, a special case, not the normal one. One needs not mention exceptions each time one speaks of a law. Thus, there are many definitions of the church on original sin that do not mention the Immaculate Conception, for instance Pope St. Zozimus wrote: "nullus omnino absolutely nobody" (Dz 109a) was exempt of the guilt of original sin: such "definition" must be understood as the Church understands it, i.e., not including the Blessed Virgin Mary. In the same way, it is sufficient that Baptism of desire be explicitly taught by the Church, by the Council of Trent, in some place, it is not necessary to expect it at every page of her teaching; silence on an exception is not a negation of it. This principle is important to remember, in order not to be deceived by a frequent technique of the Feeneyites: they accumulate quotes on the general necessity of Baptism, as if it were against the doctrine on Baptism of Desire. Often the very persons they quote hold explicitly the common teaching on Baptism of Desire. The fact is that the general necessity of Baptism, as understood "in the same sense and in the same words" as the Church always understood it, far from excluding Baptism of Blood and of Desire includes this doctrine.

The root of the error of the Feeneyites: lack of proper Thomistic Theology

To remedy the errors of modernism St. Pius X has ordered the study of St. Thomas Aquinas philosophy and theology. A book like "desire and deception" put out by a Feeneyite is very dangerous for his opposition to that philosophy of St. Thomas, which is made mandatory by St. Pius X. Let us hear St. Pius X: "We will and strictly ordain that scholastic philosophy be made the basis of the sacred sciences And let it be clearly understood above all things that when We prescribe scholastic philosophy We understand chiefly that which the Angelic Doctor has bequeathed to us They cannot set aside St. Thomas, especially in metaphysical questions, without grave disadvantage."

St. Thomas distinguishes three elements in each sacrament: 1/ the exterior sign, called sacramentum tantum, sacrament itself, signifying and producing the other two elements. This exterior sign is composed of matter such as water, and form such as the words of the sacrament. 2/ An intermediate reality, called sacramentum et res, sacrament and reality, which, in case of baptism, is the character. This intermediate reality is both signified and produced by the exterior sign and further signifies and produces the third element. 3/ The ultimate reality, res sacramenti, the (ultimate) reality of the sacrament, which is the sacramental grace, i.e. sanctifying grace, as source of further actual graces to live as child of God, as soldier of Christ, etc.

A sacrament may be valid but not fruitful. To be valid the exterior sign needs valid matter, form, intention and proper minister, it then signifies and produces always the second element. To be fruitful, there must be no obstacle. Thus baptism in a heretical church, if done with proper matter, form and intention, does give the character of baptism but does not give sanctifying grace; the person thus remains with the original sin and actual sins; he has not become a child of God: Baptism is thus deprived of its ultimate effect, the most important one, because of the obstacle of a false faith, i.e. of heresy. In the same way, baptism in a Catholic Church of a person who had stolen and refuses to render that which he stole: such attachment to sin is an obstacle that deprives baptism of its ultimate effect, sanctifying grace.

One can go to Hell with the character of Baptism. And there are saints in Heaven, such as the Saints of the Old Testament (Abraham, David, etc.) without the character of Baptism. But nobody dying with sanctifying grace goes to Hell (as the Council of Trent says above), and nobody dying without sanctifying grace goes to Heaven.

Thus the necessity of Baptism for salvation is absolute for the third element of Baptism, the new birth by sanctifying grace, element which is found in each of the Three Baptism (even more perfectly in baptism of blood than in baptism of water, as is the constant teaching of the Church). Hence the common teaching on the necessity of Baptism includes the three Baptisms.

The necessity of the exterior element of Baptism, i.e. the sacrament itself, is relative to the third element, as the only mean at our disposal to receive the third element, living Faith; the sacrament itself is "the sacrament of Faith, without which [Faith] no one ever was justified" as says the Council of Trent (Dz 799). See how this holy Council clearly sets the absolute necessity on the third element (living faith, i.e. faith working through charity). One finds the same distinction in the Holy Scripture, chapter 3 of St. Johns Gospel: that which is absolutely necessary is the new birth, i.e. the infusion of the new life, sanctifying grace, the life of God in us. Five times Our Lord insists on the necessity to be "reborn, born of the Spirit". The water is mentioned only once as the mean for that rebirth, the only mean at our disposal, but not limiting Gods power Who can infuse this new life, (justification) even without water, as He did to Cornelius (Act. 10).

The confusion of the writings of the Feeneyites when they deal with sacramental character or with "fulfilled/unfulfilled justice" (confusion on the third element of the sacrament) is appalling. (Reply to Verbum, Res Fidei Feb.87, p.22, with refutation in Baptism of Desire published at the Angelus). Dare one add with St. Pius X as cause of their error: pride that makes them more attached to their novelty than to the age-old teaching of the Popes, Fathers, Doctors and Saints?

Conclusion

"Brethren, the will of my heart, indeed, and my prayer to God, is for them unto salvation. For I bear witness, that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge." (Rom. 10:1-2) How much I wish and pray that, relinquishing their error, their refusal of the traditional teaching on the Three Baptism, they embrace the whole of Catholic Faith (not just defined Dogmas). They pretend to defend Dogma, but not with the truth! One cannot defend truth with error. Their error only gives easy weapons to the enemies of the Dogma! "Not knowing the Justice of God (interior sanctifying grace of justification by living Faith) and seeking to establish their own (exterior belonging to the Church by exterior sacraments), [they] have not submitted themselves to the justice of God" (Rom. 10:3).

We must defend the Catholic Faith, the absolute necessity of interior sanctifying grace (inseparable from the true Faith, Hope and Charity) and the necessity of the exterior sacraments "re aut voto in reality or at least in desire" as teaches the Council of Trent.

In this time of confusion in the teaching of the Church we must hold fast to the unchangeable teaching of the Tradition of the Church, believing what the Church has always believed and taught "in the same meaning and the same words," not changing one iota to the right or to the left, for falling from the faith on one side or the other is still falling from the true Faith, "without which [Faith] no one ever was justified!" (Council of Trent, Dz 799).

Let us pray that Our Lord Jesus Christ may give them the light to see and the grace to accept the age-old teaching of our holy Mother the Church by her Popes, Fathers, Doctors and Saints, and that, correcting themselves, they may serve the Church rather than change her doctrine.

This article is from Catholic Apologetics: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Rhodes/3543/index.htm

This page was last updated Monday, 09-Dec-2002 17:18:35 PST

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The Baltimore Catechism #3

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1) Double click on My Computer, double click on DOCTRINE, double click on the file "32exam" and follow the installation instructions.
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The Creed



Prayers

1.The Lord's Prayer.
2.The Angelical Salutation.
3.The Apostles' Creed.
4.The Confiteor.
5.An Act of Faith.
6.An Act of Hope.
7.An Act of Love.
8.An Act of Contrition.
9.The Blessing before Meals.
10.Grace after Meals.

The Lessons of the Catechism

Click on a Lesson to jump to that Lesson

1.Lesson 1 On the end of Man
2.Lesson 2 On God and His Perfections
3.Lesson 3 On the Unity and Trinity of God
4.Lesson 4 On Creation
5.Lesson 5 On Our First Parents and the Fall
6.Lesson 6 On Sin and Its Kinds
7.Lesson 7 On the Incarnation and Redemption
8.Lesson 8 On Our Lord's Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension
9.Lesson 9 On the Holy Gost and His Descent Upon the Apostles
10.Lesson 10 On the Effects of the Redemption
11.Lesson 11 On the Church
12.Lesson 12 On the Attributes and Marks of the Church
13.Lesson 13 On the Sacraments in General
14.Lesson 14 On Baptism
15.Lesson 15 On Confirmation
16.Lesson 16 On the Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Ghost
17.Lesson 17 On the Sacrament of Penance
18.Lesson 18 On Contrition
19.Lesson 19 On Confession
20.Lesson 20 On the Manner of Making a Good Confession
21.Lesson 21 On Indulgences
22.Lesson 22 On the Holy Eucharist
23.Lesson 23 On the Ends for which the Holy Eucharist was Instituted
24.Lesson 24 On the Sacrifice of the Mass
25.Lesson 25 On Extreme Unction and Holy Orders
26.Lesson 26 On Matrimony
27.Lesson 27 On the Sacramentals
28.Lesson 28 On Prayer
29.Lesson 29 On the Commandments of God
30.Lesson 30 On the First Commandment
31.Lesson 31 The First Commandment -- On the Honor and Invocation of the Saints
32.Lesson 32 From the Second to the Fourth Commandment
33.Lesson 33 From the Fourth to the Seventh Commandment
34.Lesson 34 From the Seventh to the Tenth Commandment
35.Lesson 35 On the First and Second Commandments of the Church
36.Lesson 36 On the Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Commandments of the Church
37.Lesson 37 On the Last Judgment and Resurrection, Hell, Purgatory and Heaven

Prayers:

The Lord's Prayer.

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

The Angelical Salutation.

Hail Mary, full of grace! the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

The Apostles' Creed.

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell; the third day He arose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

The Confiteor.

I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary, ever Virgin, to blessed Michael the Archangel, to blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and to all the Saints, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through, my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault. Therefore, I beseech blessed Mary, ever Virgin, blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the Saints, to pray to the Lord our God for me.

May the Almighty God have mercy on me, and forgive me my sins, and bring me to everlasting life. Amen.

May the Almighty and merciful Lord grant me pardon, absolution, and remission of all my sins. Amen.

An Act of Faith.

0 my God! I firmly believe that Thou art one God in three Divine persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; I believe that Thy Divine Son became man, and died for our sins, and that he will come to, judge the living and the dead. I believe these and all the truths which the Holy Catholic Church teaches, because Thou hast revealed them, who canst neither deceive nor be deceived

An Act of Hope.

0 my God! relying on Thy infinite goodness and promises, I hope to obtain pardon of my sins, the help of Thy grace, and life everlasting, through the merits of Jesus Christ, my Lord and Redeemer.

An Act of Love.

0 my God! I love Thee above all things, with my whole heart and soul, because Thou art all-good and worthy of all love. I love my neighbor as myself for the love of Thee. I forgive all who have injured me, and ask pardon of all whom I have injured.

An Act of Contrition.

0 my God! I am heartily sorry for having offended Thee, and I detest all my sins, because I dread the loss of heaven and the pains of hell; but most of all because they offend Thee, my God, who art all-good and deserving of all my love. I firmly resolve, with the help of Thy grace, to confess my sins, to do penance, and to amend my life.

The Blessing before Meals.

Bless us, 0 Lord! and these Thy gifts, which we are about to receive from Thy bounty, through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Grace after Meals.

We give Thee thanks for all Thy benefits, 0 Almighty God, who livest and reignest for ever; and may the souls of the faithful departed, through the mercy of God, rest in peace. Amen.

The Manner in which a Lay Person is to Baptize in Case of Necessity:

Pour common water on the head or face of the person to be baptized say while pouring it:

"I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

N.B. Any person of either sex who has reached the use of reason can baptize in case of necessity.



LESSON FIRST: On the End of Man.

Q. 126. What do we mean by the "end of man"?

A. By the "end of man" we mean the purpose for which he was created: namely, to know, love, and serve God.



Q. 127. How do you know that man was created for God alone?

A. I know that man was created for God alone because everything in the world was created for something more perfect than itself: but there is nothing in the world more perfect than man; therefore, he was created for something outside this world, and since he was not created for the Angels, he must have been created for God.



Q. 128. In what respect are all men equal?

A. All men are equal in whatever is necessary for their nature and end. They are all composed of a body and soul; they are all created to the image and likeness of God; they are all gifted with understanding and free will; and they have all been created for the same end -- God.



Q. 129. Do not men differ in many things?

A. Men differ in many things, such as learning, wealth, power, etc.; but these things belong to the world and not man's nature. He came into this world without them and he will leave it without them. Only the consequences of good or evil done in this world will accompany men to the next.



Q. 130. Who made the world?

A. God made the world.



Q. 131. What does "world" mean in this question?

A. In this question "world" means the universe; that is, the whole creation; all that we now see or may hereafter see.



Q. 132. Who is God?

A. God is the Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things.



Q. 133. What is man?

A. Man is a creature composed of body and soul, and made to the image and likeness of God.



Q. 134. Does "man" in the Catechism mean all human beings?

A. "Man" in the Catechism means all human beings, either men or women, boys, girls, or children.



Q. 135. What is a creature?

A. A creature is anything created, whether it has life or not; body or no body. Every being, person, or thing except God Himself may be called a creature.



Q. 136. Is this likeness in the body or in the soul?

A. This likeness is chiefly in the soul.



Q. 137. How is the soul like to God?

A. The soul is like to God because it is a spirit that will never die, and has understanding and free will.



Q. 138. Is every invisible thing a spirit?

A. Every spirit is invisible -- which means can not be seen; but every invisible thing is not a spirit. The wind is invisible, and it is not a spirit.



Q. 139. Has a spirit any other quality?

A. A spirit is also indivisible; that is, it can not be divided into parts, as we divide material things.



Q. 140. What do the words "will never die" mean?

A. By the words "will never die" we mean that the soul, when once created, will never cease to exist, whatever be its condition in the next world. Hence we say the soul is immortal or gifted with immortality.



Q. 141. Why then do we say a soul is dead while in a state of mortal sin?

A. We say a soul is dead while in a state of mortal sin, because in that state it is as helpless as a dead body, and can merit nothing for itself.



Q. 142. What does our "understanding" mean?

A. Our "understanding" means the "gift of reason," by which man is distinguished from all other animals, and by which he is enabled to think and thus acquire knowledge and regulate his actions.



Q. 143. Can we learn all truths by our reason alone?

A. We can not learn all truths by our reason alone, for some truths are beyond the power of our reason and must be taught to us by God.



Q. 144. What do we call the truths God teaches us?

A. Taken together, we call the truths God teaches us revelation, and we call the manner by which He teaches them also revelation.



Q. 145. What is "Free Will"?

A. "Free Will" is that gift of God by which we are enabled to choose between one thing and another; and to do good or evil in spite of reward or punishment.



Q. 146. Have brute animals "understanding" and "free will"?

A. Brute animals have not "understanding" and "free will." They have not "understanding" because they never change their habits or better their condition. They have not "free will" because they never show it in their actions.



Q. 147. What gift in animals supplies the place of reason?

A. In animals the gift of "instinct" supplies the place of reason in guiding their actions.



Q. 148. What is instinct?

A. "Instinct" is a gift by which all animals are impelled to follow the laws and habits that God has given to their nature.



Q. 149. Have men as well as brutes "instinct"?

A. Men have "instinct," and they show it when placed in sudden danger, when they have not time to use their reason. A falling man instantly grasps for something to support him.



Q. 150. Why did God make you?

A. God made me to know Him, to love Him, and to serve Him in this world, and to be happy with Him forever in the next.



Q. 151. Why is it necessary to know God?

A. It is necessary to know God because without knowing Him we cannot love Him; and without loving Him we cannot be saved. We should know Him because He is infinitely true; love Him because He is infinitely beautiful; and serve Him because He is infinitely good.



Q. 152. Of which must we take more care, our soul or our body?

A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body.



Q. 153. Why must we take more care of our soul than of our body?

A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body, because in losing our soul we lose God and everlasting happiness.



Q. 154. What must we do to save our souls?

A. To save our souls, we must worship God by faith, hope, and charity; that is, we must believe in Him, hope in Him, and love Him with all our heart.



Q. 155. What does "worship" mean?

A. "Worship" means to give divine honor by acts such as the offering of prayer or sacrifice.



Q. 156. How shall we know the things which we are to believe?

A. We shall know the things which we are to believe from the Catholic Church, through which God speaks to us.



Q. 157. What do we mean by the "Church, through which God speaks to us"?

A. By the "Church, through which God speaks to us," we mean the "teaching Church"; that is, the Pope, Bishops, and priests, whose duty it is to instruct us in the truths and practices of our religion.



Q. 158. Where shall we find the chief truths which the Church teaches?

A. We shall find the chief truths which the Church teaches in the Apostles' Creed.



Q. 159. If we shall find only the "chief truths" in the Apostles' Creed, where shall we find the remaining truths?

A. We shall find the remaining truths of our Faith in the religious writings and preachings that have been sanctioned by the authority of the Church.



Q. 160. Name some sacred truths not mentioned in the Apostles' Creed.

A. In the Apostles' Creed there is no mention of the Real Presence of Our Lord in the Holy Eucharist, nor of the Infallibility of the Pope, nor of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, nor of some other truths that we are bound to believe.



Q. 161. Say the Apostles' Creed.

A. I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell: the third day He arose again from the dead: He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty: from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.



LESSON SECOND: On God and His Perfections

Q. 162. What is a perfection?

A. A perfection is any good quality a thing should have. A thing is perfect when it has all the good qualities it should have.



Q. 163. What is God?

A. God is a spirit infinitely perfect.



Q. 164. What do we mean when we say God is "infinitely perfect"?

A. When we say God is "infinitely perfect" we mean there is no limit or bounds to His perfection; for He possesses all good qualities in the highest possible degree and He alone is "infinitely perfect."



Q. 165. Had God a beginning?

A. God had no beginning; He always was and He always will be.



Q. 166. Where is God?

A. God is everywhere.



Q. 167. How is God everywhere?

A. God is everywhere whole and entire as He is in any one place. This is true and we must believe it, though we cannot understand it.



Q. 168. If God is everywhere, why do we not see Him?

A. We do not see God, because He is a pure spirit and cannot be seen with bodily eyes.



Q. 169. Why do we call God a "pure spirit'?

A. We call God a pure spirit because He has no body. Our soul is a spirit, but not a "pure" spirit, because it was created for union with our body.



Q. 170. Why can we not see God with the eyes of our body?

A. We cannot see God with the eyes of our body because they are created to see only material things, and God is not material but spiritual.



Q 171. Does God see us?

A. God sees us and watches over us.



Q. 172. Is it necessary for God to watch over us?

A. It is necessary for God to watch over us, for without His constant care we could not exist.



Q. 173. Does God know all things?

A. God knows all things, even our most secret thoughts, words, and actions.



Q. 174. Can God do all things?

A. God can do all things, and nothing is hard or impossible to Him.



Q. 175. When is a thing said to be "impossible"?

A. A thing is said to be "impossible" when it cannot be done. Many things that are impossible for creatures are possible for God.



Q. 176. Is God just, holy, and merciful?

A. God is all just, all holy, all merciful, as He is infinitely perfect.



Q. 177. Why must God be "just" as well as "merciful"?

A. God must be just as well as merciful because He must fulfill His promise to punish those who merit punishment, and because He cannot be infinite in one perfection without being infinite in all.



Q. 178. Into what sins will the forgetfulness of God's justice lead us?

A. The forgetfulness of God's justice will lead us into sins of presumption.



Q 179. Into what sins will the forgetfulness of God's mercy lead us?

A. The forgetfulness of God's mercy will lead us into sins of despair.



LESSON THIRD: On the Unity and Trinity of God

Q. 180. What does "unity," and what does "trinity" mean?

A. "Unity" means being one, and "trinity" means three-fold or three in one.



Q. 181. Can we find an example to fully illustrate the mystery of the Blessed Trinity?

A. We cannot find an example to fully illustrate the mystery of the Blessed Trinity, because the mysteries of our holy religion are beyond comparison.



Q. 182. Is there but one God?

A. Yes; there is but one God.



Q. 183. Why can there be but one God?

A. There can be but one God because God, being supreme and infinite, cannot have an equal.



Q. 184. What does "supreme" mean?

A. "Supreme" means the highest in authority; also the most excellent or greatest possible in anything. Thus in all things God is supreme, and in the Church the Pope is supreme.



Q. 185. When are two persons said to be equal?

A. Two persons are said to be equal when one is in no way greater than or inferior to the other.



Q. 186. How many persons are there in God?

A. In God there are three Divine persons, really distinct, and equal in all things --the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.



Q. 187. What do "divine" and "distinct" mean?

A. "Divine" means pertaining to God, and "distinct" means separate; that is, not confounded or mixed with any other thing.



Q. 188. Is the Father God?

A. The Father is God and the first Person of the Blessed Trinity.



Q. 189. Is the Son God?

A. The Son is God and the second Person of the Blessed Trinity.



Q. 190. Is the Holy Ghost God?

A. The Holy Ghost is God and the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.



Q. 191. Do "first," "second," and "third" with regard to the persons of the Blessed Trinity mean that one person existed before the other or that one is greater than the other?

A. "First," "second," and "third" with regard to the persons of the Blessed Trinity do not mean that one person was before the other or that one is greater than the other; for all the persons of the Trinity are eternal and equal in every respect. These numbers are used to mark the distinction between the persons, and they show the order in which the one proceeded from the other.



Q. 192. What do you mean by the Blessed Trinity?

A. By the Blessed Trinity I mean one God in three Divine Persons.



Q. 193. Are the three Divine Persons equal in all things?

A. The three Divine Persons are equal in all things.



Q. 194. Are the three Divine Persons one and the same God?

A. The three Divine Persons are one and the same God, having one and the same Divine nature and substance.



Q. 195. What do we mean by the "nature" and "substance" of a thing?

A. By the "nature" of a thing we mean the combination of all the qualities that make the thing what it is. By the "substance" of a thing we mean the part that never changes, and which cannot be changed without destroying the nature of the thing.



Q. 196. Can we fully understand how the three Divine Persons are one and the same God?

A. We cannot fully understand how the three Divine Persons are one and the same God, because this is a mystery.



Q. 197. What is a mystery?

A. A mystery is a truth which we cannot fully understand.



Q. 198. Is every truth which we cannot understand a mystery?

A. Every truth which we cannot understand is not a mystery; but every revealed truth which no one can understand is a mystery.



Q. 199. Should we believe truths which we cannot understand?

A. We should and often do believe truths which we cannot understand when we have proof of their existence.



Q. 200. Give an example of truths which all believe, though many do not understand them.

A. All believe that the earth is round and moving, though many do not understand it. All believe that a seed planted in the ground will produce a flower or tree often with more than a thousand other seeds equal to itself, though many cannot understand how this is done.



Q. 201. Why must a divine religion have mysteries?

A. A divine religion must have mysteries because it must have supernatural truths and God Himself must teach them. A religion that has only natural truths, such as man can know by reason alone, fully understand and teach, is only a human religion.



Q. 202. Why does God require us to believe mysteries?

A. God requires us to believe mysteries that we may submit our understanding to Him.



Q. 203. By what form of prayer do we praise the Holy Trinity?

A. We praise the Holy Trinity by a form of prayer called the Doxology, which has come down to us almost from the time of the Apostles.



Q. 204. Say the Doxology.

A. The Doxology is: "Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen."



Q. 205. Is there any other form of the Doxology?

A. There is another form of the Doxology, which is said in the celebration of the Mass. It is called the "Gloria in excelsis" or "Glory be to God on high," etc., the words sung by the Angels at the birth of Our Lord.



LESSON FOURTH: On Creation

Q. 206. What is the difference between making and creating?

A. "Making" means bringing forth or forming out of some material already existing, as workmen do. "Creating" means bringing forth out of nothing, as God alone can do.



Q. 207. Has everything that exists been created?

A. Everything that exists except God Himself has been created.



Q. 208. Who created heaven and earth, and all things?

A. God created heaven and earth, and all things.



Q. 209. From what do we learn that God created heaven and earth and all things?

A. We learn that God created heaven and earth and all things from the Bible or Holy Scripture, in which the account of the Creation is given.



Q. 210. Why did God create all things?

A. God created all things for His own glory and for their or our good.



Q. 211. Did God leave all things to themselves after He had created them?

A. God did not leave all things to themselves after He had created them; He continues to preserve and govern them.



Q. 212. What do we call the care by which God preserves and governs the world and all it contains?

A. We call the care by which God preserves and governs the world and all it contains His providence.



Q. 213. How did God create heaven and earth?

A. God created heaven and earth from nothing by His word only; that is, by a single act of His all-powerful will.



Q. 214. Which are the chief creatures of God?

A. The chief creatures of God are angels and men.



Q. 215. How may God's creatures on earth be divided?

A. God's creatures on earth may be divided into four classes:

1.(1) Things that exist, as air;

2.(2) Things that exist, grow and live, as plants and trees;

3.(3) Things that exist, grow, live and feel, as animals;

4.(4) Things that exist, grow, live, feel and understand, as man.



Q. 216. What are angels?

A. Angels are pure spirits without a body, created to adore and enjoy God in heaven.



Q. 217. If Angels have no bodies, how could they appear?

A. Angels could appear by taking bodies to render themselves visible for a time; just as the Holy Ghost took the form of a dove and the devil took the form of a serpent.



Q. 218. Name some persons to whom Angels appeared.

A. Angels appeared to the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph; also to Abraham, Lot, Jacob, Tobias and others.



Q. 219. Were the angels created for any other purpose?

A. The angels were also created to assist before the throne of God and to minister unto Him; they have often been sent as messengers from God to man; and are also appointed our guardians.



Q. 220. Are all the Angels equal in dignity?

A. All the Angels are not equal in dignity. There are nine choirs or classes mentioned in the Holy Scripture. The highest are called Seraphim and the lowest simply Angels. The Archangels are one class higher than ordinary Angels.



Q. 221. Mention some Archangels and tell what they did.

A. The Archangel Michael drove Satan out of heaven; the Archangel Gabriel announced to the Blessed Virgin that she was to become the Mother of God. The Archangel Raphael guided and protected Tobias.



Q. 222. Were Angels ever sent to punish men?

A. Angels were sometimes sent to punish men. An Angel killed 185,000 men in the army of a wicked king who had blasphemed God; an Angel also slew the first-born in the families of the Egyptians who had persecuted God's people.



Q. 223. What do our guardian Angels do for us?

A. Our guardian Angels pray for us, protect and guide us, and offer our prayers, good works and desires to God.



Q. 224. How do we know that Angels offer our prayers and good works to God?

A. We know that Angels offer our prayers and good works to God because it is so stated in Holy Scripture, and Holy Scripture is the Word of God.



Q. 225. Why did God appoint guardian Angels if He watches over us Himself?

A. God appointed guardian Angels to secure for us their help and prayers, and also to show His great love for us in giving us these special servants and faithful friends.



Q. 226. Were the angels, as God created them, good and happy?

A. The angels, as God created them, were good and happy.



Q. 227. Did all the angels remain good and happy?

A. All the angels did not remain good and happy; many of them sinned and were cast into hell, and these are called devils or bad angels.



Q. 228. Do we know the number of good and bad Angels?

A. We do not know the number of the good or bad Angels, but we know it is very great.



Q. 229. What was the devil's name before he fell, and why was he cast out of heaven?

A. Before he fell, Satan, or the devil, was called Lucifer, or light- bearer, a name which indicates great beauty. He was cast out of heaven because through pride he rebelled against God.



Q. 230. How do the bad Angels act toward us?

A. The bad Angels try by every means to lead us into sin. The efforts they make are called temptations of the devil.



Q. 231. Why does the devil tempt us?

A. The devil tempts us because he hates goodness, and does not wish us to enjoy the happiness which he himself has lost.



Q. 232. Can we by our own power overcome the temptations of the devil?

A. We cannot by our own power overcome the temptations of the devil, because the devil is wiser than we are;



for, being an Angel, he is more intelligent, and he did not lose his intelligence by falling into sin any more than we do now.

Therefore, to overcome his temptations we need the help of God.



LESSON FIFTH: On our First Parents and the Fall

Q. 233. Who were the first man and woman?

A. The first man and woman were Adam and Eve.



Q. 234. Are there any persons in the world who are not the descendants of Adam and Eve?

A. There are no persons in the world now, and there never have been any, who are not the descendants of Adam and Eve, because the whole human race had but one origin.



Q. 235. Do not the differences in color, figure, etc., which we find in distinct races indicate a difference in first parents?

A. The differences in color, figure, etc., which we find in distinct races do not indicate a difference in first parents, for these differences have been brought about in the lapse of time by other causes, such as climate, habits, etc.



Q. 236. Were Adam and Eve innocent and holy when they came from the hand of God?

A. Adam and Eve were innocent and holy when they came from the hand of God.



Q. 237. What do we mean by saying Adam and Eve "were innocent" when they came from the hand of God?

A. When we say Adam and Eve "were innocent" when they came from the hand of God we mean they were in the state of original justice; that is, they were gifted with every virtue and free from every sin.



Q. 238. How was Adam's body formed?

A. God formed Adam's body out of the clay of the earth and then breathed into it a living soul.



Q. 239. How was Eve's body formed?

A. Eve's body was formed from a rib taken from Adam's side during a deep sleep which God caused to come upon him.



Q. 240. Why did God make Eve from one of Adam's ribs?

A. God made Eve from one of Adam's ribs to show the close relationship existing between husband and wife in their marriage union which God then instituted.



Q. 241. Could man's body be developed from the body of an inferior animal?

A. Man's body could be developed from the body of an inferior animal if God so willed; but science does not prove that man's body was thus formed, while revelation teaches that it was formed directly by God from the clay of the earth.



Q. 242. Could man's soul and intelligence be formed by the development of animal life and instinct?

A. Man's soul could not be formed by the development of animal instinct; for, being entirely spiritual, it must be created by God, and it is united to the body as soon as the body is prepared to receive it.



Q. 243. Did God give any command to Adam and Eve?

A. To try their obedience, God commanded Adam and Eve not to eat of a certain fruit which grew in the garden of Paradise.



Q. 244. What was the Garden of Paradise?

A. The Garden of Paradise was a large and beautiful place prepared for man's habitation upon earth. It was supplied with every species of plant and animal and with everything that could contribute to man's happiness.



Q. 245. Where was the Garden of Paradise situated?

A. The exact place in which the Garden of Paradise -- called also the Garden of Eden -- was situated is not known, for the deluge may have so changed the surface of the earth that old landmarks were wiped out. It was probably some place in Asia, not far from the river Euphrates.



Q. 246. What was the tree bearing the forbidden fruit called?

A. The tree bearing the forbidden fruit was called "the tree of knowledge of good and evil."



Q. 247. Do we know the name of any other tree in the garden?

A. We know the name of another tree in the Garden called the "tree of life." Its fruit kept the bodies of our first parents in a state of perfect health.



Q. 248. Which were the chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve had they remained faithful to God?

A. The chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve, had they remained faithful to God, were a constant state of happiness in this life and everlasting glory in the next.



Q. 249. Did Adam and Eve remain faithful to God?

A. Adam and Eve did not remain faithful to God, but broke His command by eating the forbidden fruit.



Q. 250. Who was the first to disobey God?

A. Eve was the first to disobey God, and she induced Adam to do likewise.



Q. 251. How was Eve tempted to sin?

A. Eve was tempted to sin by the devil, who came in the form of a serpent and persuaded her to break God's command.



Q. 252. Which were the chief causes that led Eve into sin?

A. The chief causes that led Eve into sin were:



1.(1) She went into the danger of sinning by admiring what was forbidden, instead of avoiding it.

2.(2) She did not fly from the temptation at once, but debated about yielding to it.

Similar conduct on our part will lead us also into sin.



Q. 253. What befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin?

A. Adam and Eve, on account of their sin, lost innocence and holiness, and were doomed to sickness and death.



Q. 254. What other evils befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin?

A. Many other evils befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin. They were driven out of Paradise and condemned to toil. God also ordained that henceforth the earth should yield no crops without cultivation, and that the beasts, man's former friends, should become his savage enemies.



Q. 255. Were we to remain in the Garden of Paradise forever if Adam had not sinned?

A. We were not to remain in the Garden of Paradise forever even if Adam had not sinned, but after passing through the years of our probation or trial upon earth we were to be taken, body and soul, into heaven without suffering death.



Q. 256. What evil befell us on account of the disobedience of our first parents?

A. On account of the disobedience of our first parents, we all share in their sin and punishment, as we should have shared in their happiness if they had remained faithful.



Q. 257. Is it not unjust to punish us for the sin of our first parents?

A. It is not unjust to punish us for the sin of our first parents, because their punishment consisted in being deprived of a free gift of God; that is, of the gift of original justice to which they had no strict right and which they willfully forfeited by their act of disobedience.



Q. 258. But how did the loss of the gift of original justice leave our first parents and us in mortal sin?

A. The loss of the gift of original justice left our first parents and us in mortal sin because it deprived them of the Grace of God, and to be without this gift of Grace which they should have had was to be in mortal sin. As all their children are deprived of the same gift, they, too, come into the world in a state of mortal sin.



Q. 259. What other effects followed from the sin of our first parents?

A. Our nature was corrupted by the sin of our first parents, which darkened our understanding, weakened our will, and left in us a strong inclination to evil.



Q. 260. What do we mean by "our nature was corrupted"?

A. When we say "our nature was corrupted" we mean that our whole being, body and soul, was injured in all its parts and powers.



Q. 261. Why do we say our understanding was darkened?

A. We say our understanding was darkened because even with much learning we have not the clear knowledge, quick perception and retentive memory that Adam had before his fall from grace.



Q. 262. Why do we say our will was weakened?

A. We say our will was weakened to show that our free will was not entirely taken away by Adam's sin, and that we have it still in our power to use our free will in doing good or evil.



Q. 263. In what does the strong inclination to evil that is left in us consist?

A. This strong inclination to evil that is left in us consists in the continual efforts our senses and appetites make to lead our souls into sin. The body is inclined to rebel against the soul, and the soul itself to rebel against God.



Q. 264. What is this strong inclination to evil called, and why did God permit it to remain in us?

A. This strong inclination to evil is called concupiscence, and God permits it to remain in us that by His grace we may resist it and thus increase our merits.



Q. 265. What is the sin called which we inherit from our first parents?

A. The sin which we inherit from our first parents is called original sin.



Q. 266. Why is this sin called original?

A. This sin is called original because it comes down to us from our first parents, and we are brought into the world with its guilt on our soul.



Q. 267. Does this corruption of our nature remain in us after original sin is forgiven?

A. This corruption of our nature and other punishments remain in us after original sin is forgiven.



Q. 268. Was any one ever preserved from original sin?

A. The Blessed Virgin Mary, through the merits of her Divine Son, was preserved free from the guilt of original sin, and this privilege is called her Immaculate Conception.



Q. 269. Why was the Blessed Virgin preserved from original sin?

A. The Blessed Virgin was preserved from original sin because it would not be consistent with the dignity of the Son of God to have His Mother, even for an instant, in the power of the devil and an enemy of God.



Q. 270. How could the Blessed Virgin be preserved from sin by her Divine Son, before her Son was born?

A. The Blessed Virgin could be preserved from sin by her Divine Son before He was born as man, for He always existed as God and foresaw His own future merits and the dignity of His Mother. He therefore by His future merits provided for her privilege of exemption from original sin.



Q. 271. What does the "Immaculate Conception" mean?

A. The Immaculate Conception means the Blessed Virgin's own exclusive privilege of coming into existence, through the merits of Jesus Christ, without the stain of original sin. It does not mean, therefore, her sinless life, perpetual virginity or the miraculous conception of Our Divine Lord by the power of the Holy Ghost.



Q. 272. What has always been the belief of the Church concerning this truth?

A. The Church has always believed in the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin and to place this truth beyond doubt has declared it an Article of Faith.



Q. 273. To what should the thoughts of the Immaculate Conception lead us?

A. The thoughts of the Immaculate Conception should lead us to a great love of purity and to a desire of imitating the Blessed Virgin in the practice of that holy virtue.



LESSON SIXTH: On Sin and Its Kinds ON SIN AND ITS KINDS.

Q. 274. How is sin divided?

A. 1.(1) Sin is divided into the sin we inherit called original sin, and the sin we commit ourselves, called actual sin.

2.(2) Actual sin is sub-divided into greater sins, called mortal, and lesser sins, called venial.



Q. 275. In how many ways may actual sin be committed?

A. Actual sin may be committed in two ways: namely, by willfully doing things forbidden, or by willfully neglecting things commanded.



Q. 276. What is our sin called when we neglect things commanded?

A. When we neglect things commanded our sin is called a sin of omission. Such sins as willfully neglecting to hear Mass on Sundays, or neglecting to go to Confession at least once a year, are sins of omission.



Q. 277. Is original sin the only kind of sin?

A. Original sin is not the only kind of sin; there is another kind of sin, which we commit ourselves, called actual sin.



Q. 278. What is actual sin?

A. Actual sin is any willful thought, word, deed, or omission contrary to the law of God.



Q. 279. How many kinds of actual sin are there?

A. There are two kinds of actual sin -- mortal and venial.



Q. 280. What is mortal sin?

A. Mortal sin is a grievous offense against the law of God.



Q. 281. Why is this sin called mortal?

A. This sin is called mortal because it deprives us of spiritual life, which is sanctifying grace, and brings everlasting death and damnation on the soul.



Q. 282. How many things are necessary to make a sin mortal?

A. To make a sin mortal, three things are necessary:



1.a grievous matter, sufficient reflection, and full consent of the will.



Q. 283. What do we mean by "grievous matter" with regard to sin?

A. By "grievous matter" with regard to sin we mean that the thought, word or deed by which mortal sin is committed must be either very bad in itself or severely prohibited, and therefore sufficient to make a mortal sin if we deliberately yield to it.



Q. 284. What does "sufficient reflection and full consent of the will" mean?

A. "Sufficient reflection" means that we must know the thought, word or deed to be sinful at the time we are guilty of it; and "full consent of the will" means that we must fully and willfully yield to it.



Q. 285. What are sins committed without reflection or consent called?

A. Sins committed without reflection or consent are called material sins; that is, they would be formal or real sins if we knew their sinfulness at the time we committed them. Thus to eat flesh meat on a day of abstinence without knowing it to be a day of abstinence or without thinking of the prohibition, would be a material sin.



Q. 286. Do past material sins become real sins as soon as we discover their sinfulness?

A. Past material sins do not become real sins as soon as we discover their sinfulness, unless we again repeat them with full knowledge and consent.



Q. 287. How can we know what sins are considered mortal?

A. We can know what sins are considered mortal from Holy Scripture; from the teaching of the Church, and from the writings of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church.



Q. 288. Why is it wrong to judge others guilty of sin?

A. It is wrong to judge others guilty of sin because we cannot know for certain that their sinful act was committed with sufficient reflection and full consent of the will.



Q. 289. What sin does he commit who without sufficient reason believes another guilty of sin?

A. He who without sufficient reason believes another guilty of sin commits a sin of rash judgment.



Q. 290. What is venial sin?

A. Venial sin is a slight offense against the law of God in matters of less importance, or in matters of great importance it is an offense committed without sufficient reflection or full consent of the will.



Q. 291. Can we always distinguish venial from mortal sin?

A. We cannot always distinguish venial from mortal sin, and in such cases we must leave the decision to our confessor.



Q. 292. Can slight offenses ever become mortal sins?

A. Slight offenses can become mortal sins if we commit them through defiant contempt for God or His law; and also when they are followed by very evil consequences, which we foresee in committing them.



Q. 293. Which are the effects of venial sin?

A. The effects of venial sin are the lessening of the love of God in our heart, the making us less worthy of His help, and the weakening of the power to resist mortal sin.



Q. 294. How can we know a thought, word or deed to be sinful?

A. We can know a thought, word or deed to be sinful if it, or the neglect of it, is forbidden by any law of God or of His Church, or if it is opposed to any supernatural virtue.



Q. 295. Which are the chief sources of sin?

A. The chief sources of sin are seven:

1.Pride, Covetousness, Lust, Anger, Gluttony, Envy, and Sloth, and they are commonly called capital sins.



Q. 296. What is pride?

A. Pride is an excessive love of our own ability; so that we would rather sinfully disobey than humble ourselves.



Q. 297. What effect has pride on our souls?

A. Pride begets in our souls sinful ambition, vainglory, presumption and hypocrisy.



Q. 298. What is covetousness?

A. Covetousness is an excessive desire for worldly things.



Q. 299. What effect has covetousness on our souls?

A. Covetousness begets in our souls unkindness, dishonesty, deceit and want of charity.



Q. 300. What is lust?

A. Lust is an excessive desire for the sinful pleasures forbidden by the Sixth Commandment.



Q. 301. What effect has lust on our souls?

A. Lust begets in our souls a distaste for holy things, a perverted conscience, a hatred for God, and it very frequently leads to a complete loss of faith.



Q. 302. What is anger?

A. Anger is an excessive emotion of the mind excited against any person or thing, or it is an excessive desire for revenge.



Q. 303. What effect has anger on our soul?

A. Anger begets in our souls impatience, hatred, irreverence, and too often the habit of cursing.



Q. 304. What is gluttony?

A. Gluttony is an excessive desire for food or drink.



Q. 305. What kind of a sin is drunkenness?

A. Drunkenness is a sin of gluttony by which a person deprives himself of the use of his reason by the excessive taking of intoxicating drink.



Q. 306. Is drunkenness always a mortal sin?

A. Deliberate drunkenness is always a mortal sin if the person be completely deprived of the use of reason by it, but drunkenness that is not intended or desired may be excused from mortal sin.



Q. 307. What are the chief effects of habitual drunkenness?

A. Habitual drunkenness injures the body, weakens the mind, leads its victim into many vices and exposes him to the danger of dying in a state of mortal sin.



Q. 308. What three sins seem to cause most evil in the world?

A. Drunkenness, dishonesty and impurity seem to cause most evil in the world, and they are therefore to be carefully avoided at all times.



Q. 309. What is envy?

A. Envy is a feeling of sorrow at another's good fortune and joy at the evil which befalls him; as if we ourselves were injured by the good and benefited by the evil that comes to him.



Q. 310. What effect has envy on the soul?

A. Envy begets in the soul a want of charity for our neighbor and produces a spirit of detraction, back-biting and slander.



Q. 311. What is sloth?

A. Sloth is a laziness of the mind and body, through which we neglect our duties on account of the labor they require.



Q. 312. What effect has sloth upon the soul?

A. Sloth begets in the soul a spirit of indifference in our spiritual duties and a disgust for prayer.



Q. 313. Why are the seven sources of sin called capital sins?

A. The seven sources of sin are called capital sins because they rule over our other sins and are the causes of them.



Q. 314. What do we mean by our predominant sin or ruling passion?

A. By our predominant sin, or ruling passion, we mean the sin into which we fall most frequently and which we find it hardest to resist.



Q. 315. How can we best overcome our sins?

A. We can best overcome our sins by guarding against our predominant or ruling sin.



Q. 316. Should we give up trying to be good when we seem not to succeed in overcoming our faults?

A. We should not give up trying to be good when we seem not to succeed in overcoming our faults, because our efforts to be good will keep us from becoming worse than we are.



Q. 317. What virtues are opposed to the seven capital sins?

A. Humility is opposed to pride; generosity to covetousness; chastity to lust; meekness to anger; temperance to gluttony; brotherly love to envy, and diligence to sloth.



LESSON SEVENTH: On the Incarnation and Redemption

Q. 318. What does "incarnation" mean, and what does "redemption" mean?

A. "Incarnation" means the act of clothing with flesh. Thus Our Lord clothed His divinity with a human body. "Redemption" means to buy back again.



Q. 319. Did God abandon man after he fell into sin?

A. God did not abandon man after he fell into sin, but promised him a Redeemer, who was to satisfy for man's sin and reopen to him the gates of heaven.



Q. 320. What do we mean by the "gates of heaven"?

A. By the "gates of heaven" we mean the divine power by which God keeps us out of heaven or admits us into it, at His pleasure.



Q. 321. Who is the Redeemer?

A. Our Blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is the Redeemer of mankind.



Q. 322. What does the name "Jesus" signify and how was this name given to Our Lord?

A. The name "Jesus" signifies Saviour or Redeemer, and this name was given to Our Lord by an Angel who appeared to Joseph and said: "Mary shall bring forth a Son; and thou shalt call His name Jesus."



Q. 323. What does the name "Christ" signify?

A. The name "Christ" means the same as Messias, and signifies Anointed; because, as in the Old Law, Prophets, High Priests and Kings were anointed with oil; so Jesus, the Great Prophet, High Priest and King of the New Law, was anointed as man with the fullness of divine power.



Q. 324. How did Christ show and prove His divine power?

A. Christ showed and proved His divine power chiefly by His miracles, which are extraordinary works that can be performed only by power received from God, and which have, therefore, His sanction and authority.



Q. 325. What, then, did the miracles of Jesus Christ prove?

A. The miracles of Jesus Christ proved that whatever He said was true, and that when He declared Himself to be the Son of God He really was what He claimed to be.



Q. 326. Could not men have been deceived in the miracles of Christ?

A. Men could not have been deceived in the miracles of Christ because they were performed in the most open manner and usually in the presence of great multitudes of people, among whom were many of Christ's enemies, ever ready to expose any deceit. And if Christ performed no real miracles, how, then, could He have converted the world and have persuaded sinful men to give up what they loved and do the difficult things that the Christian religion imposes?



Q. 327. Could not false accounts of these miracles have been written after the death of Our Lord?

A. False accounts of these miracles could not have been written after the death of Our Lord; for then neither His friends nor His enemies would have believed them without proof. Moreover, the enemies of Christ did not deny the miracles, but tried to explain them by attributing them to the power of the devil or other causes. Again, the Apostles and the Evangelists who wrote the accounts suffered death to testify their belief in the words and works of Our Lord.



Q. 328. Did Jesus Christ die to redeem all men of every age and race without exception?

A. Jesus Christ died to redeem all men of every age and race without exception; and every person born into the world should share in His merits, without which no one can be saved.



Q. 329. How are the merits of Jesus Christ applied to our souls?

A. The merits of Jesus Christ are applied to our souls through the Sacraments, and especially through Baptism and Penance, which restore us to the friendship of God.



Q. 330. What do you believe of Jesus Christ?

A. I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the second Person of the Blessed Trinity, true God and true man.



Q. 331. Cannot we also be called the Children of God, and therefore His sons and daughters?

A. We can be called the Children of God because He has adopted us by His grace or because He is the Father who has created us; but we are not, therefore, His real Children; whereas, Jesus Christ, His only real and true Son, was neither adopted nor created, but was begotten of His Father from all eternity.



Q. 332. Why is Jesus Christ true God?

A. Jesus Christ is true God because He is the true and only Son of God the Father.



Q. 333. Why is Jesus Christ true man?

A. Jesus Christ is true man because He is the Son of the Blessed Virgin Mary and has a body and soul like ours.



Q. 334. Who was the foster father or guardian of Our Lord while on earth?

A. St. Joseph, the husband of the Blessed Virgin, was the foster- father or guardian of Our Lord while on earth.



Q. 335. Is Jesus Christ in heaven as God or as man?

A. Since His Ascension Jesus Christ is in heaven both as God and as man.



Q. 336. How many natures are there in Jesus Christ?

A. In Jesus Christ there are two natures, the nature of God and the nature of man.



Q. 337. Is Jesus Christ more than one person?

A. No. Jesus Christ is but one Divine Person.



Q. 338. From what do we learn that Jesus Christ is but one person?

A. We learn that Jesus Christ is but one person from Holy Scripture and from the constant teaching of the Church, which has condemned all those who teach the contrary.



Q. 339. Was Jesus Christ always God?

A. Jesus Christ was always God, as He is the second person of the Blessed Trinity, equal to His Father from all eternity.



Q. 340. Was Jesus Christ always man?

A. Jesus Christ was not always man, but became man at the time of His Incarnation.



Q. 341. What do you mean by the Incarnation?

A. By the Incarnation I mean that the Son of God was made man.



Q. 342. How was the Son of God made man?

A. The Son of God was conceived and made man by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary.



Q. 343. Is the Blessed Virgin Mary truly the Mother of God?

A. The Blessed Virgin Mary is truly the Mother of God, because the same Divine Person who is the Son of God is also the Son of the Blessed Virgin Mary.



Q. 344. Did the Son of God become man immediately after the sin of our first parents?

A. The Son of God did not become man immediately after the sin of our first parents, but was promised to them as a Redeemer.



Q. 345. How many years passed from the time Adam sinned till the time the Redeemer came?

A. About 4,000 years passed from the time Adam sinned till the time the Redeemer came.



Q. 346. What was the moral condition of the world just before the coming of Our Lord?

A. Just before the coming of Our Lord the moral condition of the world was very bad. Idolatry, injustice, cruelty, immorality and horrid vices were common almost everywhere.



Q. 347. Why was the coming of the Redeemer so long delayed?

A. The coming of the Redeemer was so long delayed that the world -- suffering from every misery -- might learn the great evil of sin and know that God alone could help fallen man.



Q. 348. When was the Redeemer promised to mankind?

A. The Redeemer was first promised to mankind in the Garden of Paradise, and often afterward through Abraham and his descendants, the patriarchs, and through numerous prophets.



Q. 349. Who were the prophets?

A. The prophets were inspired men to whom God revealed the future, that they might with absolute certainty make it known to the people.



Q. 350. What did the prophets foretell concerning the Redeemer?

A. The prophets, taken together, foretold so accurately all the circumstances of the birth, life, death, resurrection and glory of the Redeemer that no one who carefully studied their writings could fail to recognize Him when He came.



Q. 351. Have all these prophecies concerning the Redeemer been fulfilled?

A. All the prophecies concerning the Redeemer have been fulfilled in every point by the circumstances of Christ's birth, life, death, resurrection and glory; and He is, therefore, the Redeemer promised to mankind from the time of Adam.



Q. 352. Where shall we find these prophecies concerning the Redeemer?

A. We shall find these prophecies concerning the Redeemer in the prophetic books of the Bible or Holy Scripture.



Q. 353. If the Redeemer's coming was so clearly foretold, why did not all recognize Him when He came?

A. All did not recognize the Redeemer when He came, because many knew only part of the prophecies; and taking those concerning His glory and omitting those concerning His suffering, they could not understand His life.



Q. 354. How could they be saved who lived before the Son of God became man?

A. They who lived before the Son of God became man could be saved by believing in a Redeemer to come, and by keeping the Commandments.



Q. 355. On what day was the Son of God conceived and made man?

A. The Son of God was conceived and made man on Annunciation Day -- the day on which the Angel Gabriel announced to the Blessed Virgin Mary that she was to be the Mother of God.



Q. 356. On what day was Christ born?

A. Christ was born on Christmas Day, in a stable at Bethlehem, over nineteen hundred years ago.



Q. 357. Why did the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph go to Bethlehem just before the birth of Our Lord?

A. The Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph went to Bethlehem in obedience to the Roman Emperor, who ordered all his subjects to register their names in the towns or cities of their ancestors. Bethlehem was the City of David, the royal ancestor of Mary and Joseph, hence they had to register there. All this was done by the Will of God, that the prophecies concerning the birth of His Divine Son might be fulfilled.



Q. 358. Why was Christ born in a stable?

A. Christ was born in a stable because Joseph and Mary were poor and strangers in Bethlehem, and without money they could find no other shelter. This was permitted by Our Lord that we might learn a lesson from His great humility.



Q. 359. In giving the ancestors or forefathers of Our Lord, why do the Gospels give the ancestors of Joseph, who was only Christ's foster-father, and not the ancestors of Mary, who was Christ's real parent?

A. In giving the ancestors of Our Lord, the Gospels give the ancestors of Joseph:

1.(1) Because the ancestors of women were not usually recorded by the Jews; and

2.(2) Because Mary and Joseph were members of the same tribe, and had, therefore, the same ancestors; so that, in giving the ancestors of Joseph, the Gospels give also those of Mary; and this was understood by those for whom the Gospels were intended.



Q. 360. Had Our Lord any brothers or sisters ?

A. Our Lord had no brothers or sisters. When the Gospels speak of His brethren they mean only His near relations. His Blessed Mother Mary was always a Virgin as well before and at His birth as after it.



Q. 361. Who were among the first to adore the Infant Jesus?

A. The shepherds of Bethlehem, to whom His birth was announced by Angels; and the Magi or three wise men, who were guided to His crib by a miraculous star, were among the first to adore the Infant Jesus. We recall the adoration of the Magi on the feast of the Epiphany, which means appearance or manifestation, namely, of Our Saviour.



Q. 362. Who sought to kill the Infant Jesus?

A. Herod sought to kill the Infant Jesus because he thought the influence of Christ -- the new-born King -- would deprive him of his throne.



Q. 363. How was the Holy Infant rescued from the power of Herod?

A. The Holy Infant was rescued from the power of Herod by the flight into Egypt, when St. Joseph -- warned by an Angel -- fled hastily into that country with Jesus and Mary.



Q. 364. How did Herod hope to accomplish his wicked designs?

A. Herod hoped to accomplish his wicked designs by murdering all the infants in and near Bethlehem. The day on which we commemorate the death of these first little martyrs, who shed their blood for Christ's sake, is called the feast of Holy Innocents.



Q. 365. How may the years of Christ's life be divided?

A. The years of Christ's life may be divided into three parts:

1.(1) His childhood, extending from His birth to His twelfth year, when He went with his parents to worship in the Temple of Jerusalem.

2.(2) His hidden life, which extends from His twelfth to His thirtieth year, during which time He dwelt with His parents at Nazareth.

3.(3) His public life, extending from His thirtieth year -- or from His baptism by St. John the Baptist to His death; during which time He taught His doctrines and established His Church.



Q. 366. Why is Christ's life thus divided?

A. Christ's life is thus divided to show that all classes find in Him their model. In childhood He gave an example to the young; in His hidden life an example to those who consecrate themselves to the service of God in a religious state; and in His public life an example to all Christians without exception.



Q. 367. How long did Christ live on earth?

A. Christ lived on earth about thirty-three years, and led a most holy life in poverty and suffering.



Q. 368. Why did Christ live so long on earth?

A. Christ lived so long on earth to show us the way to heaven by His teachings and example.



LESSON EIGHTH: On Our Lord's Passion, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension

Q. 369. What do we mean by Our Lord's Passion?

A. By Our Lord's Passion we mean His dreadful sufferings from His agony in the garden till the moment of His death.



Q. 370. What did Jesus Christ suffer?

A. Jesus Christ suffered a bloody sweat, a cruel scourging, was crowned with thorns, and was crucified.



Q. 371. When did Our Lord suffer the "bloody sweat"?

A. Our Lord suffered the "bloody sweat" while drops of blood came forth from every pore of His body, during His agony in the Garden of Olives, near Jerusalem, where He went to pray on the night His Passion began.



Q. 372. Who accompanied Our Lord to the Garden of Olives on the night of His Agony?

A. The Apostles Peter, James and John, the same who had witnessed His transfiguration on the mount, accompanied Our Lord to the Garden of Olives, to watch and pray with Him on the night of His agony.



Q. 373. What do we mean by the transfiguration of Our Lord?

A. By the transfiguration of Our Lord we mean the supernatural change in His appearance when He showed Himself to His Apostles in great glory and brilliancy in which "His face did shine as the sun and His garments became white as snow."



Q. 374. Who were present at the transfiguration?

A. There were present at the transfiguration -- besides the Apostles Peter, James and John, who witnessed it -- the two great and holy men of the Old Law, Moses and Elias, talking with Our Lord.



Q. 375. What caused Our Lord's agony in the garden?

A It is believed Our Lord's agony in the garden was caused:

1.(1) By his clear knowledge of all He was soon to endure;

2.(2) By the sight of the many offenses committed against His Father by the sins of the whole world;

3.(3) By His knowledge of men's ingratitude for the blessings of redemption.



Q. 376. Why was Christ cruelly scourged?

A. Christ was cruelly scourged by Pilate's orders, that the sight of His bleeding body might move His enemies to spare His life.



Q. 377. Why was Christ crowned with thorns?

A. Christ was crowned with thorns in mockery because He had said He was a King.



Q. 378. Could Christ, if He pleased, have escaped the tortures of His Passion?

A. Christ could, if He pleased, have escaped the tortures of His Passion, because He foresaw them and had it in His power to overcome His enemies.



Q. 379. Was it necessary for Christ to suffer so much in order to redeem us?

A. It was not necessary for Christ to suffer so much in order to redeem us, for the least of His sufferings was more than sufficient to atone for all the sins of mankind. By suffering so much He showed His great love for us.



Q. 380. Who betrayed Our Lord?

A. Judas, one of His Apostles, betrayed Our Lord, and from His sin we may learn that even the good may become very wicked by the abuse of their free will.



Q. 381. How was Christ condemned to death?

A. Through the influence of those who hated Him, Christ was condemned to death, after an unjust trial, at which false witnesses were induced to testify against Him.



Q. 382. On what day did Christ die?

A. Christ died on Good Friday.



Q. 383. Why do you call that day "good" on which Christ died so sorrowful a death?

A. We call that day good on which Christ died because by His death He showed His great love for man, and purchased for him every blessing.



Q. 384. How long was Our Lord hanging on the cross before He died?

A. Our Lord was hanging on the Cross about three hours before He died. While thus suffering, His enemies stood around blaspheming and mocking Him. By His death He proved Himself a real mortal man, for He could not die in His divine nature.



Q. 385. What do we call the words Christ spoke while hanging on the Cross?

A. We call the words Christ spoke while hanging on the Cross "the seven last words of Jesus on the Cross." They teach us the dispositions we should have at the hour of death.



Q. 386. Repeat the seven last words or sayings of Jesus on the Cross.

A. The seven last words or sayings of Jesus on the Cross are:

1.(1) "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do," in which He forgives and prays for His enemies.

2.(2) "Amen, I say to thee, this day thou shalt be with Me in Paradise," in which He pardons the penitent sinner.

3.(3) "Woman, behold thy Son" -- "Behold thy Mother," in which He gave up what was dearest to Him on earth, and gave us Mary for our Mother.

4.(4) "My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?" from which we learn the suffering of His mind.

5.(5) "I thirst," from which we learn the suffering of His body.

6.(6) "All is consummated," by which He showed the fulfillment of all the prophecies concerning Him and the completion of the work of our redemption.

7.(7) "Father, into Thy hands I commend my spirit," by which He showed His perfect resignation to the Will of His Eternal Father.



Q. 387. What happened at the death of Our Lord?

A. At the death of Our Lord there were darkness and earthquake; many holy dead came forth from their graves, and the veil concealing the Holy of Holies, in the Temple of Jerusalem, was torn asunder.



Q. 388. What was the Holy of Holies in the temple?

A. The Holy of Holies was the sacred part of the Temple, in which the Ark of the Covenant was kept, and where the high priest consulted the Will of God.



Q. 389. What was the "Ark of the Covenant"?

A. The Ark of the Covenant was a precious box in which were kept the tablets of stone bearing the written Commandments of God, the rod which Aaron changed into a serpent before King Pharao, and a portion of the manna with which the Israelites were miraculously fed in the desert. The Ark of the Covenant was a figure of the Tabernacle in which we keep the Holy Eucharist.



Q. 390. Why was the veil of the Temple torn asunder at the death of Christ?

A. The veil of the Temple was torn asunder at the death of Christ because at His death the Jewish religion ceased to be the true religion, and God no longer manifested His presence in the Temple.



Q. 391. Why did the Jewish religion, which up to the death of Christ had been the true religion, cease at that time to be the true religion?

A. The Jewish religion, which, up to the death of Christ, had been the true religion, ceased at that time to be the true religion, because it was only a promise of the redemption and figure of the Christian religion, and when the redemption was accomplished and the Christian religion established by the death of Christ, the promise and the figure were no longer necessary.



Q. 392. Were all the laws of the Jewish religion abolished by the establishment of Christianity?

A. The moral laws of the Jewish religion were not abolished by the establishment of Christianity, for Christ came not to destroy these laws, but to make them more perfect. Its ceremonial laws were abolished when the Temple of Jerusalem ceased to be the House of God.



Q. 393. What do we mean by moral and ceremonial laws?

A. By "moral" laws we mean laws regarding good and evil. By "ceremonial" laws we mean laws regulating the manner of worshipping God in Temple or Church.



Q. 394. Where did Christ die?

A. Christ died on Mount Calvary.



Q. 395. Where was Mount Calvary, and what does the name signify?

A. Mount Calvary was the place of execution, not far from Jerusalem; and the name signifies the "place of skulls."



Q. 396. How did Christ die?

A. Christ was nailed to the Cross, and died on it between two thieves.



Q. 397. Why was Our Lord crucified between thieves?

A. Our Lord was crucified between thieves that His enemies might thus add to His disgrace by making Him equal to the worst criminals.



Q. 398. Why did Christ suffer and die?

A. Christ suffered and died for our sins.



Q. 399. How was Our Lord's body buried?

A. Our Lord's body was wrapped in a clean linen cloth and laid in a new sepulchre or tomb cut in a rock, by Joseph of Arimathea and other pious persons who believed in Our Divine Lord.



Q. 400. What lessons do we learn from the sufferings and death of Christ?

A. From the sufferings and death of Christ we learn the great evil of sin, the hatred God bears to it, and the necessity of satisfying for it.



Q. 401. Whither did Christ's soul go after His death?

A. After Christ's death His soul descended into hell.



Q. 402. Did Christ's soul descend into the hell of the damned?

A. The hell into which Christ's soul descended was not the hell of the dammed, but a place or state of rest called Limbo, where the souls of the just were waiting for Him.



Q. 403. Why did Christ descend into Limbo?

A. Christ descended into Limbo to preach to the souls who were in prison -- that is, to announce to them the joyful tidings of their redemption.



Q. 404. Where was Christ's body while His soul was in Limbo?

A. While Christ's soul was in Limbo His body was in the holy sepulchre.



Q. 405. On what day did Christ rise from the dead?

A. Christ rose from the dead, glorious and immortal, on Easter Sunday, the third day after His death.



Q. 406. Why is the Resurrection the greatest of Christ's miracles?

A. The Resurrection is the greatest of Christ's miracles because all He taught and did is confirmed by it and depends upon it. He promised to rise from the dead and without the fulfillment of that promise we could not believe in Him.



Q. 407. Has any one ever tried to disprove the miracle of the resurrection?

A. Unbelievers in Christ have tried to disprove the miracle of the resurrection as they have tried to disprove all His other miracles; but the explanations they give to prove Christ's miracles false are far more unlikely and harder to believe than the miracles themselves.



Q. 408. What do we mean when we say Christ rose "glorious" from the dead?

A. When we say Christ rose "glorious" from the dead we mean that His body was in a glorified state; that is, gifted with the qualities of a glorified body.



Q. 409. What are the qualities of a glorified body?

A. The qualities of a glorified body are:

1.(1) Brilliancy, by which it gives forth light;

2.(2) Agility, by which it moves from place to place as rapidly as an angel;

3.(3) Subtility, by which material things cannot shut it out;

4.(4) Impassibility, by which it is made incapable of suffering.



Q. 410. Was Christ three full days in the tomb?

A. Christ was not three full days, but only parts of three days in the tomb.



Q. 411. How long did Christ stay on earth after His resurrection?

A. Christ stayed on earth forty days after His resurrection, to show that He was truly risen from the dead, and to instruct His apostles.



Q. 412. Was Christ visible to all and at all times during the forty days He remained on earth after His resurrection?

A. Christ was not visible to all nor at all times during the forty days He remained on earth after His resurrection. We know that He appeared to His apostles and others at least nine times, though He may have appeared oftener.



Q. 413. How did Christ show that He was truly risen from the dead?

A. Christ showed that He was truly risen from the dead by eating and conversing with His Apostles and others to whom He appeared. He showed the wounds in His hands, feet and side, and it was after His resurrection that He gave to His Apostles the power to forgive sins.



Q. 414. After Christ had remained forty days on earth, whither did He go?

A. After forty days Christ ascended into heaven, and the day on which be ascended into heaven is called Ascension Day.



Q. 415. Where did the ascension of Our Lord take place?

A. Christ ascended into heaven from Mount Olivet, the place made sacred by His agony on the night before His death.



Q. 416. Who were present at the ascension and who ascended with Christ?

A. From various parts of Scripture we may conclude there were about 125 persons -- though traditions tell us there was a greater number -- present at the Ascension. They were the Apostles, the Disciples, the pious women and others who had followed Our Blessed Lord. The souls of the just who were waiting in Limbo for the redemption ascended with Christ.



Q. 417. Why is the paschal candle which is lighted on Easter morning extinguished at the Mass on Ascension Day?

A. The paschal candle which is lighted on Easter morning signifies Christ's visible presence on earth, and it is extinguished on Ascension Day to show that He, having fulfilled all the prophecies concerning Himself and having accomplished the work of redemption, has transferred the visible care of His Church to His Apostles and returned in His body to heaven.



Q. 418. Where is Christ in heaven?

A. In heaven Christ sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty.



Q. 419. What do you mean by saying that Christ sits at the right hand of God?

A. When I say that Christ sits at the right hand of God I mean that Christ as God is equal to His Father in all things, and that as man He is in the highest place in heaven next to God.



LESSON NINTH: On the Holy Ghost and His Descent upon the Apostles

Q. 420. Who is the Holy Ghost?

A. The Holy Ghost is the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.



Q. 421. Did the Holy Ghost ever appear?

A. The Holy Ghost appeared at times under the form of a dove, and again under the form of tongues of fire; for, being a pure spirit without a body, He can take any form.



Q. 422. Is the Holy Ghost called by other names?

A. The Holy Ghost is called also the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete, the Spirit of Truth and other names given in Holy Scripture.



Q. 423. From whom does the Holy Ghost proceed?

A. The Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son.



Q. 424. Is the Holy Ghost equal to the Father and the Son?

A. The Holy Ghost is equal to the Father and the Son, being the same Lord and God as they are.



Q. 425. On what day did the Holy Ghost come down upon the Apostles?

A. The Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles ten days after the Ascension of our Lord; and the day on which He came down upon the Apostles is called Whitsunday, or Pentecost.



Q. 426. Why is the day on which the Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles called Whitsunday?

A. The day on which the Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles is called Whitsunday or White Sunday, probably because the Christians who were baptized on the eve of Pentecost wore white garments for some time afterward, as a mark of the purity bestowed upon their souls by the Sacrament of Baptism.



Q. 427. Why is this feast called also Pentecost?

A. This feast is called also Pentecost because Pentecost means the fiftieth; and the Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles fifty days after the resurrection of Our Lord.



Q. 428. How did the Holy Ghost come down upon the Apostles?

A. The Holy Ghost came down upon the Apostles in the form of tongues of fire.



Q. 429. What did the form of tongues of fire denote?

A. The form of tongues of fire denoted the sacred character and divine authority of the preaching and teaching of the Apostles, by whose words and fervor all men were to be converted to the love of God.



Q. 430. Who sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles?

A. Our Lord Jesus Christ sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles.



Q. 431. Did the Apostles know that the Holy Ghost would come down upon them?

A. The Apostles knew that the Holy Ghost would come down upon them; for Christ promised His Apostles that after His Ascension He would send the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of Truth, to teach them all truths and to abide with them forever.



Q. 432. Has any one ever denied the existence of the Holy Ghost?

A. Some persons have denied the existence of the Holy Ghost; others have denied that He is a real person equal to the Father and the Son; but all these assertions are shown to be false by the words of Holy Scripture and the infallible teaching of the Church.



Q. 433. What are the sins against the Holy Ghost which Our Lord said will not be forgiven either in this world or in the next?

A. The sins against the Holy Ghost which Our Lord said will not be forgiven either in this world or in the next, are sins committed out of pure malice, and greatly opposed to the mercy of God, and are, therefore, seldom forgiven.



Q. 434. Why did Christ send the Holy Ghost?

A. Christ sent the Holy Ghost to sanctify His Church, to enlighten and strengthen the Apostles, and to enable them to preach the Gospel.



Q. 435. How was the Church sanctified through the coming of the Holy Ghost?

A. The Church was sanctified through the coming of the Holy Ghost by receiving those graces which Christ had merited for His ministers, the bishops and priests, and for the souls of all those committed to their care.



Q. 436. How were the Apostles enlightened through the coming of the Holy Ghost?

A. The Apostles were enlightened through the coming of the Holy Ghost by receiving the grace to remember and understand in its true meaning all that Christ had said and done in their presence.



Q. 437. How were the Apostles strengthened through the coming of the Holy Ghost?

A. The Apostles were strengthened through the coming of the Holy Ghost by receiving the grace to brave every danger, even death itself, in the performance of their sacred duties.



Q. 438. What does "Apostle," and what does "Gospel" mean?

A. "Apostle" means a person sent, and "Gospel" means good tidings or news. Hence the name "Gospel" is given to the inspired history of Our Lord's life and works upon earth.



Q. 439. Name the Apostles.

A. The Apostles were: Peter, Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James, Thaddeus, Simon, and Judas Iscariot, in whose place Mathias was chosen.



Q. 440. Was St. Paul an Apostle?

A. St. Paul was an Apostle, but as he was not called till after the Ascension of Our Lord he is not numbered among the twelve. He is called the Apostle of the Gentiles; that is, of all those who were not of the Jewish religion or members of the Church of the Old Law.



Q. 441. How did St. Paul become an Apostle?

A. While on his way to persecute the Christians St. Paul was miraculously converted and called to be an Apostle by Our Lord Himself, who spoke to him. St. Paul was called Saul before his conversion.



Q. 442. Who were the Evangelists?

A. St. Matthew, St. Mark, St. Luke and St. John are called Evangelists, because they wrote the four Gospels bearing their names, and Evangelia is the Latin name for Gospels. St. Mark and St. Luke were not Apostles, but St. Matthew and St. John were both Apostles and Evangelists.



Q. 443. Why did not the Apostles fully understand when Christ Himself taught them?

A. The Apostles did not fully understand when Christ Himself taught them because during His stay with them on earth they were only preparing to become Apostles; and their minds were yet filled with many worldly thoughts and desires that were to be removed at the coming of the Holy Ghost.



Q. 444. Will the Holy Ghost abide with the Church forever?

A. The Holy Ghost will abide with the Church forever, and guide it in the way of holiness and truth.



Q. 445. What benefit do we derive from the knowledge that the Holy Ghost will abide with the Church forever?

A. From the knowledge that the Holy Ghost will abide with the Church forever we are made certain that the Church can never teach us falsehood, and can never be destroyed by the enemies of Our Faith.



Q. 446. What visible power was given to the Apostles through the coming of the Holy Ghost?

A. Through the coming of the Holy Ghost the Apostles received the "gift of tongues," by which they could be understood in every language, though they preached in only one.



Q. 447. Why did such wonderful gifts accompany confirmation, or the coming of the Holy Ghost, in the first ages of the Church?

A. Such wonderful gifts accompanied Confirmation in the first ages of the Church to prove the power, truth and divine character of Christianity to those who otherwise might not believe, and to draw the attention of all to the establishment of the Christian Church.



Q. 448. Why are these signs not continued everywhere at the present time?

A. These signs are not continued everywhere at the present time, because now that the Church is fully established and its divine character and power proved in other ways, such signs are no longer necessary.



Q. 449. Were such powers as the "gift of tongues" a part of the Sacrament of Confirmation?

A. Such powers as the "gift of tongues" were not a part of the Sacrament of Confirmation, but they were added to it by the Holy Ghost when necessary for the good of the Church.



LESSON TENTH: On the Effects of the Redemption

Q. 450. What is an effect?

A. An effect is that which is caused by something else, as smoke, for example, is an effect of fire.



Q. 451. What does redemption mean?

A. Redemption means the buying back of a thing that was given away or sold.



Q. 452. What did Adam give away by his sin, and what did Our Lord buy back for him and us?

A. By his sin Adam gave away all right to God's promised gifts of grace in this world and of glory in the next, and Our Lord bought back the right that Adam threw away.



Q. 453. Which are the chief effects of the Redemption?

A. The chief effects of the Redemption are two: The satisfaction of God's justice by Christ's sufferings and death, and the gaining of grace for men.



Q. 454. Why do we say "chief effects"?

A. We say "chief effects" to show that these are the most important but not the only effects of the Redemption -- for all the benefits of our holy religion and of its influence upon the world are the effects of the redemption.



Q. 455. Why did God's justice require satisfaction?

A. God's justice required satisfaction because it is infinite and demands reparation for every fault. Man in his state of sin could not make the necessary reparation, so Christ became man and made it for him.



Q. 456. What do you mean by grace?

A. By grace I mean a supernatural gift of God bestowed on us, through the merits of Jesus Christ, for our salvation.



Q. 457. What does "supernatural" mean?

A. Supernatural means above or greater than nature. All gifts such as health, learning or the comforts of life, that affect our happiness chiefly in this world, are called natural gifts, and all gifts such as blessings that affect our happiness chiefly in the next world are called supernatural or spiritual gifts.



Q. 458. What do you mean by "merit"?

A. Merit means the quality of deserving well or ill for our actions. In the question above it means a right to reward for good deeds done.



Q. 459. How many kinds of grace are there? A. There are two kinds of grace, sanctifying grace and actual grace.



Q. 460. What is the difference between sanctifying grace and actual grace?

A. Sanctifying grace remains with us as long as we are not guilty of mortal sin; and hence, it is often called habitual grace; but actual grace comes to us only when we need its help in doing or avoiding an action, and it remains with us only while we are doing or avoiding the action.



Q. 461. What is sanctifying grace?

A. Sanctifying grace is that grace which makes the soul holy and pleasing to God.



Q. 462. What do you call those graces or gifts of God by which we believe in Him, hope in Him, and love Him?

A. Those graces or gifts of God by which we believe in Him, and hope in Him, and love Him, are called the Divine virtues of Faith, Hope, and Charity.



Q. 463. What do you mean by virtue and vice?

A. Virtue is the habit of doing good, and vice is the habit of doing evil. An act, good or bad, does not form a habit; and hence, a virtue or a vice is the result of repeated acts of the same kind.



Q. 464. Does habit excuse us from the sins committed through it?

A. Habit does not excuse us from the sins committed through it, but rather makes us more guilty by showing how often we must have committed the sin to acquire the habit. If, however, we are seriously trying to overcome a bad habit, and through forgetfulness yield to it, the habit may sometimes excuse us from the sin.



Q. 465. What is Faith?

A. Faith is a Divine virtue by which we firmly believe the truths which God has revealed.



Q. 466. What is Hope?

A. Hope is a Divine virtue by which we firmly trust that God will give us eternal life and the means to obtain it.



Q. 467. What is Charity?

A. Charity is a Divine virtue by which we love God above all things for His own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God.



Q. 468. Why are Faith, Hope and Charity called virtues?

A. Faith, Hope and Charity are called virtues because they are not mere acts, but habits by which we always and in all things believe God, hope in Him, and love Him.



Q. 469. What kind of virtues are Faith, Hope and Charity?

A. Faith, Hope and Charity are called infused theological virtues to distinguish them from the four moral virtues -- Prudence, Justice, Fortitude and Temperance.



Q. 470. Why do we say the three theological virtues are infused and the four moral virtues acquired?

A. We say the three theological virtues are infused; that is, poured into our souls, because they are strictly gifts of God and do not depend upon our efforts to obtain them, while the four moral virtues -- Prudence, Justice, Fortitude and Temperance -- though also gifts of God, may, as natural virtues, be acquired by our own efforts.



Q. 471. Why do we believe God, hope in Him, and love Him?

A. We believe God and hope in Him because He is infinitely true and cannot deceive us. We love Him because He is infinitely good and beautiful and worthy of all love.



Q. 472. What mortal sins are opposed to Faith?

A. Atheism, which is a denial of all revealed truths, and heresy, which is a denial of some revealed truths, and superstition, which is a misuse of religion, are opposed to Faith.



Q. 473. Who is our neighbor?

A. Every human being capable of salvation of every age, country, race or condition, especially if he needs our help, is our neighbor in the sense of the Catechism.



Q. 474. Why should we love our neighbor?

A. We should love our neighbor because he is a child of God, redeemed by Jesus Christ, and because he is our brother created to dwell in heaven with us.



Q. 475. What is actual grace?

A. Actual grace is that help of God which enlightens our mind and moves our will to shun evil and do good.



Q. 476. Is grace necessary to salvation?

A. Grace is necessary to salvation, because without grace we can do nothing to merit heaven.



Q. 477. Can we resist the grace of God?

A. We can, and unfortunately often do, resist the grace of God.



Q. 478. Is it a sin knowingly to resist the grace of God?

A. It is a sin, knowingly, to resist the grace of God, because we thereby insult Him and reject His gifts without which we cannot be saved.



Q. 479. Does God give His grace to every one?

A. God gives to everyone He creates sufficient grace to save his soul; and if persons do not save their souls, it is because they have not used the grace given.



Q. 480. What is the grace of perseverance?

A. The grace of perseverance is a particular gift of God which enables us to continue in the state of grace till death.



Q. 481. Can we merit the grace of final perseverance or know when we possess it?

A. We cannot merit the grace of final perseverance, or know when we possess it, because it depends entirely upon God's mercy and not upon our actions. To imagine we possess it would lead us into the sin of presumption.



Q. 482. Can a person merit any supernatural reward for good deeds performed while he is in mortal sin?

A. A person cannot merit any supernatural reward for good deeds performed while he is in mortal sin; nevertheless, God rewards such good deeds by giving the grace of repentance; and, therefore, all persons, even those in mortal sin, should ever strive to do good.



Q. 483. Does God reward anything but our good works?

A. God rewards our good intention and desire to serve Him, even when our works are not successful. We should make this good intention often during the day, and especially in the morning.



LESSON ELEVENTH: On the Church

Q. 484. How was the true religion preserved from Adam till the coming of Christ?

A. The true religion was preserved from Adam till the coming of Christ by the patriarchs, prophets and other holy men whom God appointed and inspired to teach His Will and Revelations to the people, and to remind them of the promised Redeemer.



Q. 485. Who were the prophets, and what was their chief duty?

A. The prophets were men to whom God gave a knowledge of future events connected with religion, that they might foretell them to His people and thus give proof that the message came from God. Their chief duty was to foretell the time, place and circumstances of Our Saviour's coming into the world, that men might know when and where to look for Him, and might recognize Him when He came.



Q. 486. How could they be saved who lived before Christ became man?

A. They who lived before Christ became man could be saved by belief in the Redeemer to come and by keeping the Commandments of God.



Q. 487. Was the true religion universal before the coming of Christ?

A. The true religion was not universal before the coming of Christ. It was confined to one people -- the descendants of Abraham. All other nations worshipped false gods.



Q. 488. Which are the means instituted by Our Lord to enable men at all times to share in the fruits of the Redemption?

A. The means instituted by Our Lord to enable men at all times to share in the fruits of His Redemption are the Church and the Sacraments.



Q. 489. What is the Church?

A. The Church is the congregation of all those who profess the faith of Christ, partake of the same Sacraments, and are governed by their lawful pastors under one visible Head.



Q. 490. How may the members of the Church on earth be divided?

A. The members of the Church on earth may be divided into those who teach and those who are taught. Those who teach, namely, the Pope, bishops and priests, are called the Teaching Church, or simply the Church. Those who are taught are called the Believing Church, or simply the faithful.



Q. 491. What is the duty of the Teaching Church?

A. The duty of the Teaching Church is to continue the work Our Lord began upon earth, namely, to teach revealed truth, to administer the Sacraments and to labor for the salvation of souls.



Q. 492. What is the duty of the faithful?

A. The duty of the faithful is to learn the revealed truths taught; to receive the Sacraments, and to aid in saving souls by their prayers, good works and alms.



Q. 493. What do you mean by "profess the faith of Christ"?

A. By "profess the faith of Christ" we mean, believe all the truths and practice the religion He has taught.



Q. 494. What do we mean by "lawful pastors"?

A. By "lawful pastors" we mean those in the Church who have been appointed by lawful authority and who have, therefore, a right to rule us. The lawful pastors in the Church are: Every priest in his own parish; every bishop in his own diocese, and the Pope in the whole Church.



Q. 495. Who is the invisible Head of the Church?

A. Jesus Christ is the invisible Head of the Church.



Q. 496. Who is the visible Head of the Church?

A. Our Holy Father the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is the Vicar of Christ on earth and the visible Head of the Church.



Q. 497. What does "vicar" mean?

A. Vicar is a name used in the Church to designate a person who acts in the name and authority of another. Thus a Vicar Apostolic is one who acts in the name of the Pope, and a Vicar General is one who acts in the name of the bishop.



Q. 498. Could any one be Pope without being Bishop of Rome?

A. One could not be Pope without being Bishop of Rome, and whoever is elected Pope must give up his title to any other diocese and take the title of Bishop of Rome.



Q. 499. Why is the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, the visible Head of the Church?

A. The Pope, the Bishop of Rome, is the visible Head of the Church because he is the successor of St. Peter, whom Christ made the chief of the Apostles and the visible Head of the Church.



Q. 500. Why are Catholics called "Roman"?

A. Catholics are called Roman to show that they are in union with the true Church founded by Christ and governed by the Apostles under the direction of St. Peter, by divine appointment the Chief of the Apostles, who founded the Church of Rome and was its first bishop.



Q. 501. By what name is a bishop's diocese sometimes called?

A. A bishop's diocese is sometimes called his see. The diocese of Rome, on account of its authority and dignity, is called the Holy See, and its bishop is called the Holy Father or Pope. Pope means father.



Q. 502. What do we call the right by which St. Peter or his successor has always been the head of the Church and of all its bishops?

A. We call the right by which St. Peter or his successor has always been the head of the Church, and of all its bishops, the Primacy of St. Peter or of the Pope. Primacy means holding first place.



Q. 503. How is it shown that St. Peter or his successor has always been the head of the Church?

A. It is shown that St. Peter or his successor has always been the head of the Church:

1.(1) From the words of Holy Scripture, which tell how Christ appointed Peter Chief of the Apostles and head of the Church.

2.(2) From the history of the Church, which shows that Peter and his successors have always acted and have always been recognized as the head of the Church.



Q. 504. How do we know that the rights and privileges bestowed on St. Peter were given also to his successors -- the Popes?

A. We know that the rights and privileges bestowed on St. Peter were given also to his successors, the Popes, because the promises made to St. Peter by Our Lord were to be fulfilled in the Church till the end of time, and as Peter was not to live till the end of time, they are fulfilled in his successors.



Q. 505. Did St. Peter establish any Church before he came to Rome?

A. Before he came to Rome, St. Peter established a Church at Antioch and ruled over it for several years.



Q. 506. Who are the successors of the other Apostles?

A. The successors of the other Apostles are the Bishops of the Holy Catholic Church.



Q. 507. How do we know that the bishops of the Church are the successors of the Apostles?

A. We know that the bishops of the Church are the successors of the Apostles because they continue the work of the Apostles and give proof of the same authority. They have always exercised the rights and powers that belonged to the Apostles in making laws for the Church, in consecrating bishops and ordaining priests.



Q. 508. Why did Christ found the Church?

A. Christ founded the Church to teach, govern, sanctify, and save all men.



Q. 509. Are all bound to belong to the Church?

A. All are bound to belong to the Church, and he who knows the Church to be the true Church and remains out of it cannot be saved.



Q. 510. Is it ever possible for one to be saved who does not know the Catholic Church to be the true Church?

A. It is possible for one to be saved who does not know the Catholic Church to be the true Church, provided that person:

1.(1) Has been validly baptized;

2.(2) Firmly believes the religion he professes and practices to be the true religion, and

3.(3) Dies without the guilt of mortal sin on his soul.



Q. 511. Why do we say it is only possible for a person to be saved who does not know the Catholic Church to be the true Church?

A. We say it is only possible for a person to be saved who does not know the Catholic Church to be the true Church, because the necessary conditions are not often found, especially that of dying in a state of grace without making use of the Sacrament of Penance.



Q. 512. How are such persons said to belong to the Church?

A. Such persons are said to belong to the "soul of the church"; that is, they are really members of the Church without knowing it. Those who share in its Sacraments and worship are said to belong to the body or visible part of the Church.



Q. 513. Why must the true Church be visible?

A. The true Church must be visible because its founder, Jesus Christ, commanded us under pain of condemnation to hear the Church; and He could not in justice command us to hear a Church that could not be seen and known.



Q. 514. What excuses do some give for not becoming members of the true Church?

A. The excuses some give for not becoming members of the true church are:

1.(1) They do not wish to leave the religion in which they were born.

2.(2) There are too many poor and ignorant people in the Catholic Church.

3.(3) One religion is as good as another if we try to serve God in it, and be upright and honest in our lives.



Q. 515. How do you answer such excuses?

A. 1.(1) To say that we should remain in a false religion because we were born in it is as untrue as to say we should not heal our bodily diseases because we were born with them.

2.(2) To say there are too many poor and ignorant in the Catholic Church is to declare that it is Christ's Church; for He always taught the poor and ignorant and instructed His Church to continue the work.

3.(3) To say that one religion is as good as another is to assert that Christ labored uselessly and taught falsely; for He came to abolish the old religion and found the new in which alone we can be saved as He Himself declared.



Q. 516. Why can there be only one true religion?

A. There can be only one true religion, because a thing cannot be false and true at the same time, and, therefore, all religions that contradict the teaching of the true Church must teach falsehood. If all religions in which men seek to serve God are equally good and true, why did Christ disturb the Jewish religion and the Apostles condemn heretics?



LESSON TWELFTH: On the Attributes and Marks of the Church

Q. 517. What is an attribute?

A. An attribute is any characteristic or quality that a person or thing may be said to have. All perfections or imperfections are attributes.



Q. 518. What is a mark?

A. A mark is a given and known sign by which a thing can be distinguished from all others of its kind. Thus a trademark is used to distinguish the article bearing it from all imitations of the same article.



Q. 519. How do we know that the Church must have the four marks and three attributes usually ascribed or given to it?

A. We know that the Church must have the four marks and three attributes usually ascribed or given to it from the words of Christ given in the Holy Scripture and in the teaching of the Church from its beginning.



Q. 520. Can the Church have the four marks without the three attributes?

A. The Church cannot have the four marks without the three attributes, because the three attributes necessarily come with the marks and without them the marks could not exist.



Q. 521. Why are both marks and attributes necessary in the Church?

A. Both marks and attributes are necessary in the Church, for the marks teach us its external or visible qualities, while the attributes teach us its internal or invisible qualities. It is easier to discover the marks than the attributes; for it is easier to see that the Church is one than that it is infallible.



Q. 522. Which are the attributes of the Church?

A. The attributes of the Church are three:

1.authority, infallibility, and indefectibility.



Q. 523. What is authority?

A. Authority is the power which one person has over another so as to be able to justly exact obedience. Rulers have authority over their subjects, parents over their children, and teachers over their scholars.



Q. 524. From whom must all persons derive whatever lawful authority they possess?

A. All persons must derive whatever lawful authority they possess from God Himself, from whom they receive it directly or indirectly. Therefore, to disobey our lawful superiors is to disobey God Himself, and hence such disobedience is always sinful.



Q. 525. What do you mean by the authority of the Church?

A. By the authority of the Church I mean the right and power which the Pope and the Bishops, as the successors of the Apostles, have to teach and to govern the faithful.



Q. 526. What do you mean by the infallibility of the Church?

A. By the infallibility of the Church I mean that the Church can not err when it teaches a doctrine of faith or morals.



Q. 527. What do we mean by a "doctrine of faith or morals"?

A. By a doctrine of faith or morals we mean the revealed teaching that refers to whatever we must believe and do in order to be saved.



Q. 528. How do you know that the Church can not err?

A. I know that the Church can not err because Christ promised that the Holy Ghost would remain with it forever and save it from error. If, therefore, the Church has erred, the Holy Ghost must have abandoned it and Christ has failed to keep His promise, which is a thing impossible.



Q. 529. Since the Church can not err, could it ever be reformed in its teaching of faith or morals?

A. Since the Church can not err, it could never be reformed in its teaching of faith or morals. Those who say the Church needed reformation in faith or morals accuse Our Lord of falsehood and deception.



Q. 530. When does the Church teach infallibly?

A. The Church teaches infallibly when it speaks through the Pope and Bishops united in general council, or through the Pope alone when he proclaims to all the faithful a doctrine of faith or morals.



Q. 531. What is necessary that the Pope may speak infallibly or ex-cathedra?

A. That the Pope may speak infallibly, or ex-cathedra:

1.(1) He must speak on a subject of faith or morals;

2.(2) He must speak as the Vicar of Christ and to the whole Church;

3.(3) He must indicate by certain words, such as, we define, we proclaim, etc., that he intends to speak infallibly.



Q. 532. Is the Pope infallible in everything he says and does?

A. The Pope is not infallible in everything he says and does, because the Holy Ghost was not promised to make him infallible in everything, but only in matters of faith and morals for the whole Church. Nevertheless, the Pope's opinion on any subject deserves our greatest respect on account of his learning, experience and dignity.



Q. 533. Can the Pope commit sin?

A. The Pope can commit sin and he must seek forgiveness in the Sacrament of Penance as others do. Infallibility does not prevent him from sinning, but from teaching falsehood when he speaks ex-cathedra.



Q. 534. What does ex-cathedra mean?

A. "Cathedra" means a seat, and "ex" means out of. Therefore, ex- cathedra means speaking from the seat or official place held by St. Peter and his successors as the head of the whole Church.



Q. 535. Why is the chief Church in a diocese called a Cathedral?

A. The chief Church in a diocese is called a Cathedral because the bishop's cathedra, that is, his seat or throne, is erected in it, and because he celebrates all important feasts and performs all his special duties in it.



Q. 536. How many Popes have governed the Church from St. Peter to Pius XI.?

A. From St. Peter to Pius XI., 261 Popes have governed the Church; and many of them have been remarkable for their zeal, prudence, learning and sanctity.



Q. 537. What does anti-pope mean, and who were the anti- popes?

A. Anti-pope means a pretended pope. The anti-popes were men who by the aid of faithless Christians or others unlawfully seized and claimed the papal power while the lawful pope was in prison or exile.



Q. 538. Why must the Pope sometimes warn us on political and other matters?

A. The Pope must sometimes warn us on political and other matters, because whatever nations or men do is either good or bad, just or unjust, and wherever the Pope discovers falsehood, wickedness or injustice he must speak against it and defend the truths of faith and morals. He must protect also the temporal rights and property of the Church committed to his care.



Q. 539. What do we mean by the "temporal power" of the Pope?

A. By the temporal power of the Pope we mean the right which the Pope has as a temporal or ordinary ruler to govern the states and manage the properties that have rightfully come into the possession of the Church.



Q. 540. How did the Pope acquire and how was he deprived of the temporal power?

A. The Pope acquired the temporal power in a just manner by the consent of those who had a right to bestow it. He was deprived of it in an unjust manner by political changes.



Q. 541. How was the temporal power useful to the Church?

A. The temporal power was useful to the Church:

1.(1) Because it gave the Pope the complete independence necessary for the government of the Church and for the defense of truth and virtue.

2.(2) It enabled him to do much for the spread of the true religion by giving alms for the establishment and support of Churches and schools in poor or pagan countries.



Q. 542. What name do we give to the offerings made yearly by the faithful for the support of the Pope and the government of the Church?

A. We call the offerings made yearly by the faithful for the support of the Pope and government of the Church "Peter's pence." It derives its name from the early custom of sending yearly a penny from every house to the successor of St. Peter, as a mark of respect or as an alms for some charity.



Q. 543. What do you mean by the indefectibility of the Church?

A. By the indefectibility of the Church I mean that the Church, as Christ founded it, will last till the end of time.



Q. 544. What is the difference between the infallibility and indefectibility of the Church?

A. When we say the Church is infallible we mean that it can never teach error while it lasts; but when we say the Church is indefectible, we mean that it will last forever and be infallible forever; that it will always remain as Our Lord founded it and never change the doctrines He taught.



Q. 545. Did Our Lord Himself make all the laws of the Church?

A. Our Lord Himself did not make all the laws of the Church. He gave the Church also power to make laws to suit the needs of the times, places or persons as it judged necessary.



Q. 546. Can the Church change its laws?

A. The Church can, when necessary, change the laws it has itself made, but it cannot change the laws that Christ has made. Neither can the Church change any doctrine of faith or morals.



Q. 547. In whom are these attributes found in their fullness?

A. These attributes are found in their fullness in the Pope, the visible Head of the Church, whose infallible authority to teach bishops, priests, and people in matters of faith or morals will last to the end of the world.



Q. 548. Has the Church any marks by which it may be known?

A. The Church has four marks by which it may be known: it is One; it is Holy; it is Catholic; it is Apostolic.



Q. 549. How is the Church One?

A. The Church is One because all its members agree in one faith, are all in one communion, and are all under one head.



Q. 550. How is it evident that the Church is one in government?

A. It is evident that the Church is one in government, for the faithful in a parish are subject to their pastors, the pastors are subject to the bishops of their dioceses, and the bishops of the world are subject to the Pope.



Q. 551. What is meant by the Hierarchy of the Church?

A. By the Hierarchy of the Church is meant the sacred body of clerical rules who govern the Church.



Q. 552. How is it evident that the Church is one in worship?

A. It is evident that the Church is one in worship because all its members make use of the same sacrifice and receive the same Sacraments.



Q. 553. How is it evident that the Church is one in faith?

A. It is evident the Church is one in faith because all Catholics throughout the world believe each and every article of faith proposed by the Church.



Q. 554. Could a person who denies only one article of our faith be a Catholic?

A. A person who denies even one article of our faith could not be a Catholic; for truth is one and we must accept it whole and entire or not at all.



Q. 555. Are there any pious beliefs and practices in the Church that are not articles of faith?

A. There are many pious beliefs and practices in the Church that are not articles of faith; that is, we are not bound under pain of sin to believe in them; yet we will often find them useful aids to holiness, and hence they are recommended by our pastors.



Q. 556. Of what sin are persons guilty who put firm belief in religious or other practices that are either forbidden or useless?

A. Persons who put a firm belief in religious or other practices that are forbidden or useless are guilty of the sin of superstition.



Q. 557. Where does the Church find the revealed truths it is bound to teach?

A. The Church finds the revealed truths it is bound to teach in the Holy Scripture and revealed traditions.



Q. 558. What is the Holy Scripture or Bible?

A. The Holy Scripture or Bible is the collection of sacred, inspired writings through which God has made known to us many revealed truths. Some call them letters from Heaven to earth, that is, from God to man.



Q. 559. What is meant by the Canon of the Sacred Scriptures?

A. The Canon of Sacred Scriptures means the list the Church has prepared to teach us what sacred writings are Holy Scripture and contain the inspired word of God.



Q. 560. Where does the Church find the revealed traditions?

A. The Church finds the revealed traditions in the decrees of its councils; in its books of worship; in its paintings and inscriptions on tombs and monuments; in the lives of its Saints; the writings of its Fathers, and in its own history.



Q. 561. Must we ourselves seek in the Scriptures and traditions for what we are to believe?

A. We ourselves need not seek in the Scriptures and traditions for what we are to believe. God has appointed the Church to be our guide to salvation and we must accept its teaching us our infallible rule of faith.



Q. 562. How do we show that the Holy Scriptures alone could not be our guide to salvation and infallible rule of faith?

A. We show that the Holy Scripture alone could not be our guide to salvation and infallible rule of faith:

1.(1) Because all men cannot examine or understand the Holy Scripture; but all can listen to the teaching of the Church;

2.(2) Because the New Testament or Christian part of the Scripture was not written at the beginning of the Church's existence, and, therefore, could not have been used as the rule of faith by the first Christians;

3.(3) Because there are many things in the Holy Scripture that cannot be understood without the explanation given by tradition, and hence those who take the Scripture alone for their rule of faith are constantly disputing about its meaning and what they are to believe.



Q. 563. How is the Church Holy?

A. The Church is Holy because its founder, Jesus Christ, is holy; because it teaches a holy doctrine; invites all to a holy life; and because of the eminent holiness of so many thousands of its children.



Q. 564. How is the Church Catholic or universal?

A. The Church is Catholic or universal because it subsists in all ages, teaches all nations, and maintains all truth.



Q. 565. How do you show that the Catholic Church is universal in time, in place, and in doctrine?

A. 1.(1) The Catholic Church is universal in time, for from the time of the Apostles to the present it has existed, taught and labored in every age;

2.(2) It is universal in place, for it has taught throughout the whole world;

3.(3) It is universal in doctrine, for it teaches the same everywhere, and its doctrines are suited to all classes of persons. It has converted all the pagan nations that have ever been converted.



Q. 566. Why does the Church use the Latin language instead of the national language of its children?

A. The Church uses the Latin language instead of the national language of its children:

1.(1) To avoid the danger of changing any part of its teaching in using different languages; 2.(2) That all its rulers may be perfectly united and understood in their communications;

3.(3) To show that the Church is not an institute of any particular nation, but the guide of all nations.



Q. 567. How is the Church Apostolic?

A. The Church is Apostolic because it was founded by Christ on His Apostles, and is governed by their lawful successors, and because it has never ceased, and never will cease, to teach their doctrine.



Q. 568. Does the Church, by defining certain truths, thereby make new doctrines?

A. The Church, by defining, that is, by proclaiming certain truths, articles of faith, does not make new doctrines, but simply teaches more clearly and with greater effort truths that have always been believed and held by the Church.



Q. 569. What, then, is the use of defining or declaring a truth an article of faith if it has always been believed?

A. The use of defining or declaring a truth an article of faith, even when it has always been believed, is:

1.(1) To clearly contradict those who deny it and show their teaching false;

2.(2) To remove all doubt about the exact teaching of the Church, and to put an end to all discussion about the truth defined.



Q. 570. In which Church are these attributes and marks found?

A. These attributes and marks are found in the Holy Roman Catholic Church alone.



Q. 571. How do you show that Protestant Churches have not the marks of the true Church?

A. Protestant Churches have not the marks of the true Church, because:

1.(1) They are not one either in government or faith; for they have no chief head, and they profess different beliefs;

2.(2) They are not holy, because their doctrines are founded on error and lead to evil consequences;

3.(3) They are not catholic or universal in time, place or doctrine. They have not existed in all ages nor in all places, and their doctrines do not suit all classes;

4.(4) They are not apostolic, for they were not established for hundreds of years after the Apostles, and they do not teach the doctrines of the Apostles.



Q. 572. From whom does the Church derive its undying life and infallible authority?

A. The Church derives its undying life and infallible authority from the Holy Ghost, the spirit of truth, who abides with it forever.



Q. 573. By whom is the Church made and kept One, Holy, and Catholic?

A. The Church is made and kept One, Holy, and Catholic by the Holy Ghost, the spirit of love and holiness, who unites and sanctifies its members throughout the world.



LESSON THIRTEENTH: On the Sacraments in General

Q. 574. What is a Sacrament?

A. A Sacrament is an outward sign instituted by Christ to give grace.



Q. 575. Are these three things, namely: An outward or visible sign, the institution of that sign by Christ, and the giving of grace through the use of that sign, always necessary for the existence of a Sacrament?

A. These three things, namely:

1.An outward or visible sign, the institution of that sign by Christ, and the giving of grace through the use of that sign, are always necessary for the existence of a Sacrament, and if any of the three be wanting there can be no Sacrament.



Q. 576. Why does the Church use numerous ceremonies or actions in applying the outward signs of the Sacraments?

A. The Church uses numerous ceremonies or actions in applying the outward signs of the Sacraments to increase our reverence and devotion for the Sacraments, and to explain their meaning and effects.



Q. 577. How many Sacraments are there?

A. There are seven Sacraments:

1.Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.



Q. 578. Were all the Sacraments instituted by Our Lord?

A. All the Sacraments were instituted by Our Lord, for God alone has power to attach the gift of grace to the use of an outward or visible sign. The Church, however, can institute the ceremonies to be used in administering or giving the Sacraments.



Q. 579. How do we know there are seven Sacraments and no more or less?

A. We know there are seven Sacraments and no more or less because the Church always taught that truth. The number of the Sacraments is a matter of faith, and the Church cannot be mistaken in matters of faith.



Q. 580. Why have the Sacraments been instituted?

A. The Sacraments have been instituted as a special means through which we are to receive the grace merited for us by Christ. As Christ is the giver of the grace, He has the right to determine the manner in which it shall be given, and one who refuses to make use of the Sacraments will not receive God's grace.



Q. 581. Do the Sacraments recall in any way the means by which Our Lord merited the graces we receive through them?

A. The Sacraments recall in many ways the means by which Our Lord merited the graces we receive through them. Baptism recalls His profound humility; Confirmation His ceaseless prayer; Holy Eucharist His care of the needy; Penance His mortified life; Extreme Unction His model death; Holy Orders His establishment of the priesthood, and Matrimony His close union with the Church.



Q. 582. Give, for example, the outward sign in Baptism and Confirmation.

A. The outward sign in Baptism is the pouring of the water and the saying of the words of Baptism. The outward sign in Confirmation is the anointing with oil, the saying of the words of Confirmation and the placing of the bishop's hands over the person he confirms.



Q. 583. What is the use of the outward signs in the Sacraments?

A. Without the outward signs in the Sacraments we could not know when or with what effect the grace of the Sacraments enters into our souls.



Q. 584. Does the outward sign merely indicate that grace has been given, or does the use of the outward sign with the proper intention also give the grace of the Sacrament?

A. The outward sign is not used merely to indicate that grace has been given, for the use of the outward sign with the proper intention also gives the grace of the Sacrament. Hence the right application of the outward sign is always followed by the gift of internal grace if the Sacrament be administered with the right intention and received with the right dispositions.



Q. 585. What do we mean by the "right intention" for the administration of the Sacraments?

A. By the right intention for the administration of the Sacraments we mean that whoever administers a Sacrament must have the intention of doing what Christ intended when He instituted the Sacrament and what the Church intends when it administers the Sacrament.



Q. 586. Is there any likeness between the thing used in the outward sign and the grace given in each Sacrament?

A. There is a great likeness between the thing used in the outward sign and the grace given in each Sacrament; thus water is used for cleansing; Baptism cleanses the soul; Oil gives strength and light; Confirmation strengthens and enlightens the soul; Bread and wine nourish; the Holy Eucharist nourishes the soul.



Q. 587. What do we mean by the "matter and form" of the Sacraments?

A. By the "matter" of the Sacraments we mean the visible things, such as water, oil, bread, wine, etc., used for the Sacraments. By the "form" we mean the words, such as "I baptize thee," "I confirm thee," etc., used in giving or administering the Sacraments.



Q. 588. Do the needs of the soul resemble the needs of the body?

A. The needs of the soul do resemble the needs of the body; for the body must be born, strengthened, nourished, healed in affliction, helped at the hour of death, guided by authority, and given a place in which to dwell. The soul is brought into spiritual life by Baptism; it is strengthened by Confirmation; nourished by the Holy Eucharist; healed by Penance; helped at the hour of our death by Extreme Unction; guided by God's ministers through the Sacrament of Holy Orders, and it is given a body in which to dwell by the Sacrament of Matrimony.



Q. 589. Whence have the Sacraments the power of giving grace?

A. The Sacraments have the power of giving grace from the merits of Jesus Christ.



Q. 590. Does the effect of the Sacraments depend on the worthiness or unworthiness of the one who administers them?

A. The effect of the Sacraments does not depend on the worthiness or unworthiness of the one who administers them, but on the merits of Jesus Christ, who instituted them, and on the worthy dispositions of those who receive them.



Q. 591. What grace do the Sacraments give?

A. Some of the Sacraments give sanctifying grace, and others increase it in our souls.



Q. 592. When is a Sacrament said to give, and when is it said to increase, grace in our souls?

A. A Sacrament is said to give grace when there is no grace whatever in the soul, or in other words, when the soul is in mortal sin. A Sacrament is said to increase grace when there is already grace in the soul, to which more is added by the Sacrament received.



Q. 593. Which are the Sacraments that give sanctifying grace?

A. The Sacraments that give sanctifying grace are Baptism and Penance; and they are called Sacraments of the dead.



Q. 594. Why are Baptism and Penance called Sacraments of the dead?

A. Baptism and Penance are called Sacraments of the dead because they take away sin, which is the death of the soul, and give grace, which is its life.



Q. 595. May not the Sacrament of Penance be received by one who is in a state of grace?

A. The Sacrament of Penance may be and very often is received by one who is in a state of grace, and when thus received it increases -- as the Sacraments of the living do -- the grace already in the soul.



Q. 596. Which are the Sacraments that increase sanctifying grace in our soul?

A. The Sacraments that increase sanctifying grace in our souls are:

1.Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony; and they are called Sacraments of the living.



Q. 597. What do we mean by Sacraments of the dead and Sacraments of the living?

A. By the Sacraments of the dead we mean those Sacraments that may be lawfully received while the soul is in a state of mortal sin. By the Sacraments of the living we mean those Sacraments that can be lawfully received only while the soul is in a state of grace -- i.e., free from mortal sin. Living and dead do not refer here to the persons, but to the condition of the souls; for none of the Sacraments can be given to a dead person.



Q. 598. Why are Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony called Sacraments of the living?

A. Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony are called Sacraments of the living because those who receive them worthily are already living the life of grace.



Q. 599. What sin does he commit who receives the Sacraments of the living in mortal sin?

A. He who receives the Sacraments of the living in mortal sin commits a sacrilege, which is a great sin, because it is an abuse of a sacred thing.



Q. 600. In what other ways besides the unworthy reception of the Sacraments may persons commit sacrilege?

A. Besides the unworthy reception of the Sacraments, persons may commit sacrilege by the abuse of a sacred person, place or thing; for example, by willfully wounding a person consecrated to God; by robbing or destroying a Church; by using the sacred vessels of the Altar for unlawful purposes, etc.



Q. 601. Besides sanctifying grace do the Sacraments give any other grace?

A. Besides sanctifying grace the Sacraments give another grace, called sacramental grace.



Q. 602. What is sacramental grace?

A. Sacramental grace is a special help which God gives, to attain the end for which He instituted each Sacrament.



Q. 603. Is the Sacramental grace independent of the sanctifying grace given in the Sacraments?

A. The Sacramental grace is not independent of the sanctifying grace given in the Sacraments; for it is the sanctifying grace that gives us a certain right to special helps -- called Sacramental grace -- in each Sacrament, as often as we have to fulfill the end of the Sacrament or are tempted against it.



Q. 604. Give an example of how the Sacramental grace aids us, for instance, in Confirmation and Penance.

A. The end of Confirmation is to strengthen us in our faith. When we are tempted to deny our religion by word or deed, the Sacramental Grace of Confirmation is given to us and helps us to cling to our faith and firmly profess it. The end of Penance is to destroy actual sin. When we are tempted to sin, the Sacramental Grace of Penance is given to us and helps us to overcome the temptation and persevere in a state of grace. The sacramental grace in each of the other Sacraments is given in the same manner, and aids us in attaining the end for which each Sacrament was instituted and for which we receive it.



Q. 605. Do the Sacraments always give grace?

A. The Sacraments always give grace, if we receive them with the right dispositions.



Q. 606. What do we mean by the "right dispositions" for the reception of the Sacraments?

A. By the right dispositions for the reception of the Sacraments we mean the proper motives and the fulfillment of all the conditions required by God and the Church for the worthy reception of the Sacraments.



Q. 607. Give an example of the "right dispositions" for Penance and for the Holy Eucharist.

A. The right dispositions for Penance are:

1.(1)To confess all our mortal sins as we know them;

2.(2) To be sorry for them, and

3.(3) To have the determination never to commit them or others again.

The right dispositions for the Holy Eucharist are:

1.(1) To know what the Holy Eucharist is;

2.(2) To be in a state of grace, and

3.(3) -- except in special cases of sickness -- to be fasting from midnight.



Q. 608. Can we receive the Sacraments more than once?

A. We can receive the Sacraments more than once, except Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders.



Q. 609. Why can we not receive Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders more than once?

A. We cannot receive Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders more than once, because they imprint a character in the soul.



Q. 610. What is the character which these Sacraments imprint in the soul?

A. The character which these Sacraments imprint in the soul is a spiritual mark which remains forever.



Q. 611. Does this character remain in the soul even after death?

A. This character remains in the soul even after death; for the honor and glory of those who are saved; for the shame and punishment of those who are lost.



Q. 612. Can the Sacraments be given conditionally?

A. The Sacraments can be given conditionally as often as we doubt whether they were properly given before, or whether they can be validly given now.



Q. 613. What do we mean by giving a Sacrament conditionally?

A. By giving a Sacrament conditionally we mean that the person administering the Sacrament intends to give it only in case it has not been given already or in case the person has the right dispositions for receiving it, though the dispositions cannot be discovered.



Q. 614. Give an example of how a Sacrament is given conditionally.

A. In giving Baptism, for instance, conditionally -- or what we call conditional Baptism -- the priest, instead of saying absolutely, as he does in ordinary Baptism: "I baptize thee," etc., says: "If you are not already baptized, or if you are capable of being baptized, I baptize thee," etc., thus stating the sole condition on which he intends to administer the Sacrament.



Q. 615. Which of the Sacraments are most frequently given conditionally?

A. The Sacraments most frequently given conditionally are Baptism, Penance and Extreme Unction; because in some cases it is difficult to ascertain whether these Sacraments have been given before or whether they have been validly given, or whether the person about to receive them has the right dispositions for them.



Q. 616. Name some of the more common circumstances in which a priest is obliged to administer the Sacraments conditionally.

A. Some of the more common circumstances in which a priest is obliged to administer the Sacraments conditionally are:

1.(1) When he receives converts into the Church and is not certain of their previous baptism, he must baptize them conditionally.

2.(2) When he is called -- as in cases of accident or sudden illness -- and doubts whether the person be alive or dead, or whether he should be given the Sacraments, he must give absolution and administer Extreme Unction conditionally.



Q. 617. What is the use and effect of giving the Sacraments conditionally?

A. The use of giving the Sacraments conditionally is that there may be no irreverence to the Sacraments in giving them to persons incapable or unworthy of receiving them; and yet that no one who is capable or worthy may be deprived of them. The effect is to supply the Sacrament where it is needed or can be given, and to withhold it where it is not needed or cannot be given.



Q. 618. What is the difference between the powers of a bishop and of a priest with regard to the administration of the Sacraments?

A. The difference between the powers of a bishop and of a priest with regard to the administration of the Sacraments is that a bishop can give all the Sacraments, while a priest cannot give Confirmation or Holy Orders.



Q. 619. Can a person receive all the Sacraments? A. A person cannot, as a rule, receive all the Sacraments; for a woman cannot receive Holy Orders, and a man who receives priesthood is forbidden to receive the Sacrament of Matrimony.



LESSON FOURTEENTH: On Baptism

Q. 620. When was baptism instituted?

A. Baptism was instituted, very probably, about the time Our Lord was baptized by St. John, and its reception was commanded when after His resurrection Our Lord said to His Apostles: "All power is given to Me in heaven and in earth. Going, therefore, teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."



Q. 621. What is Baptism?

A. Baptism is a Sacrament which cleanses us from original sin, makes us Christians, children of God, and heirs of heaven.



Q. 622. What were persons called in the first ages of the Church who were being instructed and prepared for baptism?

A. Persons who were being instructed and prepared for baptism, in the first ages of the Church, were called catechumens, and they are frequently mentioned in Church history.



Q. 623. What persons are called heirs?

A. All persons who inherit or come lawfully into the possession of property or goods at the death of another, are called heirs.



Q. 624. Why, then, are we the heirs of Christ? A. We are the heirs of Christ because at His death we came into the possession of God's friendship, of grace, and of the right to enter heaven, provided we comply with the conditions Our Lord has laid down for the gaining of this inheritance.



Q. 625. What conditions has Our Lord laid down for the gaining of this inheritance?

A. The conditions Our Lord has laid down for the gaining of this inheritance are:



1.(1) That we receive, when possible, the Sacraments He has instituted; and

2.(2) That we believe and practice all He has taught.



Q. 626. Did not St. John the Baptist institute the Sacrament of Baptism?

A. St. John the Baptist did not institute the Sacrament of Baptism, for Christ alone could institute a Sacrament. The baptism given by St. John had the effect of a Sacramental; that is, it did not of itself give grace, but prepared the way for it.



Q. 627. Are actual sins ever remitted by Baptism?

A. Actual sins and all the punishment due to them are remitted by Baptism, if the person baptized be guilty of any.



Q. 628. That actual sins may be remitted by baptism, is it necessary to be sorry for them?

A. That actual sins may be remitted by baptism it is necessary to be sorry for them, just as we must be when they are remitted by the Sacrament of Penance.



Q. 629. What punishments are due to actual sins?

A. Two punishments are due to actual sins: one, called the eternal, is inflicted in hell; and the other, called the temporal, is inflicted in this world or in purgatory. The Sacrament of Penance remits or frees us from the eternal punishment and generally only from part of the temporal. Prayer, good works and indulgences in this world and the sufferings of purgatory in the next remit the remainder of the temporal punishment.



Q. 630. Why is there a double punishment attached to actual sins?

A. There is a double punishment attached to actual sins, because in their commission there is a double guilt: (1) Of insulting God and of turning away from Him;

(2) Of depriving Him of the honor we owe Him, and of turning to His enemies.



Q. 631. Is Baptism necessary to salvation?

A. Baptism is necessary to salvation, because without it we cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven.



Q. 632. Where will persons go who -- such as infants -- have not committed actual sin and who, through no fault of theirs, die without baptism?

A. Persons, such as infants, who have not committed actual sin and who, through no fault of theirs, die without baptism, cannot enter heaven; but it is the common belief they will go to some place similar to Limbo, where they will be free from suffering, though deprived of the happiness of heaven.



Q. 633. Who can administer Baptism?

A. A priest is the ordinary minister of baptism; but in case of necessity anyone who has the use of reason may baptize.



Q. 634. What do we mean by the "ordinary minister" of a Sacrament?

A. By the "ordinary minister" of a Sacrament we mean the one who usually does administer the Sacrament, and who has always the right to do so.



Q. 635. Can a person who has not himself been baptized, and who does not even believe in the Sacrament of baptism, give it validly to another in case of necessity?

A. A person who has not himself been baptized, and who does not even believe in the Sacrament of baptism, can give it validly to another in case of necessity, provided:

1.(1) He has the use of reason;

2.(2) Knows how to give baptism, and

3.(3) Intends to do what the Church intends in the giving of the Sacrament. Baptism is so necessary that God affords every opportunity for its reception.



Q. 636. Why do the consequences of original sin, such as suffering, temptation, sickness, and death, remain after the sin has been forgiven in baptism?

A. The consequences of original sin, such as suffering, temptation, sickness and death, remain after the sin has been forgiven in baptism:

1.(1) To remind us of the misery that always follows sin; and

2.(2) To afford us an opportunity of increasing our merit by bearing these hardships patiently.



Q. 637. Can a person ever receive any of the other Sacraments without first receiving baptism?

A. A person can never receive any of the other Sacraments without first receiving baptism, because baptism makes us members of Christ's Church, and unless we are members of His Church we cannot receive His Sacraments.



Q. 638. How is Baptism given?

A. Whoever baptizes should pour water on the head of the person to be baptized, and say, while pouring the water: "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."



Q. 639. If water cannot be had, in case of necessity, may any other liquid be used for baptism?

A. If water cannot be had, in case of necessity or in any case, no other liquid can be used, and the baptism cannot be given.



Q. 640. If it is impossible, in case of necessity, to reach the head, may the water be poured on any other part of the body?

A. If it is impossible, in case of necessity, to reach the head, the water should be poured on whatever part of the body can be reached; but then the baptism must be given conditionally; that is, before pronouncing the words of baptism, you must say: "If I can baptize thee in this way, I baptize thee in the name of the Father," etc. If the head can afterward be reached, the water must be poured on the head and the baptism repeated conditionally by saying: "If you are not already baptized, I baptize thee in the name," etc.



Q. 641. Is the baptism valid if we say: "I baptize thee in the name of the Holy Trinity," without naming the Persons of the Trinity?

A. The baptism is not valid if we say: "I baptize thee in the name of the Holy Trinity," without naming the Persons of the Trinity; for we must use the exact words instituted by Christ.



Q. 642. Is it wrong to defer the baptism of an infant?

A. It is wrong to defer the baptism of an infant, because we thereby expose the child to the danger of dying without the Sacrament.



Q. 643. Can we baptize a child against the wishes of its parents?

A. We cannot baptize a child against the wishes of its parents; and if the parents are not Catholics, they must not only consent to the baptism, but also agree to bring the child up in the Catholic religion. But if a child is surely dying, we may baptize it without either the consent or permission of its parents.



Q. 644. How many kinds of Baptism are there? A. There are three kinds of Baptism:

1.Baptism of water, of desire, and of blood.



Q. 645. What is Baptism of water?

A. Baptism of water is that which is given by pouring water on the head of the person to be baptized, and saying at the same time, "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."



Q. 646. In how many ways was the baptism of water given in the first ages of the Church?

A. In the first ages of the Church, baptism of water was given in three ways, namely, by immersion or dipping, by aspersion or sprinkling, and by infusion or pouring. Although any of these methods would be valid, only the method of infusion or pouring is now allowed in the Church.



Q. 647. What are the chief ceremonies used in solemn baptism, and what do they signify?

A. The chief ceremonies used in solemn baptism are:

1.(1) A profession of faith and renouncement of the devil to signify our worthiness;

2.(2) The placing of salt in the mouth to signify the wisdom imparted by faith;

3.(3) The holding of the priest's stole to signify our reception into the Church;

4.(4) The anointing to signify the strength given by the Sacrament;

5.(5) The giving of the white garment or cloth to signify our sinless state after baptism; and

6.(6) The giving of the lighted candle to signify the light of faith and fire of love that should dwell in our souls.



Q. 648. Should one who, in case of necessity, has been baptized with private baptism, be afterwards brought to the Church to have the ceremonies of solemn baptism completed?

A. One who, in case of necessity, has been baptized with private baptism should afterwards be brought to the Church to have the ceremonies of solemn baptism completed, because these ceremonies are commanded by the Church and bring down blessings upon us.



Q. 649. Is solemn baptism given with any special kind of water?

A. Solemn baptism is given with consecrated water; that is, water mixed with holy oil and blessed for baptism on Holy Saturday and on the Saturday before Pentecost. It is always kept in the baptismal font in the baptistry -- a place near the door of the Church set apart for baptism.



Q. 650. What is Baptism of desire?

A. Baptism of desire is an ardent wish to receive Baptism, and to do all that God has ordained for our salvation.



Q. 651. What is Baptism of blood?

A. Baptism of blood is the shedding of one's blood for the faith of Christ.



Q. 652. What is the baptism of blood most commonly called?

A. The baptism of blood is most commonly called martyrdom, and those who receive it are called martyrs. It is the death one patiently suffers from the enemies of our religion, rather than give up Catholic faith or virtue. We must not seek martyrdom, though we must endure it when it comes.



Q. 653. Is Baptism of desire or of blood sufficient to produce the effects of Baptism of water?

A. Baptism of desire or of blood is sufficient to produce the effects of the Baptism of water, if it is impossible to receive the Baptism of water.



Q. 654. How do we know that the baptism of desire or of blood will save us when it is impossible to receive the baptism of water?

A. We know that baptism of desire or of blood will save us when it is impossible to receive the baptism of water, from Holy Scripture, which teaches that love of God and perfect contrition can secure the remission of sins ; and also that Our Lord promises salvation to those who lay down their life for His sake or for His teaching.



Q. 655. What do we promise in Baptism?

A. In Baptism we promise to renounce the devil, with all his works and pomps.



Q. 656. What do we mean by the "pomps" of the devil?

A. By the pomps of the devil we mean all worldly pride, vanities and vain shows by which people are enticed into sin, and all foolish or sinful display of ourselves or of what we possess.



Q. 657. Why is the name of a saint given in Baptism?

A. The name of a saint is given in Baptism in order that the person baptized may imitate his virtues and have him for a protector.



Q. 658. What is the Saint whose name we bear called?

A. The saint whose name we bear is called our patron saint -- to whom we should have great devotion.



Q. 659. What names should never be given in baptism?

A. These and similar names should never be given in baptism:

1.(1) The names of noted unbelievers, heretics or enemies of religion and virtue;

2.(2) The names of heathen gods, and

3.(3) Nick-names.



Q. 660. Why are godfathers and godmothers given in Baptism?

A. Godfathers and godmothers are given in Baptism in order that they may promise, in the name of the child, what the child itself would promise if it had the use of reason.



Q. 661. By what other name are godfathers and godmothers called?

A. Godfathers and godmothers are usually called sponsors. Sponsors are not necessary at private baptism.



Q. 662. Can a person ever be sponsor when absent from the baptism?

A. A person can be sponsor even when absent from the baptism, provided he has been asked and has consented to be sponsor, and provided also some one answers the questions and touches the person to be baptized in his name. The absent godfather or godmother is then said to be sponsor by proxy and becomes the real godparent of the one baptized.



Q. 663. With whom do godparents, as well as the one baptizing, contract a relationship?

A. Godparents, as well as the one baptizing, contract a spiritual relationship with the person baptized (not with his parents), and this relationship is an impediment to marriage that must be made known to the priest in case of their future marriage with one another. The godfather and godmother contract no relationship with each other.



Q. 664. What questions should persons who bring a child for baptism be able to answer?

A. Persons who bring a child for baptism should be able to tell:

1.(1) The exact place where the child lives;

2.(2) The full name of its parents, and, in particular, the maiden name, or name before her marriage, of its mother;

3.(3) The exact day of the month on which it was born;

4.(4) Whether or not it has received private baptism, and

5.(5) Whether its parents be Catholics.

Sponsors must know also the chief truths of our religion.



Q. 665. What is the obligation of a godfather and a godmother?

A. The obligation of a godfather and a godmother is to instruct the child in its religious duties, if the parents neglect to do so or die.



Q. 666. Can persons who are not Catholics be sponsors for Catholic children?

A. Persons who are not Catholics cannot be sponsors for Catholic children, because they cannot perform the duties of sponsors; for if they do not know and profess the Catholic religion themselves, how can they teach it to their godchildren? Moreover, they must answer the questions asked at baptism and declare that they believe in the Holy Catholic Church and in all it teaches; which would be a falsehood on their part.



Q. 667. What should parents chiefly consider in the selection of sponsors for their children?

A. In the selection of sponsors for their children parents should chiefly consider the good character and virtue of the sponsors, selecting model Catholics to whom they would be willing at the hour of death to entrust the care and training of their children.



Q. 668. What dispositions must adults or grown persons, have that they may worthily receive baptism?

A. That adults may worthily receive baptism:

1.(1) They must be willing to receive it;

2.(2) They must have faith in Christ;

3.(3) They must have true sorrow for their sins, and

4.(4) They must solemnly renounce the devil and all his works; that is, all sin.



Q. 669. What is the ceremony of churching?

A. The ceremony of churching is a particular blessing which a mother receives at the Altar, as soon as she is able to present herself in the Church after the birth of her child. In this ceremony the priest invokes God's blessing on the mother and child, while she on her part returns thanks to God.



LESSON FIFTEENTH: On Confirmation

Q. 670. What is Confirmation?

A. Confirmation is a Sacrament through which we receive the Holy Ghost to make us strong and perfect Christians and soldiers of Jesus Christ.



Q. 671. When was Confirmation instituted?

A. The exact time at which Confirmation was instituted is not known. But as this Sacrament was administered by the Apostles and numbered with the other Sacraments instituted by Our Lord, it is certain that He instituted this Sacrament also and instructed His Apostles in its use, at some time before His ascension into heaven.



Q. 672. Why is Confirmation so called?

A. Confirmation is so called from its chief effect, which is to strengthen or render us more firm in whatever belongs to our faith and religious duties.



Q. 673. Why are we called soldiers of Jesus Christ?

A. We are called soldiers of Jesus Christ to indicate how we must resist the attacks of our spiritual enemies and secure our victory over them by following and obeying Our Lord.



Q. 674. May one add a new name to his own at Confirmation?

A. One may and should add a new name to his own at Confirmation, especially when the name of a saint has not been given in Baptism.



Q. 675. Who administers Confirmation?

A. The bishop is the ordinary minister of Confirmation.



Q. 676. Why do we say the bishop is the "ordinary minister" of Confirmation?

A. We say the bishop is the ordinary minister of Confirmation because in some foreign missions, where bishops have not yet been appointed, the Holy Father permits one of the priests to administer Confirmation with the Holy Oil blessed by the bishop.



Q. 677. How does the bishop give Confirmation?

A. The bishop extends his hands over those who are to be confirmed, prays that they may receive the Holy Ghost, and anoints the forehead of each with holy chrism in the form of a cross.



Q. 678. In Confirmation, what does the extending of the bishop's hands over us signify?

A. In Confirmation, the extending of the bishop's hands over us signifies the descent of the Holy Ghost upon us and the special protection of God through the grace of Confirmation.



Q. 679. What is holy chrism?

A. Holy chrism is a mixture of olive-oil and balm, consecrated by the bishop.



Q. 680. What do the oil and balm in Holy Chrism signify?

A. In Holy Chrism, the oil signifies strength, and the balm signifies the freedom from corruption and the sweetness which virtue must give to our lives.



Q. 681. How many holy oils are used in the Church?

A. Three holy oils are used in the Church, namely, the oil of the sick, the oil of catechumens, and holy chrism.



Q. 682. What constitutes the difference between these oils?

A. The form of prayer or blessing alone constitutes the difference between these oils; for they are all olive oil, but in the Holy Chrism, balm is mixed with the oil.



Q. 683. When and by whom are the holy oils blessed?

A. The holy oils are blessed at the Mass on Holy Thursday by the bishop, who alone has the right to bless them. After the blessing they are distributed to the priests of the diocese, who must then burn what remains of the old oils and use the newly blessed oils for the coming year.



Q. 684. For what are the holy oils used?

A. The holy oils are used as follows: The oil of the sick is used for Extreme Unction and for some blessings; the oil of catechumens is used for Baptism and Holy Orders. Holy Chrism is used at Baptism and for the blessing of some sacred things, such as altars, chalices, church-bells, etc., which are usually blessed by a bishop.



Q. 685. What does the bishop say in anointing the person he confirms?

A. In anointing the person he confirms the bishop says: "I sign thee with the sign of the cross, and I confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."



Q. 686. What is meant by anointing the forehead with chrism in the form of a cross?

A. By anointing the forehead with chrism in the form of a cross is meant that the Christian who is confirmed must openly profess and practice his faith, never be ashamed of it; and rather die than deny it.



Q. 687. When must we openly profess and practice our religion?

A. We must openly profess and practice our religion as often as we cannot do otherwise without violating some law of God or of His Church.



Q. 688. Why have we good reason never to be ashamed of the Catholic faith?

A. We have good reason never to be ashamed of the Catholic Faith because it is the Old Faith established by Christ and taught by His Apostles; it is the Faith for which countless Holy Martyrs suffered and died; it is the Faith that has brought true civilization, with all its benefits, into the world, and it is the only Faith that can truly reform and preserve public and private morals.



Q. 689. Why does the bishop give the person he confirms a slight blow on the cheek?

A. The bishop gives the person he confirms a slight blow on the cheek, to put him in mind that he must be ready to suffer everything, even death, for the sake of Christ.



Q. 690. Is it right to test ourselves through our imagination of what we would be willing to suffer for the sake of Christ?

A. It is not right to test ourselves through our imagination of what we would be willing to suffer for the sake of Christ, for such tests may lead us into sin. When a real test comes we are assured God will give to us, as He did to the Holy Martyrs, sufficient grace to endure it.



Q. 691. To receive Confirmation worthily is it necessary to be in the state of grace?

A. To receive Confirmation worthily it is necessary to be in the state of grace.



Q. 692. What special preparation should be made to receive Confirmation?

A. Persons of an age to learn should know the chief mysteries of faith and the duties of a Christian, and be instructed in the nature and effects of this Sacrament.



Q. 693. Why should we know the chief mysteries of faith and the duties of a Christian before receiving Confirmation?

A. We should know the Chief Mysteries of Faith and the duties of a Christian before receiving Confirmation because as one cannot be a good soldier without knowing the rules of the army to which he belongs and understanding the commands of his leader, so one cannot be a good Christian without knowing the laws of the Church and understanding the commands of Christ.



Q. 694. Is it a sin to neglect Confirmation?

A. It is a sin to neglect Confirmation, especially in these evil days when faith and morals are exposed to so many and such violent temptations.



Q. 695. What do we mean by "these evil days"?

A. By "these evil days" we mean the present age or century in which we are living, surrounded on all sides by unbelief, false doctrines, bad books, bad example and temptation in every form.



Q. 696. Is Confirmation necessary for salvation?

A. Confirmation is not so necessary for salvation that we could not be saved without it, for it is not given to infants even in danger of death; nevertheless, there is a divine command obliging all to receive it, if possible. Persons who have not been confirmed in youth should make every effort to be confirmed later in life.



Q. 697. Are sponsors necessary in Confirmation?

A. Sponsors are necessary in Confirmation, and they must be of the same good character as those required at Baptism, for they take upon themselves the same duties and responsibilities. They also contract a spiritual relationship, which, however, unlike that in Baptism, is not an impediment to marriage.



LESSON SIXTEENTH: On the Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Ghost

Q. 698. Which are the effects of Confirmation?

A. The effects of Confirmation are an increase of sanctifying grace, the strengthening of our faith, and the gifts of the Holy Ghost.



Q. 699. Which are the gifts of the Holy Ghost?

A. The gifts of the Holy Ghost are Wisdom, Understanding, Counsel, Fortitude, Knowledge, Piety, and Fear of the Lord.



Q. 700. Why do we receive the gift of Fear of the Lord?

A. We receive the gift of Fear of the Lord to fill us with a dread of sin.



Q. 701. Why do we receive the gift of Piety?

A. We receive the gift of Piety to make us love God as a Father, and obey Him because we love Him.



Q. 702. Why do we receive the gift of Knowledge?

A. We receive the gift of Knowledge to enable us to discover the will of God in all things.



Q. 703. Why do we receive the gift of Fortitude?

A. We receive the gift of Fortitude to strengthen us to do the will of God in all things.



Q. 704. Why do we receive the gift of Counsel?

A. We receive the gift of Counsel to warn us of the deceits of the devil, and of the dangers to salvation.



Q. 705. How is it clear that the devil could easily deceive us if the Holy Ghost did not aid us?

A. It is clear that the devil could easily deceive us if the Holy Ghost did not aid us, for just as our sins do not deprive us of our knowledge, so the devil's sin did not deprive him of the great intelligence and power which he possessed as an angel. Moreover, his experience in the world extends over all ages and places, while ours is confined to a few years and to a limited number of places.



Q. 706. Why do we receive the gift of Understanding?

A. We receive the gift of Understanding to enable us to know more clearly the mysteries of faith.



Q. 707. Why do we receive the gift of Wisdom?

A. We receive the gift of Wisdom to give us a relish for the things of God, and to direct our whole life and all our actions to His honor and glory.



Q. 708. Which are the Beatitudes?

A. The Beatitudes are:

1.1. Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

2.2. Blessed are the meek, for they shall possess the land.

3.3. Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted.

4.4. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after justice, for they shall be filled.

5.5. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.

6.6. Blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God.

7.7. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God.

8.8. Blessed are they that suffer persecution for justice' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.



Q. 709. What are the Beatitudes and why are they so called?

A. The Beatitudes are a portion of Our Lord's Sermon on the Mount, and they are so called because each of them holds out a promised reward to those who practice the virtues they recommend.



Q. 710. Where did Our Lord usually preach?

A. Our Lord usually preached wherever an opportunity of doing good by His Words presented itself. He preached at times in the synagogues or meeting-houses but more frequently in the open air -- by the seashore or on the mountain, and often by the wayside.



Q. 711. What is the meaning and use of the Beatitudes in general?

A. 1.(1) In general the Beatitudes embrace whatever pertains to the perfection of Christian life, and they invite us to the practice of the highest Christian virtues.

2.(2) In different forms they all promise the same reward, namely, sanctifying grace in this life and eternal glory in the next.

3.(3) They offer us encouragement and consolation for every trial and affliction.



Q. 712. What does the first Beatitude mean by the "poor in spirit"?

A. The first Beatitude means by the "poor in spirit" all persons, rich or poor, who would not offend God to possess or retain anything that this world can give; and who, when necessity or charity requires it, give willingly for the glory of God. It includes also those who humbly submit to their condition in life when it cannot be improved by lawful means.



Q. 713. Who are the mourners who deserve the consolation promised in the third Beatitude?

A. The mourners who deserve the consolation promised in the third Beatitude are they who, out of love for God, bewail their own sins and those of the world; and they who patiently endure all trials that come from God or for His sake.



Q. 714. What lessons do the other Beatitudes convey?

A. The other Beatitudes convey these lessons: The meek suppress all feelings of anger and humbly submit to whatever befalls them by the Will of God; and they never desire to do evil for evil. The justice after which we should seek is every Christian virtue included under that name, and we are told that if we earnestly desire and seek it we shall obtain it. The persecuted for justice' sake are they who will not abandon their faith or virtue for any cause.



Q. 715. Who may be rightly called merciful?

A. The merciful are they who practice the corporal and spiritual works of mercy, and who aid by word or deed those who need their help for soul or body.



Q. 716. Why are the clean of heart promised so great a reward?

A. The clean of heart, that is, the truly virtuous, whose thoughts, desires, words and works are pure and modest, are promised so great a reward because the chaste and sinless have always been the most intimate friends of God.



Q. 717. What is the duty of a peacemaker?

A. It is the duty of a peacemaker to avoid and prevent quarrels, reconcile enemies, and to put an end to all evil reports of others or evil speaking against them. As peacemakers are called the children of God, disturbers of peace should be called the children of the devil.



Q. 718. Why does Our Lord speak in particular of poverty, meekness, sorrow, desire for virtue, mercy, purity, peace and suffering?

A. Our Lord speaks in particular of poverty, meekness, sorrow, desire for virtue, mercy, purity, peace and suffering because these are the chief features in His own earthly life; poverty in His birth, life and death; meekness in His teaching; sorrow at all times. He eagerly sought to do good, showed mercy to all, recommended chastity, brought peace, and patiently endured suffering.



Q. 719. Which are the twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost?

A. The twelve fruits of the Holy Ghost are Charity, Joy, Peace, Patience, Benignity, Goodness, Long-suffering, Mildness, Faith, Modesty, Continency, and Chastity.



Q. 720. Why are charity, joy, peace, etc., called fruits of the Holy Ghost?

A. Charity, joy, peace, etc., are called fruits of the Holy Ghost because they grow in our souls out of the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost.



LESSON SEVENTEENTH: On the Sacrament of Penance

Q. 721. What is the Sacrament of Penance?

A. Penance is a Sacrament in which the sins committed after Baptism are forgiven.



Q 722. Has the word Penance any other meaning?

A. The word Penance has other meanings. It means also those punishments we inflict upon ourselves as a means of atoning for our past sins; it means likewise that disposition of the heart in which we detest and bewail our sins because they were offensive to God.



Q. 723. How does the institution of the Sacrament of Penance show the goodness of Our Lord?

A. The institution of the Sacrament of Penance shows the goodness of Our Lord, because having once saved us through Baptism, He might have left us to perish if we again committed sin.



Q. 724. What are the natural benefits of the Sacrament of Penance?

A. The natural benefits of the Sacrament of Penance are: It gives us in our confessor a true friend, to whom we can go in all our trials and to whom we can confide our secrets with the hope of obtaining advice and relief.



Q. 725. How does the Sacrament of Penance remit sin, and restore to the soul the friendship of God?

A. The Sacrament of Penance remits sin and restores the friendship of God to the soul by means of the absolution of the priest.



Q. 726. What is Absolution?

A. Absolution is the form of prayer or words the priest pronounces over us with uplifted hand when he forgives the sins we have confessed. It is given while we are saying the Act of Contrition after receiving our Penance.



Q. 727. Does the priest ever refuse absolution to a penitent?

A. The priest must and does refuse absolution to a penitent when he thinks the penitent is not rightly disposed for the Sacrament. He sometimes postpones the absolution till the next confession, either for the good of the penitent or for the sake of better preparation -- especially when the person has been a long time from confession.



Q. 728. What should a person do when the priest has refused or postponed absolution?

A. When the priest has refused or postponed absolution, the penitent should humbly submit to his decision, follow his instructions, and endeavor to remove whatever prevented the giving of the absolution and return to the same confessor with the necessary dispositions and resolution of amendment.



Q. 729. Can the priest forgive all sins in the Sacrament of Penance?

A. The priest has the power to forgive all sins in the Sacrament of Penance, but he may not have the authority to forgive all. To forgive sins validly in the Sacrament of Penance, two things are required:

1.(1) The power to forgive sins which every priest receives at his ordination, and

2.(2) The right to use that power which must be given by the bishop, who authorizes the priest to hear confessions and pass judgment on the sins.



Q. 730. What are the sins called which the priest has no authority to absolve?

A. The sins which the priest has no authority to absolve are called reserved sins. Absolution from these sins can be obtained only from the bishop, and sometimes only from the Pope, or by his special permission. Persons having a reserved sin to confess cannot be absolved from any of their sins till the priest receives faculties or authority to absolve the reserved sin also.



Q. 731. Why is the absolution from some sins reserved to the Pope or bishop?

A. The absolution from some sins is reserved to the Pope or bishop to deter or prevent, by this special restriction, persons from committing them, either on account of the greatness of the sin itself or on account of its evil consequences.



Q. 732. Can any priest absolve a person in danger of death from reserved sins without the permission of the bishop?

A. Any priest can absolve a person in danger of death from reserved sins without the permission of the bishop, because at the hour of death the Church removes these restrictions in order to save, if possible, the soul of the dying.



Q. 733. How do you know that the priest has the power of absolving from the sins committed after Baptism?

A. I know that the priest has the power of absolving from the sins committed after Baptism, because Jesus Christ granted that power to the priests of His Church when He said: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; whose sins you shall retain, they are retained."



Q. 734. How do we know that Our Lord, while on earth, had the power to forgive sins?

A. We know that Our Lord, while on earth, had the power to forgive sins:

1.(1) Because He was always God, and;

2.(2) Because He frequently did forgive sins and proved their forgiveness by miracles.

Since He had the power Himself, He could give it to His Apostles.



Q. 735. Was the power to forgive sins given to the apostles alone?

A. The power to forgive sins was not given to the apostles alone, because it was not given for the benefit merely of those who lived at the time of the apostles, but for all who, having grievously sinned, after Baptism, should need forgiveness. Since, therefore, Baptism will be given till the end of time, and since the danger of sinning after it always remains the power to absolve from such sins must also remain in the Church till the end of time.



Q. 736. When was the Sacrament of Penance instituted?

A. The Sacrament of Penance was instituted after the resurrection of Our Lord, when He gave to His apostles the power to forgive sins, which He had promised to them before His death.



Q. 737. Are the enemies of our religion right when they say man cannot forgive sins?

A. The enemies of our religion are right when they say man cannot forgive sins if they mean that he cannot forgive them by his own power, but they are certainly wrong if they mean that he cannot forgive them even by the power of God, for man can do anything if God gives him the power. The priest does not forgive sins by his own power as man, but by the authority he receives as the minister of God.



Q. 738. How do the priests of the Church exercise the power of forgiving sins?

A. The priests of the Church exercise the power of forgiving sins by hearing the confession of sins, and granting pardon for them as ministers of God and in His name.



Q. 739. How does the power to forgive sins imply the obligation of going to confession?

A. The power to forgive sins implies the obligation of going to confession because as sins are usually committed secretly, the priest could never know what sins to forgive and what not to forgive, unless the sins committed were made known to him by the persons guilty of them.



Q. 740. Could God not forgive our sins if we confessed them to Himself in secret?

A. Certainly, God could forgive our sins if we confessed them to Himself in secret, but He has not promised to do so; whereas He has promised to pardon them if we confess them to His priests. Since He is free to pardon or not to pardon, He has the right to establish a Sacrament through which alone He will pardon.



Q. 741. What must we do to receive the Sacrament of Penance worthily?

A. To receive the Sacrament of Penance worthily we must do five things:

1.1. We must examine our conscience.

2.2. We must have sorrow for our sins.

3.3. We must make a firm resolution never more to offend God.

4.4. We must confess our sins to the priest.

5.5. We must accept the penance which the priest gives us.



Q. 742. What should we pray for in preparing for confession?

A. In preparing for confession we should pray to the Holy Ghost to give us light to know our sins and to understand their guilt; for grace to detest them; for courage to confess them and for strength to keep our resolutions.



Q. 743. What faults do many commit in preparing for confession?

A. In preparing for confession many commit the faults:

1.(1) Of giving too much time to the examination of conscience and little or none in exciting themselves to true sorrow for the sins discovered;

2.(2) Of trying to recall every trifling circumstance, instead of thinking of the means by which they will avoid their sins for the future.



Q. 744. What, then, is the most important part of the preparation for confession?

A. The most important part of the preparation for confession is sincere sorrow for the sins committed and the firm determination to avoid them for the future.



Q. 745. What is the chief reason that our confessions do not always amend our way of living?

A. The chief reason that our confessions do not always amend our way of living is our want of real earnest preparation for them and the fact that we have not truly convinced ourselves of the need of amendment. We often confess our sins more from habit, necessity or fear than from a real desire of receiving grace and of being restored to the friendship of God.



Q. 746. What faults are to be avoided in making our confession?

A. In making our confession we are to avoid:

1.(1) Telling useless details, the sins of others, or the name of any person;

2.(2) Confessing sins we are not sure of having committed; exaggerating our sins or their number; multiplying the number of times a day by the number of days to get the exact number of habitual sins;

3.(3) Giving a vague answer, such as "sometimes," when asked how often; waiting after each sin to be asked for the next;

4.(4) Hesitating over sins through pretented modesty and thus delaying the priests and others; telling the exact words in each when we have committed several sins of the same kind, cursing, for example; and, lastly, leaving the confessional before the priest gives us a sign to go.



Q. 747. Is it wrong to go to confession out of your turn against the will of others waiting with you?

A. It is wrong to go to confession out of our turn against the will of others waiting with us, because:

1.(1) It causes disorder, quarreling and scandalous conduct in the Church;

2.(2) It is unjust, makes others angry and lessens their good dispositions for confession;

3.(3) It annoys and distracts the priest by the confusion and disorder it creates.

It is better to wait than go to confession in an excited and disorderly manner.



Q. 748. What should a penitent do who knows he cannot perform the penance given?

A. A penitent who knows he cannot perform the penance given should ask the priest for one that he can perform. When we forget the penance given we must ask for it again, for we cannot fulfill our duty by giving ourselves a penance. The penance must be performed at the time and in the manner the confessor directs.



Q. 749. What is the examination of conscience?

A. The examination of conscience is an earnest effort to recall to mind all the sins we have committed since our last worthy confession.



Q. 750. When is our confession worthy?

A. Our confession is worthy when we have done all that is required for a good confession, and when, through the absolution, our sins are really forgiven.



Q. 751. How can we make a good examination of conscience?

A. We can make a good examination of conscience by calling to memory the commandments of God, the precepts of the Church, the seven capital sins, and the particular duties of our state in life, to find out the sins we have committed.



Q. 752. What should we do before beginning the examination of conscience?

A. Before beginning the examination of conscience we should pray to God to give us light to know our sins and grace to detest them.



LESSON EIGHTEENTH: On Contrition

Q. 753. What is contrition, or sorrow for sin?

A. Contrition, or sorrow for sin, is a hatred of sin and a true grief of the soul for having offended God, with a firm purpose of sinning no more.



Q. 754. Give an example of how we should hate and avoid sin.

A. We should hate and avoid sin as one hates and avoids a poison that almost caused his death. We may not grieve over the death of our soul as we do over the death of a friend, and yet our sorrow may be true; because the sorrow for sin comes more from our reason than from our feelings.



Q. 755. What kind of sorrow should we have for our sins?

A. The sorrow we should have for our sins should be interior, supernatural, universal, and sovereign.



Q. 756. What do you mean by saying that our sorrow should be interior?

A. When I say that our sorrow should be interior, I mean that it should come from the heart, and not merely from the lips.



Q. 757. What do you mean by saying that our sorrow should be supernatural?

A. When I say that our sorrow should be supernatural, I mean that it should be prompted by the grace of God, and excited by motives which spring from faith, and not by merely natural motives.



Q. 758. What do we mean by "motives that spring from faith" and by "merely natural motives" with regard to sorrow for sin?

A. By sorrow for sin from "motives that spring from faith," we mean sorrow for reasons that God has made known to us, such as the loss of heaven, the fear of hell or purgatory, or the dread of afflictions that come from God in punishment for sin. By "merely natural motives" we mean sorrow for reasons made known to us by our own experience or by the experience of others, such as loss of character, goods or health. A motive is whatever moves our will to do or avoid anything.



Q. 759. What do you mean by saying that our sorrow should be universal?

A. When I say that our sorrow should be universal, I mean that we should be sorry for all our mortal sins without exception.



Q. 760. Why cannot some of our mortal sins be forgiven while the rest remain on our souls?

A. It is impossible for any of our mortal sins to be forgiven unless they are all forgiven, because as light and darkness cannot be together in the same place, so sanctifying grace and mortal sin cannot dwell together. If there be grace in the soul, there can be no mortal sin, and if there be mortal sin, there can be no grace, for one mortal sin expels all grace.



Q. 761. What do you mean when you say that our sorrow should be sovereign?

A. When I say that our sorrow should be sovereign, I mean that we should grieve more for having offended God than for any other evil that can befall us.



Q. 762. Why should we be sorry for our sins?

A. We should be sorry for our sins because sin is the greatest of evils and an offense against God our Creator, Preserver, and Redeemer, and because it shuts us out of heaven and condemns us to the eternal pains of hell.



Q. 763. How do we show that sin is the greatest of all evils?

A. We show that sin is the greatest of evils because its effects last the longest and have the most terrible consequences. All the misfortunes of this world can last only for a time, and we escape them at death, whereas the evils caused by sin keep with us for all eternity and are only increased at death.



Q. 764. How many kinds of contrition are there?

A. There are two kinds of contrition; perfect contrition and imperfect contrition.



Q. 765. What is perfect contrition?

A. Perfect contrition is that which fills us with sorrow and hatred for sin, because it offends God, who is infinitely good in Himself and worthy of all love.



Q. 766. When will perfect contrition obtain pardon for mortal sin without the Sacrament of Penance?

A. Perfect contrition will obtain pardon for mortal sin without the Sacrament of Penance when we cannot go to confession, but with the perfect contrition we must have the intention of going to confession as soon as possible, if we again have the opportunity.



Q. 767. What is imperfect contrition?

A. Imperfect contrition is that by which we hate what offends God because by it we lose heaven and deserve hell; or because sin is so hateful in itself.



Q. 768. What other name is given to imperfect contrition and why is it called imperfect?

A. Imperfect contrition is called attrition. It is called imperfect only because it is less perfect than the highest grade of contrition by which we are sorry for sin out of pure love of God's own goodness and without any consideration of what befalls ourselves.



Q. 769. Is imperfect contrition sufficient for a worthy confession?

A. Imperfect contrition is sufficient for a worthy confession, but we should endeavor to have perfect contrition.



Q. 770. What do you mean by a firm purpose of sinning no more?

A. By a firm purpose of sinning no more I mean a fixed resolve not only to avoid all mortal sin, but also its near occasions.



Q. 771. What do you mean by the near occasions of sin?

A. By the near occasions of sin I mean all the persons, places and things that may easily lead us into sin.



Q. 772. Why are we bound to avoid occasions of sin?

A. We are bound to avoid occasions of sin because Our Lord has said: "He who loves the danger will perish in it"; and as we are bound to avoid the loss of our souls, so we are bound to avoid the danger of their loss. The occasion is the cause of sin, and you cannot take away the evil without removing its cause.



Q. 773. Is a person who is determined to avoid the sin, but who is unwilling to give up its near occasion when it is possible to do so, rightly disposed for confession?

A. A person who is determined to avoid the sin, but who is unwilling to give up its near occasion when it is possible to do so, is not rightly disposed for confession, and he will not be absolved if he makes known to the priest the true state of his conscience.



Q. 774. How many kinds of occasions of sin are there?

A. There are four kinds of occasions of sin:

1.(1) Near occasions, through which we always fall;

2.(2) Remote occasions, through which we sometimes fall;

3.(3) Voluntary occasions or those we can avoid; and

4.(4) Involuntary occasions or those we cannot avoid.

A person who lives in a near and voluntary occasion of sin need not expect forgiveness while he continues in that state.



Q. 775. What persons, places and things are usually occasions of sin?

A. 1.(1) The persons who are occasions of sin are all those in whose company we sin, whether they be bad of themselves or bad only while in our company, in which case we also become occasions of sin for them;

2.(2) The places are usually liquor saloons, low theaters, indecent dances, entertainments, amusements, exhibitions, and all immoral resorts of any kind, whether we sin in them or not;

3.(3) The things are all bad books, indecent pictures, songs, jokes and the like, even when they are tolerated by public opinion and found in public places.



LESSON NINETEENTH: On Confession

Q. 776. What is Confession?

A. Confession is the telling of our sins to a duly authorized priest, for the purpose of obtaining forgiveness.



Q. 777. Who is a duly authorized priest?

A. A duly authorized priest is one sent to hear confessions by the lawful bishop of the diocese in which we are at the time of our confession.



Q. 778. Is it ever allowed to write our sins and read them to the priest in the confessional or give them to him to read?

A. It is allowed, when necessary, to write our sins and read them to the priest, as persons do who have almost entirely lost their memory. It is also allowed to give the paper to the priest, as persons do who have lost the use of their speech. In such cases the paper must, after the confession, be carefully destroyed either by the priest or the penitent.



Q. 779. What is to be done when persons must make their confession and cannot find a priest who understands their language?

A. Persons who must make their confession and who cannot find a priest who understands their language, must confess as best they can by some signs, showing what sins they wish to confess and how they are sorry for them.



Q. 780. What sins are we bound to confess?

A. We are bound to confess all our mortal sins, but it is well also to confess our venial sins.



Q. 781. Why is it well to confess also the venial sins we remember?

A. It is well to confess also the venial sins we remember:

1.(1) Because it shows our hatred of all sin, and

2.(2) Because it is sometimes difficult to determine just when a sin is venial and when mortal.



Q. 782. What should one do who has only venial sins to confess?

A. One who has only venial sins to confess should tell also some sin already confessed in his past life for which he knows he is truly sorry; because it is not easy to be truly sorry for slight sins and imperfections, and yet we must be sorry for the sins confessed that our confession may be valid -- hence we add some past sin for which we are truly sorry to those for which we may not be sufficiently sorry.



Q. 783. Should a person stay from confession because he thinks he has no sin to confess ?

A. A person should not stay from confession because he thinks he has no sin to confess, for the Sacrament of Penance, besides forgiving sin, gives an increase of sanctifying grace, and of this we have always need, especially to resist temptation. The Saints, who were almost without imperfection, went to confession frequently.



Q. 784. Should a person go to Communion after confession even when the confessor does not bid him go?

A. A person should go to Communion after confession even when the confessor does not bid him go, because the confessor so intends unless he positively forbids his penitent to receive Communion. However, one who has not yet received his first Communion should not go to Communion after confession, even if the confessor by mistake should bid him go.



Q. 785. Which are the chief qualities of a good Confession?

A. The chief qualities of a good Confession are three: it must be humble, sincere, and entire.



Q. 786. When is our Confession humble?

A. Our Confession is humble when we accuse ourselves of our sins, with a deep sense of shame and sorrow for having offended God.



Q. 787. When is our Confession sincere?

A. Our Confession is sincere when we tell our sins honestly and truthfully, neither exaggerating nor excusing them.



Q. 788. Why is it wrong to accuse ourselves of sins we have not committed?

A. It is wrong to accuse ourselves of sins we have not committed, because, by our so doing, the priest cannot know the true state of our souls, as he must do before giving us absolution.



Q. 789. When is our Confession entire?

A. Our Confession is entire when we tell the number and kinds of our sins and the circumstances which change their nature.



Q. 790. What do you mean by the "kinds of sin?"

A. By the "kinds of sin," we mean the particular division or class to which the sins belong; that is, whether they be sins of blasphemy, disobedience, anger, impurity, dishonesty, etc. We can determine the kind of sin by discovering the commandment or precept of the Church we have broken or the virtue against which we have acted.



Q. 791. What do we mean by "circumstances which change the nature of sins?"

A. By "circumstances which change the nature of sins" we mean anything that makes it another kind of sin. Thus to steal is a sin, but to steal from the Church makes our theft sacrilegious. Again, impure actions are sins, but a person must say whether they were committed alone or with others, with relatives or strangers, with persons married or single, etc., because these circumstances change them from one kind of impurity to another.



Q. 792. What should we do if we cannot remember the number of our sins?

A. If we cannot remember the number of our sins, we should tell the number as nearly as possible, and say how often we may have sinned in a day, a week, or a month, and how long the habit or practice has lasted.



Q. 793. Is our Confession worthy if, without our fault, we forget to confess a mortal sin?

A. If without our fault we forget to confess a mortal sin, our Confession is worthy, and the sin is forgiven; but it must be told in Confession if it again comes to our mind.



Q. 794. May a person who has forgotten to tell a mortal sin in confession go to Holy Communion before going again to confession?

A. A person who has forgotten to tell a mortal sin in confession may go to communion before again going to confession, because the forgotten sin was forgiven with those confessed, and the confession was good and worthy.



Q. 795. Is it a grievous offense willfully to conceal a mortal sin in Confession?

A. It is a grievous offense willfully to conceal a mortal sin in Confession, because we thereby tell a lie to the Holy Ghost, and make our Confession worthless.



Q. 796. How is concealing a sin telling a lie to the Holy Ghost?

A. Concealing a sin is telling a lie to the Holy Ghost, because he who conceals the sin declares in confession to God and the priest that he committed no sins but what he has confessed, while the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of Truth, saw him committing the sin he now conceals and still sees it in his soul while he denies it.



Q. 797. Why is it foolish to conceal sins in confession?

A. It is foolish to conceal sins in confession:

1.(1) Because we thereby make our spiritual condition worse;

2.(2) We must tell the sin sometime if we ever hope to be saved;

3.(3) It will be made known on the day of judgment, before the world, whether we conceal it now or confess it.



Q. 798. What must he do who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in Confession?

A. He who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in Confession must not only confess it, but must also repeat all the sins he has committed since his last worthy Confession.



Q. 799. Must one who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in confession do more than repeat the sins committed since his last worthy confession?

A. One who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in confession must, besides repeating all the sins he has committed since his last worthy confession, tell also how often he has unworthily received absolution and Holy Communion during the same time.



Q. 800. Why does the priest give us a penance after Confession?

A. The priest gives us a penance after Confession, that we may satisfy God for the temporal punishment due to our sins.



Q. 801. Why should we have to satisfy for our sins if Christ has fully satisfied for them?

A. Christ has fully satisfied for our sins and after our baptism we were free from all guilt and had no satisfaction to make. But when we willfully sinned after baptism, it is but just that we should be obliged to make some satisfaction.



Q. 802. Is the slight penance the priest gives us sufficient to satisfy for all the sins confessed?

A. The slight penance the priest gives us is not sufficient to satisfy for all the sins confessed:

1.(1) Because there is no real equality between the slight penance given and the punishment deserved for sin;

2.(2) Because we are all obliged to do penance for sins committed, and this would not be necessary if the penance given in confession satisfied for all.

The penance is given and accepted in confession chiefly to show our willingness to do penance and make amends for our sins.



Q. 803. Does not the Sacrament of Penance remit all punishment due to sin?

A. The Sacrament of Penance remits the eternal punishment due to sin, but it does not always remit the temporal punishment which God requires as satisfaction for our sins.



Q. 804. Why does God require a temporal punishment as a satisfaction for sin?

A. God requires a temporal punishment as a satisfaction for sin to teach us the great evil of sin and to prevent us from falling again.



Q. 805. Which are the chief means by which we satisfy God for the temporal punishment due to sin?

A. The chief means by which we satisfy God for the temporal punishment due to sin are: Prayer, Fasting, Almsgiving; all spiritual and corporal works of mercy, and the patient suffering of the ills of life.



Q. 806. What fasting has the greatest merit?

A. The fasting imposed by the Church on certain days of the year, and particularly during Lent, has the greatest merit.



Q. 807. What is Lent?

A. Lent is the forty days before Easter Sunday, during which we do penance, fast and pray to prepare ourselves for the resurrection of Our Lord; and also to remind us of His own fast of forty days before His Passion.



Q. 808. What do we mean by "almsgiving"?

A. By almsgiving we mean money, goods, or assistance given to the poor or to charitable purposes. The law of God requires all persons to give alms in proportion to their means.



Q. 809. What "ills of life" help to satisfy God for sin?

A. The ills of life that help to satisfy God for sin are sickness, poverty, misfortune, trial, affliction, etc., especially, when we have not brought them upon ourselves by sin.



Q. 810. How did the Christians in the first ages of the Church do Penance?

A. The Christians in the first ages of the Church did public penance, especially for the sins of which they were publicly known to be guilty. Penitents were excluded for a certain time from Mass or the Sacrament, and some were obliged to stand at the door of the Church begging the prayers of those who entered.



Q. 811. What were these severe Penances of the First Ages of the Church called?

A. These severe penances of the first ages of the Church were called canonical penances, because their kind and duration were regulated by the Canons or laws of the Church.



Q. 812. How can we know spiritual from corporal works of mercy?

A. We can know spiritual from corporal works of mercy, for whatever we do for the soul is a spiritual work, and whatever we do for the body is a corporal work.



Q. 813. Which are the chief spiritual works of mercy?

A. The chief spiritual works of mercy are seven:

1.To admonish the sinner, to instruct the ignorant, to counsel the doubtful, to comfort the sorrowful, to bear wrongs patiently, to forgive all injuries, and to pray for the living and the dead.



Q. 814. When are we bound to admonish the sinner?

A. We are bound to admonish the sinner when the following conditions are fulfilled:

1.(1) When his fault is a mortal sin;

2.(2) When we have authority or influence over him, and

3.(3) When there is reason to believe that our warning will not make him worse instead of better.



Q. 815. Who are meant by the "ignorant" we are to instruct, and the "doubtful" we are to counsel?

A. By the ignorant we are to instruct and the doubtful we are to counsel, are meant those particularly who are ignorant of the truths of religion and those who are in doubt about matters of faith. We must aid such persons as far as we can to know and believe the truths necessary for salvation.



Q. 816. Why are we advised to bear wrong patiently and to forgive all injuries?

A. We are advised to bear wrongs patiently and to forgive all injuries, because, being Christians, we should imitate the example of Our Divine Lord, who endured wrongs patiently and who not only pardoned but prayed for those who injured Him.



Q. 817. If, then, it be a Christian virtue to forgive all injuries, why do Christians establish courts and prisons to punish wrongdoers?

A. Christians establish courts and prisons to punish wrongdoers, because the preservation of lawful authority, good order in society, the protection of others, and sometimes even the good of the guilty one himself, require that crimes be justly punished. As God Himself punishes crime and as lawful authority comes from Him, such authority has the right to punish, though individuals should forgive the injuries done to themselves personally.



Q. 818. Why is it a work of mercy to pray for the living and the dead?

A. It is a work of mercy to aid those who are unable to aid themselves. The living are exposed to temptations, and while in mortal sin they are deprived of the merit of their good works and need our prayers. The dead can in no way help themselves and depend on us for assistance.



Q. 819. Which are the chief corporal works of mercy?

A. The chief corporal works of mercy are seven:

1.To feed the hungry, to give drink to the thirsty, to clothe the naked, to ransom the captive, to harbor the harborless, to visit the sick, and to bury the dead.



Q. 820. How may we briefly state the corporal works of mercy?

A. We may briefly state the corporal works of mercy by saying that we are obliged to help the poor in all their forms of want.



Q. 821. How are Christians aided in the performance of works of mercy?

A. Christians are aided in the performance of works of mercy through the establishment of charitable institutions where religious communities of holy men or women perform these duties for us, provided we supply the necessary means by our almsgiving and good works.



Q. 822. Who are religious?

A. Religious are self-sacrificing men and women who, wishing to follow more closely the teachings of Our Lord, dedicate their lives to the service of God and religion. They live together in societies approved by the Church, under a rule and guidance of a superior. They keep the vows of chastity, poverty and obedience, and divide their time between prayer and good works. The houses in which they dwell are called convents or monasteries, and the societies in which they live are called religious orders, communities or congregations.



Q. 823. Are there any religious communities of priests?

A. There are many religious communities of priests, who, besides living according to the general laws of the Church, as all priests do, follow certain rules laid down for their community. Such priests are called the regular clergy, because living by rules to distinguish them from the secular clergy who live in their parishes under no special rule. The chief work of the regular clergy is to teach in colleges and give missions and retreats.



Q. 824. Why are there so many different religious communities?

A. There are many different religious communities:

1.(1) Because all religious are not fitted for the same work, and

2.(2) Because they desire to imitate Our Lord's life on earth as perfectly as possible; and when each community takes one of Christ's works and seeks to become perfect in it, the union of all their works continues as perfectly as we can the works He began upon earth.



LESSON TWENTIETH: On the Manner of Making a Good Confession

Q. 825. What should we do on entering the confessional?

A. On entering the confessional we should kneel, make the sign of the Cross, and say to the priest, "Bless me, father"; then add, "I confess to Almighty God and to you, father, that I have sinned."



Q. 826. Which are the first things we should tell the priest in Confession?

A. The first things we should tell the priest in Confession are the time of our last Confession, and whether we said the penance and went to Holy Communion.



Q. 827. Should we tell anything else in connection with our last confession?

A. In connection with our last confession we should tell also what restrictions -- if any -- were placed upon us with regard to our occasions of sin, and what obligations with regard to the payment of debts, restitution, injuries done to others and the like, we were commanded to fulfill.



Q. 828. After telling the time of our last Confession and Communion what should we do?

A. After telling the time of our last Confession and Communion we should confess all the mortal sins we have since committed, and all the venial sins we may wish to mention.



Q. 829. What is a general confession?

A. A general confession is the telling of the sins of our whole life or a great part of it. It is made in the same manner as an ordinary confession, except that it requires more time and longer preparation.



Q. 830. When should a General Confession be made?

A. A general confession:

1.(1) Is necessary when we are certain that our past confessions were bad;

2.(2) It is useful on special occasions in our lives when some change in our way of living is about to take place;

3.(3) It is hurtful and must not be made when persons are scrupulous.



Q. 831. What are the signs of scruples and the remedy against them?

A. The signs of scruples are chiefly:

1.(1) To be always dissatisfied with our confessions;

2.(2) To be self-willed in deciding what is sinful and what is not.

The chief remedy against them is to follow exactly the advice of the confessor without questioning the reason or utility of his advice.



Q. 832. What must we do when the confessor asks us questions?

A. When the confessor asks us questions we must answer them truthfully and clearly.



Q. 833. What should we do after telling our sins?

A. After telling our sins we should listen with attention to the advice which the confessor may think proper to give.



Q. 834. What duties does the priest perform in the confessional?

A. In the confessional the priest performs the duties:

1.(1) Of a judge, by listening to our self-accusations and passing sentence upon our guilt or innocence;

2.(2) Of a father, by the good advice and encouragement he gives us;

3.(3) Of a teacher, by his instructions, and

4.(4) Of a physician, by discovering the afflictions of our soul and giving us the remedies to restore it to spiritual health.



Q. 835. Why is it beneficial to go always if possible to the same confessor?

A. It is beneficial to go always, if possible, to the same confessor, because our continued confessions enable him to see more clearly the true state of our soul and to understand better our occasions of sin.



Q. 836. Should we remain away from confession because we cannot go to our usual confessor?

A. We should not remain away from confession because we cannot go to our usual confessor, for though it is well to confess to the same priest, it is not necessary to do so. One should never become so attached to a confessor that his absence or the great inconvenience of going to him would become an excuse for neglecting the Sacraments.



Q. 837. How should we end our Confession?

A. We should end our Confession by saying, "I also accuse myself of all the sins of my past life," telling, if we choose, one or several of our past sins.



Q. 838. What should we do while the priest is giving us absolution?

A. While the priest is giving us absolution we should from our heart renew the Act of Contrition.



LESSON TWENTY-FIRST: On Indulgences

Q. 839. What is an Indulgence?

A. An Indulgence is the remission in whole or in part of the temporal punishment due to sin.



Q. 840. What does the word "indulgence" mean?

A. The word indulgence means a favor or concession. An indulgence obtains by a very slight penance the remission of penalties that would otherwise be severe.



Q. 841. Is an Indulgence a pardon of sin, or a license to commit sin?

A. An Indulgence is not a pardon of sin, nor a license to commit sin, and one who is in a state of mortal sin cannot gain an Indulgence.



Q. 842. How do good works done in mortal sin profit us?

A. Good works done in mortal sin profit us by obtaining for us the grace to repent and sometimes temporal blessings. Mortal sin deprives us of all our merit, nevertheless God will bestow gifts for every good deed as He will punish every evil deed.



Q. 843. How many kinds of Indulgences are there?

A. There are two kinds of Indulgences -- Plenary and Partial.



Q. 844. What is Plenary Indulgence?

A. A Plenary Indulgence is the full remission of the temporal punishment due to sin.



Q. 845. Is it easy to gain a Plenary Indulgence?

A. It is not easy to gain a Plenary Indulgence, as we may understand from its great privilege. To gain a Plenary Indulgence, we must hate sin, be heartily sorry for even our venial sins, and have no desire for even the slightest sin. Though we may not gain entirely each Plenary Indulgence we seek, we always gain a part of each; that is, a partial indulgence, greater or less in proportion to our good dispositions.



Q. 846. Which are the most important Plenary Indulgences granted by the Church?

A. The most important Plenary Indulgences granted by the Church are:

1.(1) The Indulgences of a jubilee which the Pope grants every twenty-five years or on great occasions by which he gives special faculties to confessors for the absolution of reserved sins;

2.(2) The Indulgence granted to the dying in their last agony.



Q. 847. What is a Partial Indulgence?

A. A Partial Indulgence is the remission of part of the temporal punishment due to sin.



Q. 848. How long has the practice of granting Indulgences been in use in the Church, and what was its origin?

A. The practice of granting Indulgences has been in use in the Church since the time of the apostles. It had its origin in the earnest prayers of holy persons, and especially of the martyrs begging the Church for their sake to shorten the severe penances of sinners, or to change them into lighter penances. The request was frequently granted and the penance remitted, shortened or changed, and with the penance remitted the temporal punishment corresponding to it was blotted out.



Q. 849. How do we show that the Church has the power to grant Indulgences?

A. We show that the Church has the power to grant Indulgences, because Christ has given it power to remit all guilt without restriction, and if the Church has power, in the Sacrament of penance, to remit the eternal punishment -- which is the greatest -- it must have power to remit the temporal or lesser punishment, even outside the Sacrament of Penance.



Q. 850. How do we know that these Indulgences have their effect?

A. We know that these Indulgences have their effect, because the Church, through her councils, declares Indulgences useful, and if they have no effect they would be useless, and the Church would teach error in spite of Christ's promise to guide it.



Q. 851. Have there ever existed abuses among the faithful in the manner of using Indulgences?

A. There have existed, in past ages, some abuses among the faithful in the manner of using Indulgences, and the Church has always labored to correct such abuses as soon as possible. In the use of pious practices we must be always guided by our lawful superiors.



Q. 852. How have the enemies of the Church made use of the abuse of Indulgences?

A. The enemies of the Church have made use of the abuse of Indulgences to deny the doctrine of Indulgences, and to break down the teaching and limit the power of the Church. Not to be deceived in matters of faith, we must always distinguish very carefully between the abuses to which a devotion may lead and the truths upon which the devotion rests.



Q. 853. How does the Church by means of Indulgences remit the temporal punishment due to sin?

A. The Church, by means of Indulgences, remits the temporal punishment due to sin by applying to us the merits of Jesus Christ, and the superabundant satisfactions of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of the saints; which merits and satisfactions are its spiritual treasury.



Q. 854. What do we mean by the "superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints"?

A. By the superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin and the saints, we mean all the satisfaction over and above what was necessary to satisfy for their own sins. As their good works were many and their sins few -- the Blessed Virgin being sinless -- the satisfaction not needed for themselves is kept by the Church in a spiritual treasury to be used for our benefit.



Q. 855. Does the Church, by granting Indulgences, free us from doing Penance?

A. The Church, by granting Indulgences, does not free us from doing penance, but simply makes our penance lighter that we may more easily satisfy for our sins and escape the punishments they deserve.



Q. 856. Who has the power to grant Indulgences?

A. The Pope alone has the power to grant Indulgences for the whole Church; but the bishops have power to grant partial Indulgences in their own diocese. Cardinals and some others, by the special permission of the Pope, have the right to grant certain Indulgences.



Q. 857. Where shall we find the Indulgences granted by the Church?

A. We shall find the Indulgences granted by the Church in the declarations of the Pope and of the Sacred Congregation of Cardinals. These declarations are usually put into prayer books and books of devotion or instruction.



Q. 858. What must we do to gain an Indulgence?

A. To gain an Indulgence we must be in the state of grace and perform the works enjoined.



Q. 859. Besides being in a state of grace and performing the works enjoined, what else is necessary for the gaining of an Indulgence?

A. Besides being in a state of grace and performing the works enjoined, it is necessary for the gaining of an Indulgence to have at least the general intention of gaining it.



Q. 860. How and why should we make a general intention to gain all possible Indulgences each day?

A. We should make a general intention at our morning prayers to gain all possible Indulgences each day, because several of the prayers we say and good works we perform may have Indulgences attached to them, though we are not aware of it.



Q. 861. What works are generally enjoined for the gaining of Indulgences?

A. The works generally enjoined for the gaining of Indulgences are: The saying of certain prayers, fasting, and the use of certain articles of devotion; visits to Churches or altars, and the giving of alms. For the gaining of Plenary Indulgences it is generally required to go to confession and Holy Communion and pray for the intention of the Pope.



Q. 862. What does praying for a person's intention mean?

A. Praying for a person's intention means praying for whatever he prays for or desires to obtain through prayer -- some spiritual or temporal favors.



Q. 863. What does an Indulgence of forty days mean?

A. An Indulgence of forty days means that for the prayer or work to which an Indulgence of forty days is attached, God remits as much of our temporal punishment as He remitted for forty days' canonical penance. We do not know just how much temporal punishment God remitted for forty days' public penance, but whatever it was, He remits the same now when we gain an Indulgence of forty days. The same rule applies to Indulgences of a year or any length of time.



Q. 864. Why did the Church moderate its severe penances?

A. The Church moderated its severe penances, because when Christians -- terrified by persecution -- grew weaker in their faith, there was danger of some abandoning their religion rather than submit to the penances imposed. The Church, therefore, wishing to save as many as possible, made the sinner's penance as light as possible.



Q. 865. To what things may Indulgences be attached?

A. Plenary or Partial Indulgences may be attached to prayers and solid articles of devotion; to places such as churches, altars, shrines, etc., to be visited; and by a special privilege they are sometimes attached to the good works of certain persons.



Q. 866. When do things lose the Indulgences attached to them?

A. Things lose the Indulgences attached to them:

1.(1) When they are so changed at once as to be no longer what they were;

2.(2) When they are sold.

Rosaries and other indulgenced articles do not lose their indulgences, when they are loaned or given away, for the indulgence is not personal but attached to the article itself.



Q. 867. Will a weekly Confession suffice to gain during the week all Indulgences to which Confession is enjoined as one of the works?

A Weekly confession will suffice to gain during the week all Indulgences to which confession is enjoined as one of the works, provided we continue in a state of grace, perform the other works enjoined and have the intention of gaining these Indulgences.



Q. 868. How and when may we apply Indulgences for the benefit of the souls in Purgatory?

A. We may apply Indulgences for the benefit of the souls in Purgatory by way of intercession; whenever this application is mentioned and permitted by the Church in granting the Indulgence; that is, when the Church declares that the Indulgence granted is applicable to the souls of the living or the souls in Purgatory; so that we may gain it for the benefit of either.



LESSON TWENTY-SECOND: On the Holy Eucharist

Q. 869. What does the word Eucharist strictly mean?

A. The word Eucharist strictly means pleasing, and this Sacrament is so called because it renders us most pleasing to God by the grace it imparts, and it gives us the best means of thanking Him for all His blessings.



Q. 870. What is the Holy Eucharist?

A. The Holy Eucharist is the Sacrament which contains the body and blood, soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ under the appearances of bread and wine.



Q. 871. What do we mean when we say the Sacrament which contains the Body and Blood?

A. When we say the Sacrament which contains the Body and Blood, we mean the Sacrament which is the Body and Blood, for after the Consecration there is no other substance present in the Eucharist.



Q. 872. When is the Holy Eucharist a Sacrament, and when is it a sacrifice?

A. The Holy Eucharist is a Sacrament when we receive it in Holy Communion and when it remains in the Tabernacle of the Altar. It is a sacrifice when it is offered up at Mass by the separate Consecration of the bread and wine, which signifies the separation of Our Lord's blood from His body when He died on the Cross.



Q. 873. When did Christ institute the Holy Eucharist?

A. Christ instituted the Holy Eucharist at the Last Supper, the night before He died.



Q. 874. Who were present when our Lord instituted the Holy Eucharist?

A. When Our Lord instituted the Holy Eucharist, the twelve Apostles were present.



Q. 875. How did our Lord institute the Holy Eucharist?

A. Our Lord instituted the Holy Eucharist by taking bread, blessing, breaking, and giving to His Apostles, saying: "Take ye and eat. This is my body"; and then, by taking the cup of wine, blessing and giving it, saying to them: "Drink ye all of this. This is my blood which shall be shed for the remission of sins. Do this for a commemoration of me."



Q. 876. What happened when our Lord said, "This is my body; this is my blood"?

A. When Our Lord said, "This is my body," the substance of the bread was changed into the substance of His body; when He said, "This is my blood," the substance of the wine was changed into the substance of His blood.



Q. 877. How do we prove the Real Presence, that is, that Our Lord is really and truly present in the Holy Eucharist?

A. We prove the Real Presence -- that is, that Our Lord is really and truly present in the Holy Eucharist:

1.(1) By showing that it is possible to change one substance into another;

2.(2) By showing that Christ did change the substance of bread and wine into the substance of His body and blood;

3.(3) By showing that He gave this power also to His Apostles and to the priests of His Church.



Q. 878. How do we know that it is possible to change one substance into another?

A. We know that it is possible to change one substance into another, because:

1.(1) God changed water into blood during the plagues of Egypt.

2.(2) Christ changed water into wine at the marriage of Cana.

3.(3) Our own food is daily changed into the substance of our flesh and blood; and what God does gradually, He can also do instantly by an act of His will.



Q. 879. Are these changes exactly the same as the changes that take place in the Holy Eucharist?

A. These changes are not exactly the same as the changes that take place in the Holy Eucharist, for in these changes the appearance also is changed, but in the Holy Eucharist only the substance is changed while the appearance remains the same.



Q. 880. How do we show that Christ did change bread and wine into the substance of His body and blood?

A. We show that Christ did change bread and wine into the substance of His body and blood:

1.(1) From the words by which He promised the Holy Eucharist;

2.(2) From the words by which He instituted the Holy Eucharist;

3.(3) From the constant use of the Holy Eucharist in the Church since the time of the Apostles;

4.(4) From the impossibility of denying the Real Presence in the Holy Eucharist, without likewise denying all that Christ has taught and done; for we have stronger proofs for the Holy Eucharist than for any other Christian truth.



Q. 881. Is Jesus Christ whole and entire both under the form of bread and under the form of wine?

A. Jesus Christ is whole and entire both under the form of bread and under the form of wine.



Q. 882. How do we know that under the appearance of bread we receive also Christ's blood; and under the appearance of wine we receive also Christ's body?

A. We know that under the appearance of bread we receive also Christ's blood, and under the appearance of wine we receive also Christ's body; because in the Holy Eucharist we receive the living body of Our Lord, and a living body cannot exist without blood, nor can living blood exist without a body.



Q. 883. Is Jesus Christ present whole and entire in the smallest portion of the Holy Eucharist, under the form of either bread or wine?

A. Jesus Christ is present whole and entire in the smallest portion of the Holy Eucharist under the form of either bread or wine; for His body in the Eucharist is in a glorified state, and as it partakes of the character of a spiritual substance, it requires no definite size or shape.



Q. 884. Did anything remain of the bread and wine after their substance had been changed into the substance of the body and blood of our Lord?

A. After the substance of the bread and wine had been changed into the substance of the body and blood of Our Lord, there remained only the appearances of bread and wine.



Q. 885. What do you mean by the appearances of bread and wine?

A. By the appearances of bread and wine I mean the figure, the color, the taste, and whatever appears to the senses.



Q. 886. What is this change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of our Lord called?

A. This change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Our Lord is called Transubstantiation.



Q. 887. What is the second great miracle in the Holy Eucharist?

A. The second great miracle in the Holy Eucharist is the multiplication of the presence of Our Lord's body in so many places at the same time, while the body itself is not multiplied -- for there is but one body of Christ.



Q. 888. Are there not, then, as many bodies of Christ as there are tabernacles in the world, or as there are Masses being said at the same time?

A. There are not as many bodies of Christ as there are tabernacles in the world, or as there are Masses being said at the same time; but only one body of Christ, which is everywhere present whole and entire in the Holy Eucharist, as God is everywhere present, while He is but one God.



Q. 889. How was the substance of the bread and wine changed into the substance of the body and blood of Christ?

A. The substance of the bread and wine was changed into the substance of the body and blood of Christ by His almighty power.



Q. 890. Does this change of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ continue to be made in the Church?

A. This change of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ continues to be made in the Church by Jesus Christ through the ministry of His priests.



Q. 891. When did Christ give His priests the power to change bread and wine into His body and blood?

A. Christ gave His priests the power to change bread and wine into His body and blood when He said to the Apostles, "Do this in commemoration of Me."



Q. 892. What do the words "Do this in commemoration of Me" mean?

A. The words "Do this in commemoration of Me" mean: Do what I, Christ, am doing at My last supper, namely, changing the substance of bread and wine into the substance of My body and blood; and do it in remembrance of Me.



Q. 893. How do the priests exercise this power of changing bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ?

A. The priests exercise this power of changing bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ through the words of consecration in the Mass, which are words of Christ: "This is my body; this is my blood."



Q. 894. At what part of the Mass does the Consecration take place?

A. The Consecration in the Mass takes place immediately before the elevation of the Host and Chalice, which are raised above the head of the priest that the people may adore Our Lord who has just come to the altar at the words of Consecration.



LESSON TWENTY-THIRD: On the Ends for Which the Holy Eucharist Was Instituted

Q. 895. Why did Christ institute the Holy Eucharist?

A. Christ instituted the Holy Eucharist:

1.To unite us to Himself and to nourish our soul with His divine life.

2.To increase sanctifying grace and all virtues in our soul.

3.To lessen our evil inclinations.

4.To be a pledge of everlasting life.

5.To fit our bodies for a glorious resurrection.

6.To continue the sacrifice of the Cross in His Church.



Q. 896. Has the Holy Eucharist any other effect?

A. The Holy Eucharist remits venial sins by disposing us to perform acts of love and contrition. It preserves us from mortal sin by exciting us to greater fervor and strengthening us against temptation.



Q. 897. How are we united to Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist?

A. We are united to Jesus Christ in the Holy Eucharist by means of Holy Communion.



Q. 898. What is Holy Communion?

A. Holy Communion is the receiving of the body and blood of Christ.



Q. 899. Is it not beneath the dignity of Our Lord to enter our bodies under the appearance of ordinary food?

A. It is not beneath the dignity of Our Lord to enter our bodies under the appearance of ordinary food any more than it was beneath His dignity to enter the body of His Blessed Mother and remain there as an ordinary child for nine months. Christ's dignity, being infinite, can never be diminished by any act on His own or on our part.



Q. 900. Why does not the Church give Holy Communion to the people as it does to the priest under the appearance of wine also?

A. The Church does not give Holy Communion to the people as it does to the priest under the appearance of wine also, to avoid the danger of spilling the Precious Blood; to prevent the irreverence some might show if compelled to drink out of a chalice used by all, and lastly, to refute those who denied that Our Lord's blood is present under the appearance of bread also.



Q. 901. What is necessary to make a good Communion?

A. To make a good Communion it is necessary to be in the state of sanctifying grace and to fast according to the laws of the Church.



Q. 902. What should a person do who, through forgetfulness or any other cause, has broken the fast necessary for Holy Communion?

A. A person who through forgetfulness or any other cause has broken the fast necessary for Holy Communion, should again fast and receive Holy Communion the following morning if possible, without returning to confession. It is not a sin to break one's fast, but it would be a mortal sin to receive Holy Communion after knowingly breaking the fast necessary for it.



Q. 903. Does he who receives Communion in mortal sin receive the body and blood of Christ?

A. He who receives Communion in mortal sin receives the body and blood of Christ, but does not receive His grace, and he commits a great sacrilege.



Q. 904. Is it enough to be free from mortal sin to receive plentifully the graces of Holy Communion?

A. To receive plentifully the graces of Holy Communion it is not enough to be free from mortal sin, but we should be free from all affection to venial sin, and should make acts of lively faith, of firm hope, and ardent love.



Q. 905. What is the fast necessary for Holy Communion?

A. The fast necessary for Holy Communion is the abstaining from food from midnight until the moment of Holy Communion; Non-alcoholic drinks may be taken before Holy Communion. Water does not break the fast.



Q. 906. Does medicine taken by necessity or food taken by accident break the fast for Holy Communion?

A. Medicine does not break the fast; food taken by accident before Communion breaks the fast.



Q. 907. Is any one ever allowed to receive Holy Communion when not fasting?

A. To protect the Blessed Sacrament from insult or injury, or when in danger of death, Holy Communion may be received without fasting.



Q. 908. Is the Holy Communion called by any other name when given to one in danger of death?

A. When the Holy Communion is given to one in danger of death, it is called Viaticum, and is given with its own form of prayer. In giving Holy Communion the priest says: "May the body of Our Lord Jesus Christ guard your soul to eternal life." In giving Holy Viaticum he says: "Receive, brother (or sister), the Viaticum of the body of Our Lord Jesus Christ, which will guard you from the wicked enemy and lead you into eternal life."



Q. 909. When are we bound to receive Holy Communion?

A. We are bound to receive Holy Communion, under pain of mortal sin, during the Easter time and when in danger of death.



Q. 910. Is it well to receive Holy Communion often?

A. It is well to receive Holy Communion often, as nothing is a greater aid to a holy life than often to receive the Author of all grace and the Source of all good.



Q. 911. How shall we know how often we should receive Holy Communion?

A. We shall know how often we shall receive Holy Communion only from the advice of our confessor, by whom we must be guided, and whom we must strictly obey in this as well as in all matters concerning the state of our soul.



Q. 912. What is a spiritual Communion?

A. A spiritual communion is an earnest desire to receive Communion in reality, by which desire we make all preparations and thanksgivings that we would make in case we really received the Holy Eucharist. Spiritual Communion is an act of devotion that must be pleasing to God and bring us blessings from Him.



Q. 913. What should we do after Holy Communion?

A. After Holy Communion we should spend some time in adoring Our Lord, in thanking Him for the grace we have received, and in asking Him for the blessings we need.



Q. 914. What length of time should we spend in thanksgiving after Holy Communion?

A. We should spend sufficient time in Thanksgiving after Holy Communion to show due reverence to the Blessed Sacrament; for Our Lord is personally with us as long as the appearance of bread and wine remains.



Q. 915. What should we be particular about when receiving Holy Communion?

A. When receiving Holy Communion we should be particular:
1.(1) About the respectful manner in which we approach and return from the altar;
2.(2) About our personal appearance, especially neatness and cleanliness;
3.(3) About raising our head, opening our mouth and putting forth the tongue in the proper manner;
4.(4) About swallowing the Sacred Host;
5.(5) About removing it carefully with the tongue, in case it should stick to the mouth, but never with the finger under any circumstances.




LESSON TWENTY-FOURTH: On the Sacrifice of the Mass

Q. 916. When and where are the bread and wine changed into the body and blood of Christ?

A. The bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ at the Consecration in the Mass.



Q. 917. What is the Mass?

A. The Mass is the unbloody sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ.



Q. 918. Why is this Sacrifice called the Mass?

A. This Sacrifice is called the "Mass" very probably from the words "Ite Missa est," used by the priest as he tells the people to depart when the Holy Sacrifice is ended.



Q. 919. What is a sacrifice?

A. A sacrifice is the offering of an object by a priest to God alone, and the consuming of it to acknowledge that He is the Creator and Lord of all things.



Q. 920. Is the Mass the same sacrifice as that of the Cross?

A. The Mass is the same sacrifice as that of the Cross.



Q. 921. How is the Mass the same sacrifice as that of the Cross?

A. The Mass is the same sacrifice as that of the Cross because the offering and the priest are the same -- Christ our Blessed Lord; and the ends for which the sacrifice of the Mass is offered are the same as those of the sacrifice of the Cross.



Q. 922. What were the ends for which the sacrifice of the Cross was offered?

A. The ends for which the sacrifice of the Cross was offered were:
1.1st. To honor and glorify God;
2.2nd. To thank Him for all the graces bestowed on the whole world;
3.3rd. To satisfy God's justice for the sins of men;
4.4th. To obtain all graces and blessings.




Q. 923. How are the fruits of the Mass distributed?

A. The fruits of the Mass are distributed thus: 1.The first benefit is bestowed on the priest who says the Mass;
2.The second on the person for whom the Mass is said, or for the intention for which it is said;
3.The third on those who are present at the Mass, and particularly on those who serve it, and
4.The fourth on all the faithful who are in communion with the Church.




Q. 924. Are all Masses of equal value in themselves or do they differ in worth?

A. All Masses are equal in value in themselves and do not differ in worth, but only in the solemnity with which they are celebrated or in the end for which they are offered.



Q. 925. How are Masses distinguished?

A. Masses are distinguished thus:
1.(1) When the Mass is sung by a bishop, assisted by a deacon and sub-deacon, it is called a Pontifical Mass;
2.(2) When it is sung by a priest, assisted by a deacon and sub- deacon, it is called a Solemn Mass;
3.(3) When sung by a priest without deacon and sub-deacon, it is called a Missa Cantata or High Mass;
4.(4) When the Mass is only read in a low tone it is called a low or private Mass.




Q. 926. For what end or intention may Mass be offered?

A. Mass may be offered for any end or intention that tends to the honor and glory of God, to the good of the Church or the welfare of man; but never for any object that is bad in itself, or in its aims; neither can it be offered publicly for persons who are not members of the true Church.



Q. 927. Explain what is meant by Requiem, Nuptial and Votive Masses.

A. A Requiem Mass is one said in black vestments and with special prayers for the dead. A Nuptial Mass is one said at the marriage of two Catholics, and it has special prayers for their benefit. A Votive Mass is one said in honor of some particular mystery or saint, on a day not set apart by the Church for the honor of that mystery or saint.



Q. 928. From what may we learn that we are to offer up the Holy Sacrifice with the priest?

A. We may learn that we are to offer up the Holy Sacrifice with the priest from the words used in the Mass itself; for the priest, after offering up the bread and wine for the Sacrifice, turns to the people and says: "Orate Fratres," etc., which means: "Pray, brethren, that my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God the Father Almighty," and the server answers in our name: "May the Lord receive the sacrifice from thy hands to the praise and glory of His own name, and to our benefit and that of all His Holy Church."



Q. 929. From what did the custom of making an offering to the priest for saying Mass arise?

A. The custom of making an offering to the priest for saying Mass arose from the old custom of bringing to the priest the bread and wine necessary for the celebration of Mass.

Q. 930. Is it not simony, or the buying of a sacred thing, to offer the priest money for saying Mass for your intention?

A. It is not simony, or the buying of a sacred thing, to offer the priest money for saying Mass for our intention, because the priest does not take the money for the Mass itself, but for the purpose of supplying the things necessary for Mass and for his own support.



Q. 931. Is there any difference between the sacrifice of the Cross and the sacrifice of the Mass?

A. Yes; the manner in which the sacrifice is offered is different. On the Cross Christ really shed His blood and was really slain; in the Mass there is no real shedding of blood nor real death, because Christ can die no more; but the sacrifice of the Mass, through the separate consecration of the bread and the wine, represents His death on the Cross.



Q. 932. What are the chief parts of the Mass?

A. The chief parts of the Mass are:
1.(1) The Offertory, at which the priests offers to God the bread and wine to be changed at the Consecration;
2.(2) The Consecration, at which the substance of the bread and wine are changed into the substance of Christ's body and blood;
3.(3) The Communion, at which the priest receives into his own body the Holy Eucharist under the appearance of both bread and wine.




Q. 933. At what part of the Mass does the Offertory take place, and what parts of the Mass are said before it?

A. The Offertory takes place immediately after the uncovering of the chalice. The parts of the Mass said before it are: The Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, Prayers, Epistle, Gospel and Creed. The Introit, Prayers, Epistle and Gospel change in each Mass to correspond with the feast celebrated.



Q. 934. What is the part of the Mass called in which the Words of Consecration are found?

A. The part of the Mass in which the words of Consecration are found is called the Canon. This is the most solemn part of the Mass, and is rarely and but slightly changed in any Mass.



Q. 935. What follows the Communion of the Mass?

A. Following the Communion of Mass, there are prayers of thanksgiving, the blessing of the people, and the saying of the last Gospel.



Q. 936. What things are necessary for Mass?

A. The things necessary for Mass are:
1.(1) An altar with linen covers, candles, crucifix, altar stone and Mass book;
2.(2) A Chalice with all needed in its use, and bread of flour from wheat and wine from the grape;
3.(3) Vestments for the priest, and 4.(4) An acolyte or server.




Q. 937. What is the altar stone, and of what does it remind us?

A. The altar stone is that part of the altar upon which the priest rests the Chalice during Mass. This stone contains some holy relics sealed up in it by the bishop, and if the altar is of wood this stone is inserted just in front of the Tabernacle. The altar stone reminds us of the early history of the Church, when the martyrs' tombs were used for altars by the persecuted Christians.



Q. 938. What lesson do we learn from the practice of using martyrs' tombs for altars?

A. From the practice of using martyrs' tombs for altars we learn the inconvenience, sufferings and dangers the early Christians willingly underwent for the sake of hearing Mass. Since the Mass is the same now as it was then, we should suffer every inconvenience rather than be absent from Mass on Sundays or holy days.



Q. 939. What things are used with the chalice during Mass?

A. The things used with the chalice during Mass are:
1.(1) The purificator or cloth for wiping the inside;
2.(2) The paten or small silver plate used in handling the host;
3.(3) The pall or white card used for covering the chalice at Mass;
4.(4) The corporal or linen cloth on which the chalice and host rest.




Q. 940. What is the host?

A. The host is the name given to the thin wafer of bread used at Mass. This name is generally applied before and after Consecration to the large particle of bread used by the priest, though the small particles given to the people are also called by the same name.



Q. 941. Are large and small hosts consecrated at every Mass?

A. A large host is consecrated at every Mass, but small hosts are consecrated only at some Masses at which they are to be given to the people or placed in the Tabernacle for the Holy Communion of the faithful.



Q. 942. What vestments does the priest use at Mass and what do they signify?

A. The vestments used by the priest at Mass are:
1.(1) The Amice, a white cloth around the shoulders to signify resistance to temptation;
2.(2) The Alb, a long white garment to signify innocence;
3.(3) The Cincture, a cord about the waist, to signify chastity;
4.(4) The Maniple or hanging vestment on the left arm, to signify penance;
5.(5) The Stole or long vestment about the neck, to signify immortality;
6.(6) The Chasuble or long vestment over all, to signify love and remind the priest, by its cross on front and back, of the Passion of Our Lord.




Q. 943. How many colors of vestments are used, and what do the colors signify?

A. Five colors of vestments are used, namely, white, red, green, violet or purple, and black. White signifies innocence and is used on the feasts of Our Blessed Lord, of the Blessed Virgin, and of some saints. Red signifies love, and is used on the feasts of the Holy Ghost, and of martyrs. Green signifies hope, and is generally used on Sundays from Epiphany to Pentecost. Violet signifies penance, and is used in Lent and Advent. Black signifies sorrow, and is used on Good Friday and at Masses for the dead. Gold is often used for white on great feasts.



Q. 944. What is the Tabernacle and what is the Ciborium?

A. The Tabernacle is the house-shaped part of the altar where the sacred vessels containing the Blessed Sacrament are kept. The Ciborium is the large silver or gold vessel which contains the Blessed Sacrament while in the Tabernacle, and from which the priest gives Holy Communion to the people.



Q. 945. What is the Ostensorium or Monstrance?

A. The Ostensorium or Monstrance is the beautiful wheel-like vessel in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed and kept during the Benediction.



Q. 946. How should we assist at Mass?

A. We should assist at Mass with great interior recollection and piety and with every outward mark of respect and devotion.



Q. 947. Which is the best manner of hearing Mass?

A. The best manner of hearing Mass is to offer it to God with the priest for the same purpose for which it is said, to meditate on Christ's sufferings and death, and to go to Holy Communion.



Q. 948. What is important for the proper and respectful hearing of Mass?

A. For the proper and respectful hearing of Mass it is important to be in our place before the priest comes to the altar and not to leave it before the priest leaves the altar. Thus we prevent the confusion and distraction caused by late coming and too early leaving. Standing in the doorways, blocking up passages and disputing about places should, out of respect for the Holy Sacrifice, be most carefully avoided.



Q. 949. What is Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, and what vestments are used at it?

A. Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament is an act of divine worship in which the Blessed Sacrament, placed in the ostensorium, is exposed for the adoration of the people and is lifted up to bless them. The vestments used at Benediction are: A cope or large silk cloak and a humeral or shoulder veil.



Q. 950. Why does the priest wear special vestments and use certain ceremonies while performing his sacred duties?

A. The priest wears special vestments and uses certain ceremonies while performing his sacred duties:
1.(1) To give greater solemnity and to command more attention and respect at divine worship;
2.(2) To instruct the people in the things that these vestments and ceremonies signify;
3.(3) To remind the priest himself of the importance and sacred character of the work in which he is the representative of Our Lord Himself.
Hence we should learn the meaning of the ceremonies of the Church.




Q. 951. How do we show that the ceremonies of the Church are reasonable and proper?

A. We show that the ceremonies of the Church are reasonable and proper from the fact that all persons in authority, rulers, judges and masters, require certain acts of respect from their subjects, and as we know Our Lord is present on the altar, the Church requires definite acts of reverence and respect at the services held in His honor and in His presence.



Q. 952. Are there other reasons for the use of ceremonies?

A. There are other reasons for the use of ceremonies:
1.(1) God commanded ceremonies to be used in the old law, and
2.(2) Our Blessed Lord Himself made use of ceremonies in performing some of His miracles.




Q. 953. How are the persons who take part in a Solemn Mass or Vespers named?

A. The persons who take part in a Solemn Mass or Vespers are named as follows: The priest who says or celebrates the Mass is called the celebrant; those who assist him as deacon and sub-deacon are called the ministers; those who serve are called acolytes, and the one who directs the ceremonies is called the master of ceremonies. If the celebrant be a bishop, the Mass or Vespers is called Pontifical Mass or Pontifical Vespers.

Q. 954. What is Vespers?

A. Vespers is a portion of the divine office or daily prayer of the Church. It is sung in Churches generally on Sunday afternoon or evening, and is usually followed by Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament.



Q. 955. Can one satisfy for neglecting Mass on Sunday by hearing Vespers on the same day?

A. One cannot satisfy for neglecting Mass on Sunday by hearing Vespers on the same day, because there is no law of the Church obliging us under pain of sin to attend Vespers, while there is a law obliging us under pain of mortal sin to hear Mass.



LESSON TWENTY-FIFTH: On Extreme Unction and Holy Orders

Q. 956. What is the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?

A. Extreme Unction is the Sacrament which, through the anointing and prayer of the priest, gives health and strength to the soul, and sometimes to the body, when we are in danger of death from sickness.



Q. 957. Why is this Sacrament called Extreme Unction?

A. Extreme means last, and Unction means an anointing or rubbing with oil, and because Catholics are anointed with oil at Baptism, Confirmation and Holy Orders, the last Sacrament in ,which oil is used is called Extreme Unction, or the last Unction or anointing.



Q. 958. Is this Sacrament called Extreme Unction if the person recovers after receiving it?

A. This Sacrament is always called Extreme Unction, even if it must be given several times to the same person, for Extreme Unction is the proper name of the Sacrament, and it may be given as often as a person recovering from one attack of sickness is in danger of death by another. In a lingering illness it may be repeated after a month or six weeks, if the person slightly recovers and again relapses into a dangerous condition.



Q. 959. To whom may Extreme Unction be given?

A. Extreme Unction may be given to all Christians dangerously ill, who have ever been capable of committing sin after baptism and who have the right dispositions for the Sacrament. Hence it is never given to children who have not reached the use of reason, nor to persons who have always been insane.



Q. 960. What are the right dispositions for Extreme Unction? A. The right dispositions for Extreme Unction are:
1.
2.(1) Resignation to the Will of God with regard to our recovery; 3.(2) A state of grace or at least contrition for sins committed, and
4.(3) A general intention or desire to receive the Sacrament.
This Sacrament is never given to heretics in danger of death, because they cannot be supposed to have the intention necessary for receiving it, nor the desire to make use of the Sacrament of Penance in putting themselves in a state of grace.



Q. 961. When and by whom was Extreme Unction instituted?

A. Extreme Unction was instituted at the time of the apostles, for James the Apostle exhorts the sick to receive it. It was instituted by Our Lord Himself -- though we do not know at what particular time -- for He alone can make a visible act a means of grace, and the apostles and their successors could never have believed Extreme Unction a Sacrament and used it as such unless they had Our Lord's authority for so doing.



Q. 962. When should we receive Extreme Unction?

A. We should receive Extreme Unction when we are in danger of death from sickness, or from a wound or accident.



Q. 963. What parts of the body are anointed in Extreme Unction?

A. The parts of the body anointed in Extreme Unction are: The eyes, the ears, the nose or nostrils, the lips, the hands and the feet, because these represent our senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which are the means through which we have committed most of our sins.



Q. 964. What things should be prepared in the sick-room when the priest is coming to give the last Sacraments?

A. When the priest is coming to give the last Sacraments, the following things should be prepared:
1.A table covered with a white cloth; a crucifix; two lighted candles in candlesticks; holy water in a small vessel, with a small piece of palm for a sprinkler; a glass of clean water; a tablespoon and a napkin or cloth, to be placed under the chin of the one receiving the Viaticum.
Besides these, if Extreme Unction also is to be given, there should be some cotton and a small piece of bread or lemon to purify the priest's fingers.
Q. 965. What seems most proper with regard to the things necessary for the last Sacraments?

A. It seems most proper that the things necessary for the last Sacraments should be carefully kept in every Catholic family, and should never, if possible, be used for any other purpose.



Q. 966. What else is to be observed about the preparation for the administration of the last Sacraments?

A. The further preparation for the administration of the last Sacraments requires that out of respect for the Sacraments, and in particular for the presence of Our Lord, everything about the sick-room, the sick person and even the attendants, should be made as neat and clean as possible. Especially should the face, hands and feet of the one to be anointed be thoroughly clean.



Q. 967. Should we wait until we are in extreme danger before we receive Extreme Unction?

A. We should not wait until we are in extreme danger before we receive Extreme Unction, but if possible we should receive it whilst we have the use of our senses.



Q. 968. What should we do in case of serious illness if the sick person will not consent or is afraid to receive the Sacraments, or, at least, wishes to put off their reception?

A. In case of serious illness, if the sick person will not consent, or is afraid to receive the Sacraments, or, at least, wishes to put off their reception, we should send for the priest at once and let him do what he thinks best in the case, and thus we will free ourselves from the responsibility of letting a Catholic die without the last Sacraments.



Q. 969. Which are the effects of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?

A. The effects of Extreme Unction are:
1.1st. To comfort us in the pains of sickness and to strengthen us against temptations;
2.2nd. To remit venial sins and to cleanse our soul from the remains of sin;
3.3rd. To restore us to health, when God sees fit.
Q. 970. Will Extreme Unction take away mortal sin if the dying person is no longer able to confess?

A. Extreme Unction will take away mortal sin if the dying person is no longer able to confess, provided he has the sorrow for his sins that would bee necessary for the worthy reception of the Sacrament of Penance.



Q. 971. How do we know that this Sacrament, more than any other, was instituted to benefit the body?

A. We know that this Sacrament more than any other was instituted to benefit the body:
1.(1) From the words of St. James exhorting us to receive it;
2.(2) It is given when the soul is already purified by the graces of Penance and Holy Viaticum;
3.(3) One of its chief objects is to restore us to health if it be for our spiritual good, as most of the prayers said in giving this Sacrament indicate.
Q. 972. Since Extreme Unction may restore us to health, should we not be glad to receive it?

A. Since Extreme Unction may restore us to health. we should be glad to receive it, and we should not delay its reception till we are so near death that God could restore us only by a miracle. Again, this Sacrament, like the others, gives sanctifying and sacramental grace, which we should be eager to obtain as soon as our sickness is sufficient to give us the privilege of receiving the last Sacraments.



Q. 973. What do you mean by the remains of sin?

A. By the remains of sin I mean the inclination to evil and the weakness of the will which are the result of our sins, and which remain after our sins have been forgiven.



Q. 974. How should we receive the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?

A. We should receive the Sacrament of Extreme Unction in the state of grace, and with lively faith and resignation to the will of God.



Q. 975. Who is the minister of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction?

A. The priest is the minister of the Sacrament of Extreme Unction.



Q. 976. What is the final preparation we should make for the reception of the last Sacraments?

A. The final preparation we should make for the reception of the last Sacraments consists in an earnest effort to be resigned to God's Holy Will, to excite ourselves to true sorrow for our sins, to profit by the graces given us, to keep worldly thoughts from the mind, and to dispose ourselves as best we can for the worthy reception of the Sacraments and the blessings of a good death.



Q. 977. At what time should persons dangerously ill attend to the final arrangement of their temporal or worldly affairs?

A. Persons dangerously ill should attend to the final arrangement of their temporal or worldly affairs at the very beginning of their illness, that these things may not distract them at the hour of death, and that they may give the last hours of their life entirely to the care of their soul.



Q. 978. What is the Sacrament of Holy Orders?

A. Holy Orders is a Sacrament by which bishops, priests, and other ministers of the Church are ordained and receive the power and grace to perform their sacred duties.



Q. 979. Besides bishops and priests, who are the other ministers of the Church?

A. Besides bishops and priests, the other ministers of the Church are deacons and subdeacons, who, while preparing for the priesthood, have received some of the Holy Orders, but who have not been ordained to the full powers of the priest.



Q. 980. Why is this Sacrament called Holy Orders?

A. This Sacrament is called Holy Orders because it is conferred by seven different grades or steps following one another in fixed order by which the sacred powers of the priesthood are gradually given to the one admitted to that holy state.



Q. 981. What are the grades by which one ascends to the priesthood?

A. The grades by which one ascends to the priesthood are:
1.(1) Tonsure, or the clipping of the hair by the bishop, by which the candidate for priesthood dedicates himself to the service of the altar;
2.(2) The four minor orders, Porter, Reader, Exorcist, and Acolyte, by which he is permitted to perform certain duties that laymen should not perform;
3.(3) Sub-deaconship, by which he takes upon himself the obligation of leading a life of perpetual chastity and of saying daily the divine office;
4.(4) Deaconship, by which be receives power to preach, baptize, and give Holy Communion.
The next step, priesthood, gives him power to offer the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and forgive sins. These orders are not all given at once, but at times fixed by the laws of the Church.
Q. 982. Are not the different orders separate Sacraments?

A. These different orders are not separate Sacraments. Taken all together, some are a preparation for the Sacrament and the rest are but the one Sacrament of Holy Orders; as the roots, trunk and branches form but one tree.



Q. 983. What name is given to sub-deaconship, deaconship and priesthood?

A. Sub-deaconship, deaconship and priesthood are called major or greater orders, because those who receive them are bound for life to the service of the altar and they cannot return to the service of the world to live as ordinary laymen.



Q. 984. What double power does the Church possess and confer on her pastors?

A. The Church possesses and confers on her pastor, the power of orders and the power of jurisdiction; that is, the power to administer the Sacraments and sanctify the faithful, and the power to teach and make laws that direct the faithful to their spiritual good. A bishop has the full power of orders and the Pope alone has the full power of jurisdiction.



Q. 985. How do the pastors of the Church rank according to authority?

A. The pastors of the Church rank according to authority as follows:
1.(1) Priests, who govern parishes or congregations in the name of their bishop;
2.(2) Bishops, who rule over a number of parishes or a diocese;
3.(3) Archbishops, who have authority over a number of dioceses or a province;
4.(4) Primates, who have authority over the ecclesiastical or Church provinces of a nation;
5.(5) Patriarchs, who have authority over a whole country; 6.and last and highest, the Pope, who rules the Church throughout the world.
Q. 986. How do the prelates or higher officers of the Church rank in dignity?

A. The prelates or higher officers of the Church rank in dignity as they rank in authority, except that in dignity Cardinals are next to the Pope, and Vicars Apostolic, Monsignori, and others having titles follow bishops. Papal delegates and those specially appointed by the Pope rank according to the powers he has given them.



Q. 987. Who are Cardinals, what are their duties and how are they divided?

A. Cardinals are the members of the Supreme Council or Senate of the Church. Their duties are to advise and aid the Pope in the government of the Church, and to elect a new Pope when the reigning Pope dies. They are divided into committees called sacred congregations, each having, its special work to perform. All these congregations taken together are called the Sacred College of Cardinals, of which the whole number is seventy.



Q. 988. Who is a Monsignor?

A. A Monsignor is a worthy priest upon whom the Pope confers this title as a mark of esteem. It gives certain privileges and the right to wear purple like a bishop.



Q. 989. Who is a Vicar-General?

A. A Vicar-General is one who is appointed by the bishop to aid him in the government of his diocese. He shares the bishop's power and in the bishop's absence he acts for the bishop and with his authority.



Q. 990. Who is an Abbot?

A. An Abbot is one who exercises over a religious community of men authority similar in many things to that exercised by a bishop over his diocese. He has also certain privileges usually granted to bishops.



Q. 991. What is the pallium?

A. The pallium is a white woolen vestment worn by the Pope and sent by him to patriarchs, primates and archbishops. It is the symbol of the fullness of pastoral power, and reminds the wearer of the Good Shepherd, whose example he must follow.



Q. 992. What is necessary to receive Holy Orders worthily?

A. To receive Holy Orders worthily it is necessary to be in the state of grace, to have the necessary knowledge and a divine call to this sacred office.



Q. 993. What name is given to this divine call and how can we discover this call?

A. This divine call is named a vocation to the priestly or religious life. We can discover it in our constant inclination to such a life from the pure and holy motive of serving God better in it, together with our fitness for it, or, at least, our ability to prepare for it, also in our true piety and mastery over our sinful passions and unlawful desires.



Q. 994. How should we finally determine our vocation?

A. We should finally determine our vocation:
1.(1) By leading a holy life that we may be more worthy of it;
2.(2) By praying to the Holy Ghost for light on the subject;
3.(3) By seeking the advice of holy and prudent persons and above all of our confessor.
Q. 995. What should parents and guardians bear in mind with regard to their children's vocations?

A. Parents and guardians should bear in mind with regard to their children's vocations:
1.(1)That it is their duty to aid their children to discover their vocation;
2.(2) That it is sinful for them to resist the Will of God by endeavoring to turn their children from their true vocation or to prevent them from following it by placing obstacles in their way, and, worst of all, to urge them to enter a state of life to which they have not been divinely called;
3.(3) That in giving their advice they should be guided only by the future good and happiness of their children and not by any selfish or worldly motive which may lead to the loss of souls.
Q. 996. How should Christians look upon the priests of the Church?

A. Christians should look upon the priests of the Church as the messengers of God and the dispensers of His mysteries.



Q. 997. How do we know that the priests of the Church are the messengers of God?

A. We know that the priests of the Church are the messengers of God, because Christ said to His apostles, and through them to their successors: "As the Father hath sent Me, I also send you"; that is to say, to preach the true religion, to administer the Sacraments, to offer Sacrifice, and to do all manner of good for the salvation of souls.



Q. 998. When did the priests of the Church receive this threefold power to preach, to forgive sins and to consecrate bread and wine?

A. The priests of the Church received this three-fold power to preach, to forgive sins and to consecrate bread and wine, when Christ said to them, through the apostles: "Go teach all nations"; "Whose sins you shall forgive they are forgiven," and "Do this for a commemoration of Me."



Q. 999. Why should we show great respect to the priests and bishops of the Church?

A. We should show great respect to the priests and bishops of the Church:
1.(1) Because they are the representatives of Christ upon earth, and
2.(2) Because they administer the Sacraments without which we cannot be saved.
Therefore, we should be most careful in what we do, say or think concerning God's ministers. To show our respect in proportion to their dignity, we address the priest as Reverend, the bishop as Right Reverend, the archbishop as Most Reverend, and the Pope as Holy Father.
Q. 1000. Should we do more than merely respect the ministers of God?
A. We should do more than merely respect the ministers of God. We should earnestly and frequently pray for them, that they may be enabled to perform the difficult and important duties of their holy state in a manner pleasing to God.



Q. 1001. Who can confer the Sacrament of Holy Orders?

A. Bishops can confer the Sacrament of Holy Orders.



Q. 1002. How do we know that there is a true priesthood in the Church?

A. We know that there is a true priesthood in the Church:
1.(1) Because in the Jewish religion, which was only a figure of the Christian religion, there was a true priesthood established by God;
2.(2) Because Christ conferred on His apostles and not on all the faithful the power to offer Sacrifice, distribute the Holy Eucharist and forgive sins.




Q. 1003. But is there need of a special Sacrament of Holy Orders to confer these powers?

A. There is need of a special Sacrament of Holy Orders to confer these powers:
1.(1) Because the priesthood which is to continue the work of the apostles must be visible in the Church, and it must therefore be conferred by some visible ceremony or outward sign;
2.(2) Because this outward sign called Holy Orders gives not only power but grace and was instituted by Christ, Holy Orders must be a Sacrament.




Q. 1004. Can bishops, priests and other ministers of the Church always exercise the power they have received in Holy Orders?

A. Bishops, priests and other ministers of the Church cannot exercise the power they have received in Holy Orders unless authorized and sent to do so by their lawful superiors. The power can never be taken from them, but the right to use it may be withdrawn for causes laid down in the laws of the Church, or for reasons that seem good to those in authority over them. Any use of sacred power without authority is sinful, and all who take part in such ceremonies are guilty of sin.



LESSON TWENTY-SIXTH: On Matrimony

Q. 1005. What is the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. The Sacrament of Matrimony is the Sacrament which unites a Christian man and woman in lawful marriage.



Q. 1006. When are persons lawfully married?

A. Persons are lawfully married when they comply with all the laws of God and of the Church relating to marriage. To marry unlawfully is a mortal sin, and it deprives the souls of the grace of the Sacrament.



Q. 1007. When was marriage first instituted?

A. Marriage was first instituted in the Garden of Eden, when God created Adam and Eve and made them husband and wife, but it was not then a Sacrament, for their union did not confer any special grace.



Q. 1008. When was the contract of marriage raised to the dignity of a Sacrament?

A. The exact time at which the contract of marriages was raised to the dignity of a Sacrament is not known, but the fact that it was thus raised is certain from passages in the New Testament and from the constant teaching of the Church ever since the time of the apostles. Our Lord did not merely add grace to the contract, but He made the very contract a Sacrament, so that Christians cannot make this contract without receiving the Sacrament.



Q. 1009. What is the outward sign in the Sacrament of Matrimony, and in what does the whole essence of the marriage contract consist?

A. The outward sign in the Sacrament of matrimony is the mutual consent of the persons, expressed by words or signs in accordance with the laws of the Church. The whole essence of the marriage contract consists in the surrender by the persons of their bodies to each other and in declaring by word or sign that they make this surrender and take each other for husband and wife now and for life.



Q. 1010. What are the chief ends of the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. The chief ends of the Sacrament of matrimony are:
1.(1) To enable the husband and wife to aid each other in securing the salvation of their souls;
2.(2) To propagate or keep up the existence of the human race by bringing children into the world to serve God;
3.(3) To prevent sins against the holy virtue of purity by faithfully obeying the laws of the marriage state.




Q. 1011. Can a Christian man and woman be united in lawful marriage in any other way than by the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. A Christian man and woman cannot be united in lawful marriage in any other way than by the Sacrament of Matrimony, because Christ raised marriage to the dignity of a sacrament.



Q. 1012. Were, then, all marriages before the coming of Christ unlawful and invalid?

A. All marriages before the coming of Christ were not unlawful and invalid. They were both lawful and valid when the persons contracting them followed the dictates of their conscience and the laws of God as they knew them; but such marriages were only contracts. Through their evil inclinations many forgot or neglected the true character of marriage till Our Lord restored it to its former unity and purity.



Q. 1013. What do we mean by impediments to marriage?

A. By impediments to marriage we mean certain restrictions, imposed by the law of God or of the Church, that render the marriage invalid or unlawful when they are violated in entering into it. These restrictions regard age, health, relationship, intention, religion and other matters affecting the good of the Sacrament.



Q. 1014. Can the Church dispense from or remove these impediments to marriage?

A. The Church can dispense from or remove the impediments to marriage that arise from its own laws; but it cannot dispense from impediments that arise from the laws of God and nature. Every lawmaker can change or excuse from the laws made by himself or his equals, but he cannot, of his own authority, change or excuse from laws made by a higher power.



Q. 1015. What is required that the Church may grant, when it is able, dispensations from the impediments to marriage or from other laws?

A. That the Church may grant dispensations from the impediments to marriage or from other laws, there must be a good and urgent reason for granting such dispensations. The Church does not grant dispensations without cause and merely to satisfy the wishes of those who ask for them.



Q. 1016. Why does the Church sometimes require the persons to whom dispensations are granted to pay a tax or fee for the privilege?

A. The Church sometimes requires the persons to whom dispensations are granted to pay a tax or fee for the privilege:
1.(1) That persons on account of this tax be restrained from asking for dispensations and may comply with the general laws;
2.(2) That the Church may not have to bear the expense of supporting an office for granting privileges to a few.




Q. 1017. What should persons who are about to get married do?

A. Persons who are about to get married should give their pastor timely notice of their intention, make known to him privately whatever they suspect might be an impediment to the marriage, and make sure of all arrangements before inviting their friends.

Q. 1018. What timely notice of marriage should be given to the priest, and why?

A. At least three weeks notice of marriage should be given to the priest, because, according to the laws of the Church, the names of the persons about to get married must be announced and their intended marriage published at the principal Mass in their parish for three successive Sundays.



Q. 1019. Why are the banns of matrimony published in the Church?

A. The banns of matrimony are published in the Church that any person who might know of any impediment to the marriage may have an opportunity to declare it privately to the priest before the marriage takes place and thus prevent an invalid or unlawful marriage. Persons who know of such impediments and fail to declare them in due time are guilty of sin



Q. 1020. What things in particular should persons arranging for their marriage make known to the priest?

A. Persons arranging for their marriage should make known to the priest whether both are Christians and Catholics; whether either has been solemnly engaged to another person; whether they have ever made any vow to God with regard to chastity or the like; whether they are related and in what degree; whether either was ever married to any member of the other's family and whether either was ever godparent in baptism for the other.



Q. 1021. What else must they make known?

A. They must also make known whether either was married before and what proof can be given of the death of the former husband or wife; whether they really intend to get married, and do so of their own will; whether they are of lawful age; whether they are sound in body or suffering from any deformity that might prevent their marriage, and lastly, whether they live in the parish in which they ask to be married, and if so, how long they have lived in it.



Q. 1022. What is particularly necessary that persons may do their duty in the marriage state?

A. That persons may do their duty in the marriage state, it is particularly necessary that they should be well instructed, before entering it, in the truths and duties of their religion for how will they teach their children these things if they are ignorant of them themselves?



Q. 1023. Can the bond of Christian marriage be dissolved by any human power?

A. The bond of Christian marriage cannot be dissolved by any human power.



Q. 1024. Does not a divorce granted by courts of justice break the bond of marriage?

A. Divorce granted by courts of justice or by any human power does not break the bond of marriage, and one who makes use of such a divorce to marry again while the former husband or wife lives commits a sacrilege and Iives in the sin of adultery. A civil divorce may give a sufficient reason for the persons to live apart and it may determine their rights with regard to support, the control of the children and other temporal things, but it has no effect whatever upon the bond and spiritual nature of the Sacrament.



Q. 1025. Does not the Church sometimes allow husband and wife to separate and live apart?

A. The Church sometimes, for very good reasons, does allow husband and wife to separate and live apart; but that is not dissolving the bond of marriage, or divorce as it is called, for though separated they are still husband and wife, and neither can marry again till the other dies.



Q. 1026. Has not the Church sometimes allowed Catholics once married to separate and marry again?

A. The Church has never allowed Catholics once really married to separate and marry again, but it has sometimes declared persons apparently married free to marry again, because their first marriage was null; that is, no marriage on account of some impediment not discovered till after the ceremony.



Q. 1027. What evils follow divorce so commonly claimed by those outside the true Church and granted by civil authority?

A. The evils that follow divorce so commonly claimed by those outside the true Church and granted by civil authority are very many; but chiefly:
1.(1) A disregard for the sacred character of the Sacrament and for the spiritual welfare of the children;
2.(2) The loss of the true idea of home and family followed by bad morals and sinful living.




Q. 1028. Which are the effects of the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. The effects of the Sacrament of Matrimony are:
1.1st. To sanctify the love of husband and wife;
2.2nd. To give them grace to bear with each other's weaknesses;
3.3rd. To enable them to bring up their children in the fear and love of God.




Q. 1029. What do we mean by bearing with each other's weaknesses?

A. By bearing with each other's weaknesses we mean that the husband and wife must be patient with each other's faults, bad habits or dispositions, pardon them easily, and aid each other in overcoming them.



Q. 1030. How are parents specially fitted to bring up their children in the fear and love of God?

A. Parents are specially fitted to bring up their children in the fear and love of God:
1.(1) By the special grace they receive to advise and direct their children and to warn them against evil;
2.(2) By the experience they have acquired in passing through life from childhood to the position of parents. Children should, therefore, conscientiously seek and accept the direction of good parents.




Q. 1031. To receive the Sacrament of Matrimony worthily is it necessary to be in the state of grace?

A. To receive the Sacrament of Matrimony worthily it is necessary to be in the state of grace, and it is necessary also to comply with the laws of the Church.



Q. 1032. With what laws of the Church are we bound to comply in receiving the Sacrament of Matrimony?

A. In receiving the Sacrament of matrimony we are bound to comply with whatever laws of the Church concern Matrimony; such as laws forbidding solemn marriage in Lent and Advent; or marriage with relatives or with persons of a different religion, and in general all laws that refer to any impediment to marriage.



Q. 1033. In how many ways may persons be related?

A. Persons may be related in four ways. When they are related by blood their relationship is called consanguinity; when they are related by marriage it is called affinity; when they are related by being god-parents in Baptism or Confirmation, it is called spiritual affinity; when they are related by adoption, it is called legal affinity.



Q. 1034. Who has the right to make laws concerning the Sacrament of marriage?

A. The Church alone has the right to make laws concerning the Sacrament of marriage, though the state also has the right to make laws concerning the civil effects of the marriage contract.



Q. 1035. What do we mean by laws concerning the civil effects of the marriage contract?

A. By laws concerning the civil effects of the marriage contract we mean laws with regard to the property or debts of the husband and wife, the inheritance of their children, or whatever pertains to their temporal affairs. All persons are bound to obey the laws of their country when these laws are not opposed to the laws of God.



Q. 1036. Does the Church forbid the marriage of Catholics with persons who have a different religion or no religion at all?

A. The Church does forbid the marriage of Catholics with persons who have a different religion or no religion at all.



Q. 1037. Why does the Church forbid the marriage of Catholics with persons who have a different religion or no religion at all?

A. The Church forbids the marriage of Catholics with persons who have a different religion, or no religion at all, because such marriages generally lead to indifference, loss of faith, and to the neglect of the religious education of the children.



Q. 1038. What are the marriages of Catholics with persons of a different religion called, and when does the Church permit them by dispensation?

A. The marriages of Catholics with persons of a different religion are called mixed marriages. The Church permits them by dispensation only under certain conditions and for urgent reasons; chiefly to prevent a greater evil.



Q. 1039. What are the conditions upon which the Church will permit a Catholic to marry one who is not a Catholic?

A. The conditions upon which the Church will permit a Catholic to marry one who is not a Catholic are:
1.(1) That the Catholic be allowed the free exercise of his or her religion ;
2.(2) That the Catholic shall try by teaching and good example to lead the one who is not a Catholic to embrace the true faith;
3.(3) That all the children born of the marriage shall be brought up in the Catholic religion.
The marriage ceremony must not be repeated before a heretical minister. Without these promises, the Church will not consent to a mixed marriage, and if the Church does not consent the marriage is unlawful.




Q. 1040. What penalty does the Church impose on Catholics who marry before a Protestant minister?

A. Catholics who marry before a Protestant minister incur excommunication; that is, a censure of the Church or spiritual penalty which prevents them from receiving the Sacrament of Penance till the priest who hears their confession gets special faculties or permission from the bishop; because by such a marriage they make profession of a false religion in acknowledging as a priest one who has neither sacred power nor authority.



Q. 1041. How does the Church show its displeasure at mixed marriages?

A. The Church shows its displeasure at mixed marriages by the coldness with which it sanctions them, prohibiting all religious ceremony at them by forbidding the priest to use any sacred vestments, holy water or blessing of the ring at such marriages; by prohibiting them also from taking place in the Church or even in the sacristy. On the other hand, the Church shows its joy and approval at a true Catholic marriage by the Nuptial Mass and solemn ceremonies.



Q. 1042. Why should Catholics avoid mixed marriages?

A. Catholics should avoid mixed marriages:
1.(1) Because they are displeasing to the Church and cannot bring with them the full measure of God's grace and blessing;
2.(2) Because the children should have the good example of both parents in the practice of their religion;
3.(3) Because such marriages give rise to frequent disputes on religious questions between husband and wife and between their relatives;
4.(4) Because the one not a Catholic, disregarding the sacred character of the Sacrament, may claim a divorce and marry again, leaving the Catholic married and abandoned.




Q. 1043. Does the Church seek to make converts by its laws concerning mixed marriages?

A. The Church does not seek to make converts by its laws concerning mixed marriages, but seeks only to keep its children from losing their faith and becoming perverts by constant company with persons not Catholics. The Church does not wish persons to become Catholics merely for the sake of marrying Catholics. Such conversions are, as a rule, not sincere, do no good, but rather make such converts hypocrites and guilty of greater sins, especially sins of sacrilege.



Q. 1044. Why do many marriages prove unhappy?

A. Many marriages prove unhappy because they are entered into hastily and without worthy motives.



Q. 1045. When are marriages entered into hastily?

A. Marriages are entered into hastily when persons do not sufficiently consider and investigate the character, habits and dispositions of the one they intend to marry. It is wise to look for lasting qualities and solid virtues in a life-long companion and not to be carried away with characteristics that please only for a time.



Q. 1046. When are motives for marriage worthy?

A. Motives for marriage are worthy when persons enter it for the sake of doing God's will and fulfilling the end for which He instituted the Sacrament. Whatever is opposed to the true object of the Sacrament and the sanctification of the husband and wife must be an unworthy motive.



Q. 1047. How should Christians prepare for a holy and happy marriage?

A. Christians should prepare for a holy and happy marriage by receiving the Sacraments of Penance and Holy Eucharist; by begging God to grant them a pure intention and to direct their choice; and by seeking the advice of their parents and the blessing of their pastors.



Q. 1048. How may parents be guilty of great injustice to their children in case of marriage?

A. Parents may be guilty of great injustice to their children in case of marriage by seeking the gratification of their own aims and desires, rather than the good of their children, and thus for selfish and unreasonable motives forcing their children to marry persons they dislike or preventing them from marrying the persons chosen by the dictates of their conscience, or compelling them to marry when they have no vocation for such a life or no true knowledge of its obligations.



Q. 1049. May persons receive the Sacrament of Matrimony more than once?

A. Persons may receive the sacrament of Matrimony more than once, provided they are certain of the death of the former husband or wife and comply with the laws of the Church.



Q. 1050. Where and at what time of the day should Catholics be married?

A. Catholics should be married before the altar in the Church. They should be married in the morning, and with a Nuptial Mass if possible.



Q. 1051. What must never be forgotten by those who attend a marriage ceremony in the Church?

A. They who attend a marriage ceremony in the Church must never forget the presence of the Blessed Sacrament, and that all laughing, talking, or irreverence is forbidden then as at other times. Women must never enter into the presence of the Blessed Sacrament with uncovered heads, and their dress must be in keeping with the strict modesty that Our Lord's presence demands, no matter what worldly vanity or social manners may require.



LESSON TWENTY-SEVENTH: On the Sacramentals

Q. 1052. What is a sacramental?

A. A sacramental is anything set apart or blessed by the Church to excite good thoughts and to increase devotion, and through these movements of the heart to remit venial sin.



Q. 1053. How do the Sacramentals excite good thoughts and increase devotion?

A. The Sacramentals excite good thoughts by recalling to our minds some special reason for doing good and avoiding evil; especially by reminding us of some holy person, event or thing through which blessings have come to us. They increase devotion by fixing our minds on particular virtues and by helping us to understand and desire them.



Q. 1054. Do the Sacramentals of themselves remit venial sins?

A. The Sacramentals of themselves do not remit venial sins, but they move us to truer devotion, to greater love for God and greater sorrow for our sins, and this devotion, love and sorrow bring us grace, and the grace remits venial sins.



Q. 1055. Why does the Church use Sacramentals?

A. The Church uses Sacramentals to teach the faithful of every class the truths of religion, which they may learn as well by their sight as by their hearing; for God wishes us to learn His laws by every possible means, by every power of soul and body.



Q. 1056. Show by an example how Sacramentals aid the ignorant in learning the truths of faith.

A. Sacramentals aid the ignorant in learning the truths of faith as children learn from pictures before they are able to read. Thus one who cannot read the account of Our Lord's passion may learn it from the Stations of the Cross, and one who kneels before a crucifix and looks on the bleeding head, pierced hands and wounded side, is better able to understand Christ's sufferings than one without a crucifix before him.



Q. 1057. What are the Stations or Way of the Cross?

A. The Stations or Way of the Cross is a devotion instituted by the Church to aid us in meditating on Christ's passion and death. Fourteen crosses or stations, each with a picture of some scene in the passion, are arranged at distances apart. By passing from one station to another and praying before each while we meditate upon the scene it represents, we make the Way of the Cross in memory of Christ's painful journey during His passion, and we gain the indulgence granted for this pious exercise.



Q. 1058. Are prayers and ceremonies of the Church also Sacramentals?

A. Prayers and ceremonies of the Church are also Sacramentals because they excite good thoughts and increase devotion. Whatever the Church dedicates to a pious use or devotes to the worship of God may be called a Sacramental.



Q. 1059. On what ground does the Church make use of ceremonies?

A. The Church makes use of ceremonies:
1.(1) After the example of the Old Law, in which God described and commanded ceremonies;
2.(2) After the example of Our Lord, who rubbed clay on the eyes of the blind to whom He wished to restore sight, though He might have performed the miracle without any external act;
3.(3) On the authority of the Church itself, to whom Christ gave power to do whatever was necessary for the instruction of all men;
4.(4) To add solemnity to religious acts.




Q. 1060. How may persons sin in using Sacramentals?

A. Persons may sin in using Sacramentals by using them in a way or for a purpose prohibited by the Church; also by believing that the use of Sacramentals will save us in spite of our sinful lives. We must remember that Sacramentals can aid us only through the blessing the Church gives them and through the good dispositions they excite in us. They have, therefore, no power in themselves, and to put too much confidence in their use leads to superstition.



Q. 1061. What is the difference between the Sacraments and the sacramentals?

A. The difference between the Sacraments and the sacramentals is:
1.1st. The Sacraments were instituted by Jesus Christ and the sacramentals were instituted by the Church;
2.2nd. The Sacraments give grace of themselves when we place no obstacle in the way; 3.3rd. The sacramentals excite in us pious dispositions, by means of which we may obtain grace.




Q. 1062. May the Church increase or diminish the number of Sacraments and Sacramentals?

A. The Church can never increase nor diminish the number of Sacraments, for as Christ Himself instituted them, He alone has power to change their number; but the Church may increase or diminish the number of the Sacramentals as the devotion of its people or the circumstances of the time and place require, for since the Church instituted them they must depend entirely upon its laws.



Q. 1063. Which is the chief sacramental used in the Church?

A. The chief sacramental used in the Church is the sign of the cross.



Q. 1064. How do we make the sign of the cross?

A. We make the sign of the cross by putting the right hand to the forehead, then on the breast, and then to the left and right shoulders, saying, "In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen."



Q. 1065. What is a common fault with many in blessing themselves?

A. A common fault with many in blessing themselves is to make a hurried motion with the hand which is in no way a sign of the cross. They perform this act of devotion without thought or intention, forgetting that the Church grants an indulgence to all who bless themselves properly while they have sorrow for their sins.



Q. 1066. Why do we make the sign of the cross?

A. We make the sign of the cross to show that we are Christians and to profess our belief in the chief mysteries of our religion.



Q. 1067. How is the sign of the cross a profession of faith in the chief mysteries of our religion?

A. The sign of the cross is a profession of faith in the chief mysteries of our religion because it expresses the mysteries of the Unity and Trinity of God and of the Incarnation and death of our Lord.



Q. 1068. How does the sign of the cross express the mystery of the Unity and Trinity of God?

A. The words, "In the name," express the Unity of God; the words that follow, "of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," express the mystery of the Trinity.



Q. 1069. How does the sign of the cross express the mystery of the Incarnation and death of our Lord?

A. The sign of the cross expresses the mystery of the Incarnation by reminding us that the Son of God, having become man, suffered death on the cross.



Q. 1070. What other sacramental is in very frequent use?

A. Another sacramental in very frequent use is holy water.



Q. 1071. What is holy water?

A. Holy water is water blessed by the priest with solemn prayer to beg God's blessing on those who use it, and protection from the powers of darkness.



Q. 1072. How does the water blessed on Holy Saturday, or Easter Water, as it is called, differ from the holy water blessed at other times?

A. The water blessed on Holy Saturday, or Easter Water, as it is called, differs from the holy water blessed at other times in this, that the Easter water is blessed with greater solemnity, the paschal candle, which represents Our Lord risen from the dead, having been dipped into it with a special prayer.



Q. 1073. Is water ever blessed in honor of certain saints?

A. Water is sometimes blessed in honor of certain saints and for special purposes. The form of prayer to be used in such blessings is found in the Roman Ritual -- the book containing prayers and ceremonies for the administration of the Sacraments and of blessings authorized by the Church.



Q. 1074. Are there other sacramentals besides the sign of the cross and holy water?

A. Beside the sign of the cross and holy water there are many other sacramentals, such as blessed candles, ashes, palms, crucifixes, images of the Blessed Virgin and of the saints, rosaries, and scapulars.



Q. 1075. When are candles blessed in the Church and why are they used?

A. Candles are blessed in the Church on the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin -- February 2nd. They are used chiefly to illuminate and ornament our altars, as a mark of reverence for the presence of Our Lord and of joy at His coming.



Q. 1076. What praiseworthy custom is now in use in many places?

A. A praiseworthy custom now in use in many places is the offering by the faithful on the feast of the Purification of candles for the use of the altar during the year. It is pleasing to think we have candles burning in our name on the altar of God, and if the Jewish people yearly made offerings to their temple, faithful Christians should not neglect their altars and churches where God Himself dwells.



Q. 1077. When are ashes blessed in the Church and why are they used?

A. Ashes are blessed in the Church on Ash Wednesday. They are used to keep us in mind of our humble origin, and of how the body of Adam, our forefather, was formed out of the slime or clay of the earth; also to remind us of death, when our bodies will return to dust, and of the necessity of doing penance for our sins. These ashes are obtained by burning the blessed palms of the previous year.



Q. 1078. When are palms blessed and of what do they remind us?

A. Palms are blessed on Palm Sunday. They remind us of Our Lord's triumphal entry into Jerusalem, when the people, wishing to honor Him and make Him king, strewed palm branches and even their own garments in His path, singing: Hosanna to the Son of David.



Q. 1079. What is the difference between a cross and a crucifix?

A. A cross has no figure on it and a crucifix has a figure of Our Lord. The word crucifix means fixed or nailed to the cross.



Q. 1080. What is the Rosary?

A. The Rosary is a form of prayer in which we say a certain number of Our Fathers and Hail Marys, meditating or thinking for a short time before each decade; that is, before each Our Father and ten Hail Marys, on some particular event in the life of Our Lord. These events are called mysteries of the Rosary. The string of beads on which these prayers are said is also called a Rosary. The ordinary beads are of five decades, or one-third of the whole Rosary.



Q. 1081. Who taught the use of the Rosary in its present form?

A. St. Dominic taught the use of the Rosary in its present form. By it he instructed his hearers in the chief truths of our holy religion and converted many to the true faith.



Q. 1082. How do we say the Rosary, or beads?

A. To say the Rosary or beads we bless ourselves with the cross, then say the Apostles' Creed and the Our Father on the first large bead, then the Hail Mary on each of the three small beads, and then Glory be to the Father, etc. Then we mention or think of the first mystery we wish to honor, and say an Our Father on the large bead and a Hail Mary on each small bead of the ten that follow. At the end of every decade, or ten Hail Marys, we say "Glory be to the Father;" etc. Then we mention the next mystery and do as before, and so on to the end.



Q. 1083. How many mysteries of the Rosary are there?

A. There are fifteen mysteries of the Rosary arranged in the order in which these events occurred in the life of Our Lord, and divided into five joyful, five sorrowful, and five glorious mysteries.



Q. 1084. Say the five joyful mysteries of the Rosary.

A. The five joyful mysteries of the Rosary are:
1.(1) The Annunciation -- the Angel Gabriel telling the Blessed Virgin that she is to be the Mother of God;
2.(2) The Visitation -- the Blessed Virgin goes to visit her cousin, St. Elizabeth, the mother of St. John the Baptist;
3.(3) The Nativity, or birth, of Our Lord;
4.(4) The Presentation of the Child Jesus in the temple -- His parents offered Him to God;
5.(5) The finding of the Child Jesus in the temple -- His parents had lost Him in Jerusalem for three days.




Q. 1085. Say the five sorrowful mysteries of the Rosary.

A. The five sorrowful mysteries of the Rosary are:
1.(1) The Agony in the Garden -- Our Lord was in dreadful anguish and bathed in a bloody sweat;
2.(2) The Scourging at the Pillar -- Christ was stripped of His garments and lashed in a cruel manner;
3.(3) The Crowning with Thorns -- He was mocked as a king by heartless men;
4.(4) The Carriage of the Cross -- from the place He was condemned to Calvary, the place of Crucifixion;
5.(5) The Crucifixion -- He was nailed to the cross amid the jeers and blasphemies of His enemies.




Q. 1086. Say the five glorious mysteries of the Rosary.

A. The five glorious mysteries of the Rosary are:
1.(1) The Resurrection of Our Lord;
2.(2) The Ascension of Our Lord;
3.(3) The Coming of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles; 4.(4) The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin -- after death she was taken body and soul into heaven;
5.(5) The Coronation of the Blessed Virgin -- on entering heaven she was made queen of all the Angels and Saints and placed in dignity next to her Divine Son, Our Blessed Lord.




Q. 1087. On what days, according to the pious custom of the faithful, are the different mysteries of the Rosary usually said?

A. According to the pious custom of the faithful, the different mysteries of the Rosary are usually said on the following days, namely: the joyful on Mondays and Thursdays, the sorrowful on Tuesdays and Fridays, and the glorious on Sundays, Wednesdays and Saturdays.



Q. 1088. What do the letters I. N. R. I. over the crucifix mean?

A. The letters I. N. R. I. over the crucifix are the first letters of four Latin words that mean Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. Our Lord did say He was king of the Jews, but He also said that He was not their temporal or earthly king, but their spiritual and heavenly king.



Q. 1089. To what may we attribute the desire of the Jews to put Christ to death?

A. We may attribute the desire of the Jews to put Christ to death to the jealously, hatred and ill-will of their priests and the Pharisees, whose faults He rebuked and whose hypocrisy He exposed. By their slanders and lies they induced the people to follow them in demanding Our Lord's crucifixion.



Q. 1090. With whom did the Blessed Virgin live after the death of Our Lord?

A. After the death of Our Lord the Blessed Virgin lived for about eleven years with the Apostle St. John the Evangelist, called also the Beloved Disciple. He wrote one of the four Gospels, three Epistles, and the Apocalypse, or Book of Revelations -- the last book of the Bible. He lived to the age of a hundred years or more and died last of all the apostles.



Q. 1091. What do we mean by the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, and why do we believe in it?

A. By the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin we mean that her body was taken up into heaven after her death. We believe in it:
1.(1) Because the Church cannot teach error, and yet from an early age the Church has celebrated the Feast of the Assumption;
2.(2) Because no one ever claimed to have a relic of our Blessed Mother's body, and surely the apostles, who knew and loved her, would have secured some relic had her body remained upon earth.




Q. 1092. What do the letters I. H. S. on an altar or sacred things mean?

A. The letters I. H. S. on an altar or sacred things means the name Jesus; for it is in that way the Holy Name is written in the Greek language when some of the letters are left out.



Q. 1093. What is the scapular, and why is it worn?

A. The scapular is a long, broad piece of woolen cloth forming a part of the religious dress of monks, priests and sisters of some religious orders. It is worn over the shoulders and extends from the shoulders to the feet. The small scapular made in imitation of it, and consisting of two small pieces of cloth fastened together by strings, is worn by the faithful as a promise or proof of their willingness to practice some particular devotion, indicated by the kind of scapular they wear.



Q. 1094. How many kinds of scapulars are there in use among the faithful?

A. Among the faithful there are many kinds of scapulars in use, such as the brown scapular or scapular of Mount Carmel worn in honor of Our Lord's passion; the white, in honor of the Holy Trinity; the blue, in honor of the Immaculate Conception; and the black, in honor of the seven dolors of the Blessed Virgin. When these are joined together and worn as one they are called the five scapulars. The brown scapular is best known and entitles its wearer to the greatest privileges and indulgences.



Q. 1095. What are the seven dolors of the Blessed Virgin?

A. The seven dolors of the Blessed Virgin are the chief sorrowful events in the life of Our Blessed Lady. They are:
1.(1) The circumcision of our Lord -- when she saw his blood shed for the first time;
2.(2) Her flight into Egypt -- to save the life of the Infant Jesus, when Herod sought to kill Him;
3.(3) The three days she lost her Son in Jerusalem;
4.(4) When she saw him carrying the cross;
5.(5) When she saw him die;
6.(6) When His dead body was taken down from the cross;
7.(7) When it was laid in the sepulchre or tomb.




Q. 1096. What are the seven dolor beads, and how do we say them?

A. Seven dolor beads are beads constructed with seven medals, each bearing a representation of one of the seven dolors, and seven beads between each medal and the next. At each medal we meditate on the proper dolor and the say a Hail Mary on each of the bead following it.



Q. 1097. What is an Agnus Dei?

A. An Agnus Dei is a small piece of beeswax stamped with the image of a lamb and cross. It is solemnly blessed by the Pope with special prayers for those who carry it about their person in honor of Our Blessed Redeemer, whom we call the Lamb of God, Who taketh away the sins of the world. The wax is usually covered with silk or some fine material.



LESSON TWENTY-EIGHTH: On Prayer

Q. 1098. Is there any other means of obtaining God's grace than the Sacraments?

A. There is another means of obtaining God's grace, and it is prayer.

Q. 1099. What is prayer?

A. Prayer is the lifting up of our minds and hearts to God, to adore Him, to thank Him for His benefits, to ask His forgiveness, and to beg of Him all the graces we need whether for soul or body.



Q. 1100. How many kinds of prayer are there?

A. There are two kinds of prayer:
(1) Mental prayer, called meditation, in which we spend the time thinking of God or of one or more of the truths He has revealed, that by these thoughts we may be persuaded to lead holier lives;
(2) Vocal prayer, in which we express these pious thoughts in words.




Q. 1101. Why is mental prayer most useful to us?

A. Mental prayer is most useful to us because it compels us, while we are engaged in it, to keep our attention fixed on God and His holy laws and to keep our hearts and minds lifted up to Him.



Q. 1102. How can we make a meditation?

A. We can make a meditation:
(1) By remembering that we are in the presence of God;
(2) By asking the Holy Ghost to give us grace to benefit by the meditation;
(3) By reflecting seriously on some sacred truth regarding our salvation;
(4) By drawing some good resolution from the thoughts we have had; and
(5) By thanking God for the knowledge and grace bestowed on us through the meditation.




Q. 1103. Where may we find subjects or points for meditation?

A. We may find the subjects or points for meditation in the words of the Our Father, Hail Mary or Apostles' Creed; also in the questions and answers of our Catechism, in the Holy Bible, and in books of meditation.



Q. 1104. Is prayer necessary to salvation?

A. Prayer is necessary to salvation, and without it no one having the use of reason can be saved.



Q. 1105. At what particular times should we pray?

A. We should pray particularly on Sundays and holy days, every morning and night, in all dangers, temptations, and afflictions.



Q. 1106. How should we pray?

A. We should pray:
1st. With attention;
2nd. With a sense of our own helplessness and dependence upon God;
3rd. With a great desire for the graces we beg of God;
4th. With trust in God's goodness;
5th. With perseverance.




Q. 1107. What should our attention at prayer be?

A. Our attention at prayer should be threefold, namely, attention to the words, that we may say them correctly and distinctly; attention to their meaning, if we understand it, and attention to God, to whom the words are addressed.



Q. 1108. What should be the position of the body when we pray?

A. At prayer the most becoming position of the body is kneeling upright, but whether we pray kneeling, standing or sitting, the position of the body should always be one indicating reverence, respect and devotion. We may pray even lying down or walking, for Our Lord Himself says we should pray at all times.



Q. 1109. What should we do that we may pray well?

A. That we may pray well we should make a preparation before prayer:
(1) By calling to mind the dignity of God, to whom we are about to speak, and our own unworthiness to appear in His presence;
(2) By fixing upon the precise grace or blessing for which we intend to ask;
(3) By remembering God's power and willingness to give if we truly need and ,earnestly, humbly and confidently ask.




Q. 1110. Why does God not always grant our prayers?

A. God does not always grant our prayers for these and other reasons:
(1) Because we may not pray in the proper manner;
(2) That we may learn our dependence on Him, prove our confidence in Him, and merit rewards by our patience and perseverance in prayer. Prudent persons do not grant every request; why, then, should God do so?




Q. 1111. What assurance have we that God always hears and rewards our prayers, though He may not grant what we ask?

A. We have the assurance of Our Lord Himself that God always hears and rewards our prayers, though He may not grant what we ask; for Christ said: "Ask and it shall be given you," and "if you ask the Father anything in My name, He will give it to you."



Q. 1112. Which are the prayers most recommended to us?

A. The prayers most recommended to us are the Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, the Apostles' Creed, the Confiteor, and the Acts of Faith, Hope, Love, and Contrition.



Q. 1113. Are prayers said with distractions of any avail?

A. Prayers said with willful distraction are of no avail.



Q. 1114. Why are prayers said with willful distraction of no avail?

A. Prayers said with willful distraction are of no avail because they are mere words, such as a machine might utter, and since there is no lifting up of the mind or heart with them they cannot be prayer.



Q. 1115. Do, then, the distractions which we often have at prayer deprive our prayers of all merit?

A. The distractions which we often have at prayer do not deprive our prayers of all merit, because they are not willful when we try to keep them away, for God rewards our good intentions and the efforts we make to pray well.



Q. 1116. What, then, is a distraction?

A. A distraction is any thought that, during prayer, enters our mind to turn our thoughts and hearts from God and from the sacred duty we are performing.



Q. 1117. What are the fruits of prayer?

A. The fruits of prayer are:
It strengthens our faith, nourishes our hope, increases our love for God, keeps us humble, merits grace and atones for sin.



Q. 1118. Why should we pray when God knows our needs?

A. We pray not to remind God or tell Him of what we need, but to acknowledge that He is the Supreme Giver, to adore and worship Him by showing our entire dependence upon Him for every gift to soul or body.



Q. 1119. What little prayers may we say even at work?

A. Even at work we may say little aspirations such as "My God, pardon my sins; Blessed be the Holy Name of Jesus; Holy Spirit, enlighten me; Holy Mary, pray for me," etc.



Q. 1120. Did Our Lord Himself pray, and why?

A. Our Lord Himself very frequently prayed, often spending the whole night in prayer. He prayed before every important action, not that He needed to pray, but to set us an example of how and when we should pray.



Q. 1121. Why does the Church conclude most of its prayers with the words "through Jesus Christ Our Lord"?

A. The Church concludes most of its prayers with the words "through Jesus Christ Our Lord" because it is only through His merits that we can obtain grace, and because "there is no other name given to men whereby we must be saved."



Q. 1122. Was any special promise made in favor of the united prayers of two or more persons?
A. A special promise was made in favor of the united prayers of two or more persons when Our Lord said: "Where there are two or three gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them." Therefore, the united prayers of a congregation, sodality or family, and, above all, the public prayers of the whole Church, have great influence with God. We should join in public prayers out of true devotion, and not from habit, or, worse, to display our piety.




Q. 1123. What is the most suitable place for prayer?

A. The most suitable place for prayer is in the Church -- the house of prayer -- made holy by special blessings and, above all, by the Real Presence of Jesus dwelling in the Tabernacle. Still, Our Lord exhorts us to pray also in secret, for His Father, who seeth in secret, will repay us.



Q. 1124. For what should we pray?

A. We should pray:
(1) For ourselves, for the blessings of soul and body that we may be devoted servants of God;
(2) For the Church, for all spiritual and temporal wants, that the true faith may be everywhere known and professed;
(3) For our relatives, friends and benefactors, particularly for those we may in any way have injured;
(4) For all men, for the protection of the good and conversion of the wicked, that virtue may flourish and vice disappear;
(5) For our spiritual rulers, the Pope, our bishops, priests and religious communities, that they may faithfully perform their sacred duties;
(6) For our country and temporal rulers, that they may use their power for the good of their subjects and for the honor and glory of God.




LESSON TWENTY-NINTH: On the Commandments of God

Q. 1125. Is it enough to belong to God's Church in order to be saved?

A. It is not enough to belong to the Church in order to be saved, but we must also keep the Commandments of God and of the Church.

Q. 1126. Are not the commandments of the Church also commandments of God?

A. The commandments of the Church are also commandments of God, for they are made by His authority and under the guidance of the Holy Ghost; nevertheless, the Church can change or abolish its own commandments, while it cannot change or abolish the commandments given directly by God Himself.



Q. 1127. Which are the Commandments that contain the whole law of God?

A. The Commandments which contain the whole law of God are these two:
1.1st. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, with thy whole soul, with thy whole strength, and with thy whole mind;
2.2nd. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.




Q. 1128. Why do these two Commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain the whole law of God?

A. These two Commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain the whole law of God because all the other Commandments are given either to help us to keep these two, or to direct us how to shun what is opposed to them.



Q. 1129. Explain further how the two commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain the teaching of the whole ten commandments.

A. The two commandments of the love of God and of our neighbor contain the teaching of the whole ten commandments because the first three of the ten commandments refer to God and oblige us to worship Him alone, respect His name and serve Him as He wills, and these things we will do if we love Him; secondly, the last seven of the ten commandments refer to our neighbor and forbid us to injure him in body, soul, goods or reputation, and if we love him we will do him no injury in any of these, but, on the contrary, aid him as far as we can.



Q. 1130. Which are the Commandments of God?

A. The Commandments of God are these ten:
1.1. I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt not have strange gods before me. Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven thing, nor the likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, nor of those things that are in the waters under the earth. Thou shalt not adore them, nor serve them.
2.2. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.
3.3. Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath day.
4.4. Honor thy father and thy mother.
5.5. Thou shalt not kill.
6.6. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
7.7. Thou shalt not steal.
8.8. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
9.9. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife.
10.10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods.




Q. 1131. What does the first commandment mean by a "graven thing" or "the likeness of anything" in heaven, in the earth or in the waters?

A. The first commandment means by a "graven thing" or "the likeness of anything" in heaven, in the earth or in the waters, the statue, picture or image of any creature in heaven or of any animal on land or in water intended for an idol and to be worshipped as a god.



Q. 1132. Who gave the Ten Commandments?

A. God Himself gave the Ten Commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai, and Christ our Lord confirmed them.



Q. 1133. How and when were the Commandments give to Moses?

A. The Commandments, written on two tables of stone, were given to Moses in the midst of fire and smoke, thunder and lightning, from which God spoke to him on the mountain, about fifty days after the Israelites were delivered from the bondage of Egypt and while they were on their journey through the desert to the Promised Land.



Q. 1134. What do we mean when we say Christ confirmed the Commandments?

A. When we say Christ confirmed the Commandments we mean that He strongly approved them, and gave us by His teaching a fuller and clearer knowledge of their meaning and importance.



Q. 1135. Was anyone obliged to keep the Commandments before they were given to Moses?

A. All persons, from the beginning of the world, were obliged to keep the Commandments, for it was always sinful to blaspheme God, murder, steal or violate any of the Commandments, though they were not written till the time of Moses.



Q. 1136. How many kinds of laws had the Jews before the coming of Our Lord?

A. Before the coming of Our Lord the Jews had three kinds of laws:
1.(1) Civil laws, regulating the affairs of their nation;
2.(2) Ceremonial laws, governing their worship in the temple;
3.(3) Moral laws, guiding their religious belief and actions.




Q. 1137. To which of these laws did the Ten Commandments belong?

A. The Ten Commandments belong to the moral law, because they are a compendium or short account of what we must do in order to save our souls; just as the Apostles' Creed is a compendium of what we must believe.



Q. 1138. When did the civil and ceremonial laws of the Jews cease to exist?

A. The civil laws of the Jews ceased to exist when the



Q. 1139. Why were not also the moral laws of the Jews abolished when the Christian religion was established?

A. The moral laws of the Jews could not be abolished by the establishment of the Christian religion because they regard truth and virtue and have been revealed by God, and whatever God has revealed as true must be always true, and whatever He has condemned as bad in itself must be always bad.



LESSON THIRTIETH: On the First Commandment

Q. 1140. What is the first Commandment?

A. The first Commandment is: I am the Lord thy God: thou shalt not have strange gods before me.



Q. 1141. What does the commandment mean by "strange gods"?

A. By strange gods the commandment means idols or false gods, which the Israelites frequently worshipped when, through their sins, they had abandoned the true God.



Q. 1142. How may we, in a sense, worship strange gods?

A. We, in a sense, may worship strange gods by giving up the salvation of our souls for wealth, honors, society, worldly pleasures, etc., so that we would offend God, renounce our faith or give up the practice of our religion for their sake.



Q. 1143. How does the first Commandment help us to keep the great Commandment of the love of God?

A. The first Commandment helps us to keep the great Commandment of the love of God because it commands us to adore God alone.



Q. 1144. How do we adore God?

A. We adore God by faith, hope, and charity, by prayer and sacrifice.



Q. 1145. By what prayers do we adore God?

A. We adore God by all our prayers, but in particular by the public prayers of the Church, and, above all, by the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.



Q. 1146. How may the first Commandment be broken?

A. The first Commandment make be broken by giving to a creature the honor which belongs to God alone; by false worship; and by attributing to a creature a perfection which belongs to God alone.



Q. 1147. What is the honor which belongs to God alone?

A. The honor which belongs to God alone is a divine honor, in which we offer Him sacrifice, incense or prayer, solely for His own sake and for His own glory. To give such honor to any creature, however holy, would be idolatry.



Q. 1148. How do we offer God false worship?

A. We offer God false worship by rejecting the religion He has instituted and following one pleasing to ourselves, with a form of worship He has never authorized, approved or sanctioned.



Q. 1149. Why must we serve God in the form of religion He has instituted and in no other?

A. We must serve God in the form of religion He has instituted and in no other, because heaven is not a right, but a promised reward, a free gift of God, which we must merit in the manner He directs and pleases.



Q. 1150. When do we attribute to a creature a perfection which belongs to God alone?

A. We attribute to a creature a perfection which belongs to God alone when we believe it possesses knowledge or power independently of God, so that it may, without His aid, make known the future or perform miracles.



Q. 1151. Do those who make use of spells and charms, or who believe in dreams, in mediums, spiritists, fortune-tellers, and the like, sin against the first Commandment?

A. Those who make use of spells and charms, or who believe in dreams, in mediums, spiritists, fortune-tellers, and the like, sin against the first Commandment, because they attribute to creatures perfections which belong to God alone.



Q. 1152. What are spells and charms?

A. Spells and charms are certain words, by the saying of which superstitious persons believe they can avert evil, bring good fortune or produce some supernatural or wonderful effect. They may be also objects or articles worn about the body for the same purpose.



Q. 1153. Are not Agnus Deis, medals, scapulars, etc., which we wear about our bodies also charms?

A. Agnus Deis, medals, scapulars, etc., which we wear about our bodies, are not charms, for we do not expect any help from these things themselves, but, through the blessing they have received from the Church, we expect help from God, the Blessed Mother, or the Saint in whose honor we wear them. On the contrary, they who wear charms expect help from the charms themselves, or from some evil spirit.



Q. 1154. What must we carefully guard against in all our devotions and religious practices?

A. In all our devotions and religious practices we must carefully guard against expecting God to perform miracles when natural causes may bring about what we hope for. God will sometimes miraculously help us, but, as a rule, only when all natural means have failed.



Q. 1155. What are dreams and why is it forbidden to believe in them?

A. Dreams are the thoughts we have in sleep, when our will is unable to guide them. It is forbidden to believe in them, because they are often ridiculous, unreasonable, or wicked, and are not governed by either reason or faith.



Q. 1156. Are bad dreams sinful in themselves?

A. Bad dreams are not sinful in themselves, because we cannot prevent them, but we may make them sinful:
1.(1) By taking pleasure in them when we awake, and
2.(2) By bad reading or immodest looks, thoughts, word or actions before going to sleep; for by any of these things we may make ourselves responsible for the bad dreams.




Q. 1157. Did not God frequently in the Old Law make use of dreams as a means of making known His will?

A. God did frequently in the Old Law make use of dreams as a means of making known His Will; but on such occasions He always gave proof that what He made known was not a mere dream, but rather a revelation or inspiration. He no longer makes use of such means, for He now makes known His will through the inspiration of His Church.



Q. 1158. What are mediums and spiritists?

A. Mediums and spiritists are persons who pretend to converse with the dead or with spirits of the other world. They pretend also to give this power to others, that they may know what is going on in heaven, purgatory or hell.



Q. 1159. What other practice is very dangerous to faith and morals?

A. Another practice very dangerous to faith and morals is the use of mesmerism or hypnotism, because it is liable to sinful abuses, for it deprives a person for a time of the control of his reason and will and places his body and mind entirely in the power of another.



Q. 1160. What are fortune tellers?

A. Fortune tellers are imposters who, learning the past, or guessing at it, pretend to know also the future and to be able to reveal it to anyone who pays for the knowledge. They pretend also to know whatever concerns things lost or stolen, and the secret thoughts, actions or intentions of others.



Q. 1161. How do we, by believing in spells, charms, mediums, spiritists and fortune tellers, attribute to creatures the perfections of God?

A. By believing in spells, charms, mediums, spiritists and fortune tellers we attribute to creatures the perfections of God because we expect these creatures to perform miracles, reveal the hidden judgments of God, and make known His designs for the future with regard to His creatures, things that only God Himself may do.



Q. 1162. Is it sinful to consult mediums, spiritists, fortune tellers and the like when we do not believe in them, but through mere curiosity to hear what they may say?

A. It is sinful to consult mediums, spiritists, fortune tellers and the like even when we do not believe in them, but through mere curiosity, to hear what they may say:
1.(1) Because it is wrong to expose ourselves to the danger of sinning even though we do not sin;
2.(2) Because we may give scandal to others who are not certain that we go through mere curiosity;
3.(3) Because by our pretended belief we encourage these impostors to continue their wicked practices.




Q. 1163. Are sins against faith, hope, and charity also sins against the first Commandment?

A. Sins against faith, hope and charity are also sins against the first Commandment.



Q. 1164. How does a person sin against faith?

A. A person sins against faith:
1.1st. By not trying to know what God has taught;
2.2nd. By refusing to believe all that God has taught;
3.3rd. By neglecting to profess his belief in what God has taught.




Q. 1165. How do we fail to try to know what God has taught?

A. We fail to try to know what God has taught by neglecting to learn the Christian doctrine.



Q. 1166. What means have we of learning the Christian doctrine?

A. We have many means of learning the Christian doctrine: In youth we have Catechism and special instructions suited to our age; later we have sermons, missions, retreats, religious sodalities and societies through which we may learn. At all times, we have books of instruction, and, above all, the priests of the Church, ever ready to teach us. God will not excuse our ignorance if we neglect to learn our religion when He has given us the means.



Q. 1167. Should we learn the Christian doctrine merely for our own sake?

A. We should learn the Christian doctrine not merely for our own sake, but for the sake also of others who may sincerely wish to learn from us the truths of our holy faith.



Q. 1168. How should such instruction be given to those who ask it of us?

A. Such instruction should be given to those who ask it of us in a kind and Christian spirit, without dispute or bitterness. We should never attempt to explain the truths of our religion unless we are certain of what we say. When we are unable to answer what is asked we should send those who inquire to the priest or to others better instructed than ourselves.



Q. 1169. Who are they who do not believe all that God has taught?

A. They who do not believe all that God has taught are the heretics and infidels.



Q. 1170. Name the different classes of unbelievers and tell what they are.

A. The different classes of unbelievers are:
1.(1) Atheists, who deny there is a God;
2.(2) Deists, who admit there is a God, but deny that He revealed a religion;
3.(3) Agnostics, who will neither admit nor deny the existence of God;
4.(4) Infidels, who have never been baptized, and who, through want of faith, refuse to be baptized;
5.(5) Heretics, who have been baptized Christians, but do not believe all the articles of faith;
6.(6) Schismatics, who have been baptized and believe all the articles of faith, but do not submit to the authority of the Pope;
7.(7) Apostates, who have rejected the true religion, in which they formerly believed, to join a false religion;
8.(8) Rationalists and Materialists, who believe only in material things.


Q. 1171. Will the denial of only one article of faith make a person a heretic?

A. The denial of only one article of faith will make a person a heretic and guilty of mortal sin, because the Holy Scripture says: "Whosoever shall keep the whole law but offend in one point is become guilty of all."



Q. 1172. What is an article of faith?

A. An article of faith is a revealed truth so important and so certain that no one can deny or doubt it without rejecting the testimony of God. The Church very clearly points out what truths are articles of faith that we may distinguish them from pious beliefs and traditions, so that no one can be guilty of the sin of heresy without knowing it.



Q. 1173. Who are they who neglect to profess their belief in what God has taught?

A. They who neglect to profess their belief in what God has taught are all those who fail to acknowledge the true Church in which they really believe.



Q. 1174. How do persons who are members of the Church neglect to profess their belief?

A. Persons who are members of the Church neglect to profess their belief by living contrary to the teachings of the Church: that is, by neglecting Mass or the Sacraments, doing injury to their neighbor, and disgracing their religion by sinful and scandalous lives.



Q. 1175. What chiefly prevents persons who believe in the Church from becoming members of it?

A. A want of Christian courage chiefly prevents persons who believe in the Church from becoming members of it. They fear too much the opinion or displeasure of others, the loss of position or wealth, and, in general, the trials they may have to suffer for the sake of the true faith.



Q. 1176. What does Our Lord say of those who neglect the true religion for the sake of relatives or friends, or from fear of suffering?

A. Our Lord says of those who neglect the true religion for the sake of relatives or friends, or from fear of suffering: "He that loveth father or mother more than Me, is not worthy of Me; and he that loveth son or daughter more than Me, is not worthy of Me"; also: "And whosoever does not carry his cross and come after Me cannot be My disciple."



Q. 1177. What excuse do some give for neglecting to seek and embrace the true religion?

A. Some give as an excuse for neglecting to seek and embrace the true religion that we should live in the religion in which we were born, and that one religion is as good as another if we believe we are serving God.



Q. 1178. How do we show that such an excuse is false and absurd?

A. We show that such an excuse is false and absurd because:
1.(1) It is false and absurd to say that we should remain in error after we have discovered it;
2.(2) Because if one religion is as good as another, Our Lord would not have abolished the Jewish religion, nor the apostles have preached against heresy.




Q. 1179. Can they who fail to profess their faith in the true Church in which they believe expect to be saved while in that state?

A. They who fail to profess their faith in the true Church in which they believe cannot expect to be saved while in that state, for Christ has said: "Whosoever shall deny me before men, I will also deny him before my Father who is in heaven."



Q. 1180. Are we obliged to make open profession of our faith?

A. We are obliged to make open profession of our faith as often as God's honor, our neighbor's spiritual good or our own requires it. "Whosoever," says Christ, "shall confess me before men, I will also confess him before my Father who is in heaven."



Q. 1181. When does God's honor, our neighbor's spiritual good, or our own good require us to make an open profession of our faith ?

A. God's honor, our neighbor's spiritual good, or our own good requires us to make an open profession of our faith as often as we cannot conceal our religion without violating some law of God or of His Church, or without giving scandal to others or exposing ourselves to the danger of sinning. Pious practices not commanded may often be omitted without any denial of faith.



Q. 1182. Which are the sins against hope?

A. The sins against hope are presumption and despair.



Q. 1183. What is presumption?

A. Presumption is a rash expectation of salvation without making proper use of the necessary means to obtain it.



Q. 1184. How may we be guilty of presumption?

A. We may be guilty of presumption:
1.(1) By putting off confession when in a state of mortal sin;
2.(2) By delaying the amendment of our lives and repentance for past sins;
3.(3) By being indifferent about the number of times we yield to any temptation after we have once yielded and broken our resolution to resist it;
4.(4) By thinking we can avoid sin without avoiding its near occasion;
5.(5) By relying too much on ourselves and neglecting to follow the advice of our confessor in regard to the sins we confess.




Q. 1185. What is despair?

A. Despair is the loss of hope in God's mercy.



Q. 1186. How may we be guilty of despair?

A. We may be guilty of despair by believing that we cannot resist certain temptations, overcome certain sins or amend our lives so as to be pleasing to God.



Q. 1187. Are all sins of presumption and despair equally great?

A. All sins of presumption and despair are not equally great. They may be very slight or very great in proportion to the degree in which we deny the justice or mercy of God.



Q. 1188. How do we sin against the love of God?

A. We sin against the love of God by all sin, but particularly by mortal sin.



LESSON THIRTY-FIRST: The First Commandment -- On the Honor and Invocation of the Saints

Q. 1189. Does the first Commandment forbid the honoring of the saints?

A. The first Commandment does not forbid the honoring of the saints, but rather approves of it; because by honoring the saints, who are the chosen friends of God, we honor God Himself.



Q. 1190. What does "invocation" mean?

A. Invocation means calling upon another for help or protection, particularly when we are in need or danger. It is used specially with regard to calling upon God or the saints, and hence it means prayer.



Q. 1191. How do we show that by honoring the Saints we honor God Himself?

A. We honor the Saints because they honor God. Therefore, it is for His sake that we honor them, and hence by honoring them we honor Him.



Q. 1192. Give another reason why we honor God by honoring the Saints.

A. Another reason why we honor God by honoring the Saints is this: As we honor our country by honoring its heroes, so do we honor our religion by honoring its Saints. By honoring our religion we honor God, who taught it. Therefore, by honoring the Saints we honor God, for love of whom they became religious heroes in their faith.



Q. 1193. Does the first Commandment forbid us to pray to the saints?

A. The first Commandment does not forbid us to pray to the saints.



Q. 1194. Why does the first commandment not forbid us to pray to the Saints?

A. The first commandment does not forbid us to pray to the Saints, because if we are allowed to ask the prayers of our fellow- creatures upon earth we should be allowed also to ask the prayers of our fellow-creatures in heaven. Moreover, the Saints must have an interest in our welfare, because whatever tends to make us good, tends also to the glory of God.



Q. 1195. What do we mean by praying to the saints?

A. By praying to the saints we mean the asking of their help and prayers.



Q. 1196. Do we not slight God Himself by addressing our prayers to saints?

A. We do not slight God Himself by addressing our prayers to saints, but, on the contrary, show a greater respect for His majesty and sanctity, acknowledging, by our prayers to the saints, that we are unworthy to address Him for ourselves, and that we, therefore, ask His holy friends to obtain for us what we ourselves are not worthy to ask.



Q. 1197. How do we know that the saints hear us?

A. We know that the saints hear us, because they are with God, who makes our prayers known to them.



Q. 1198. Why do we believe that the saints will help us?

A. We believe that the saints will help us because both they and we are members of the same Church, and they love us as their brethren.



Q. 1199. How are the saints and we members of the same Church?

A. The saints and we are members of the same Church, because the Church in heaven and the Church on earth are one and the same Church, and all its members are in communion with one another.



Q. 1200. What is the communion of the members of the Church called?

A. The Communion of the members of the Church is called the Communion of Saints.



Q. 1201. What does the communion of saints mean?

A. The communion of saints means the union which exists between the members of the Church on earth with one another, and with the blessed in Heaven, and with the suffering souls in Purgatory.



Q. 1202. What benefits are derived from the communion of saints?

A. The following benefits are derived from the communion of saints: the faithful on earth assist one another by their prayers and good works, and they are aided by the intercession of the saints in Heaven, while both the saints in Heaven and the faithful on earth help the souls in Purgatory.



Q. 1203. How can we best honor the Saints, and where shall we learn their virtues?

A. We can best honor the saints by imitating their virtues, and we shall learn their virtues from the written accounts of their lives. Among the Saints we shall find models for every age, condition or state of life.



Q. 1204. Does the first Commandment forbid us to honor relics?

A. The first Commandment does not forbid us to honor relics, because relics are the bodies of the saints or objects directly connected with them or with our Lord.



Q. 1205. How many kinds or classes of relics are there?

A. There are three kinds or classes of relics:
1.(1) The body or part of the body of a saint;
2.(2) Articles, such as clothing or books, used by the saint;
3.(3) Articles that have touched a relic of the body or other relic.




Q. 1206. What is there special about a relic of the true cross on which Our Lord Died, and also about the instruments of His Passion?

A. The relics of the true Cross and relics of the thorns, nails, etc., used in the Passion are entitled to a very special veneration, and they have certain privileges with regard to their use and the manner of keeping them that other relics have not. A relic of the true Cross is never kept or carried with other relics.



Q. 1207. What veneration does the Church permit us to give to relics?

A. The Church permits us to give relics a veneration similar to that we give images. We do not venerate the relics for their own sake, but for the sake of the persons they represent. The souls of canonized saints are certainly in heaven, and we are certain that their bodies also will be there. Therefore, we may honor their bodies because they are to be glorified in heaven and were sanctified upon earth.



Q. 1208. What care does the Church take in the examination and distribution of relics?

A. The Church takes the greatest care in the examination and distribution of relics.
1.(1) The canonization or beatification of the person whose relic we receive must be certain.
2.(2) The relics are sent in sealed packets, that must be opened only by the bishop of the diocese to which the relics are sent, and each relic or packet must be accompanied by a document or written paper proving its genuineness.
3.(3) The relics cannot be exposed for public veneration until the bishop examines them and pronounces them authentic; that is, that they are what they are claimed to be.




Q. 1209. What should we be certain of before using any relic or giving it to another?

A. Before using any relic or giving it to another we should be certain that all the requirements of the Church concerning it have been fulfilled, and that the relic really is, as far as it is possible for any one to know, what we believe it to be.

Q. 1210. Has God Himself honored relics?

A. God Himself has frequently honored relics by permitting miracles to be wrought through them. There is an example given in the Bible, in the IV Book of Kings, where it is related that a dead man was restored to life when his body touched the bones, that is, the relics of the holy prophet Eliseus.



Q. 1211. Does the first Commandment forbid the making of images?

A. The first Commandment does forbid the making of images if they are made to be adored as gods, but it does not forbid the making of them to put us in mind of Jesus Christ, His Blessed Mother, and the saints.



Q. 1212 How do we show that it is only the worship and not the making of images that is forbidden by the first commandment?

A. We show that it is only the worship and not the making of images that is forbidden by the first commandment:
1.(1) Because no one thinks it sinful to carve statues or make photographs or paintings of relatives or friends;
2.(2) Because God Himself commanded the making of images for the temple after He had given the first commandment, and God never contradicts Himself.




Q. 1213. Is it right to show respect to the pictures and images of Christ and His saints?

A. It is right to show respect to the pictures and images of Christ and His saints, because they are the representations and memorials of them.



Q. 1214. Have we in this country any civil custom similar to that of honoring the pictures and images of saints?

A. We have, in this country, a civil custom similar to that of honoring pictures and images of saints, for, on Decoration or Memorial Day, patriotic citizens place flowers, flags, or emblems about the statues of our deceased civil heroes, to honor the persons these statues represent; for just as we can dishonor a man by abusing his image, so we can honor him by treating it with respect and reverence.



Q. 1215. Is it allowed to pray to the crucifix or to the images and relics of the saints?

A. It is not allowed to pray to the crucifix or images and relics of the saints, for they have no life, nor power to help us, nor sense to hear us.



Q. 1216. Why do we pray before the crucifix and the images and relics of the saints?

A. We pray before the crucifix and the images and relics of the saints because they enliven our devotion by exciting pious affections and desires, and by reminding us of Christ and of the saints, that we may imitate their virtues.



LESSON THIRTY-SECOND: From the Second to the Fourth Commandment

Q. 1217. What is the second Commandment?

A. The second Commandment is: Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.



Q. 1218. What do you mean by taking God's name in vain?

A. By taking God's name in vain I mean taking it without reverence, as in cursing or using in a light and careless manner, as in exclamation.



Q. 1219. What are we commanded by the second Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the second Commandment to speak with reverence of God and of the saints, and of all holy things, and to keep our lawful oaths and vows.



Q. 1220. Is it sinful to use the words of Holy Scripture in a bad or worldly sense?

A. It is sinful to use the words of Holy Scripture in a bad or worldly sense, to joke in them or ridicule their sacred meaning, or in general to give them any meaning but the one we believe God has intended them to convey.



Q. 1221. What is an oath?

A. An oath is the calling upon God to witness the truth of what we say.



Q. 1222. How is an oath usually taken?

A. An oath is usually taken by laying the hand on the Bible or by lifting the hand towards heaven as a sign that we call God to witness that what we are saying is under oath and to the best of our knowledge really true.



Q. 1223. What is perjury?

A. Perjury is the sin one commits who knowingly takes a false oath; that is, swears to the truth of what he knows to be false. Perjury is a crime against the law of our country and a mortal sin before God.



Q. 1224. Who have the right to make us take an oath?

A. All persons to whom the law of our country has given such authority have the right to make us take an oath. They are chiefly judges, magistrates and public officials, whose duty it is to enforce the laws. In religious matters bishops and others to whom authority is given have also the right to make us take an oath.



Q. 1225. When may we take an oath?

A. We may take an oath when it is ordered by lawful authority or required for God's honor or for our own or our neighbor's good.



Q. 1226. When may an oath be required for God's honor or for our own or our neighbor's good?

A. An oath may be required for God's honor or for our own or our neighbor's good when we are called upon to defend our religion against false charges; or to protect our own or our neighbor's property or good name; or when we are required to give testimony that will enable the lawful authorities to discover the guilt or innocence of a person accused.



Q. 1227. Is it ever allowed to promise under oath, in secret societies or elsewhere, to obey another in whatever good or evil he commands?

A. It is never allowed to promise under oath, in secret societies or elsewhere, to obey another in whatever good or evil he commands, for by such an oath we would declare ourselves ready and willing to commit sin, if ordered to do so, while God commands us to avoid even the danger of sinning. Hence the Church forbids us to join any society in which such oaths are taken by its members.



Q. 1228. What societies in general are we forbidden to join? A. In general we are forbidden to join:
1.(1) All societies condemned by the Church;
2.(2) All societies of which the object is unlawful and the means used sinful;
3.(3) Societies in which the rights and freedom of our conscience are violated by rash or dangerous oaths;
4.(4) Societies in which any false religious ceremony or form of worship is used.




Q. 1229. Are trades unions and benefit societies forbidden?

A. Trades unions and benefit societies are not in themselves forbidden because they have lawful ends, which they can secure by lawful means. The Church encourages every society that lawfully aids its members spiritually or temporally, and censures or disowns every society that uses sinful or unlawful means to secure even a good end; for the Church can never permit anyone to do evil that good may come of it.



Q. 1230. Is it lawful to vow or promise strict obedience to a religious superior?

A. It is lawful to vow or promise strict obedience to a religious superior, because such superior can exact obedience only in things that have the sanction of God or of His Church.



Q. 1231. What is necessary to make an oath lawful?

A. To make an oath lawful it is necessary that what we swear to be true, and that there be a sufficient cause for taking an oath.



Q. 1232. What is a vow?

A. A vow is a deliberate promise made to God to do something that is pleasing to Him.



Q. 1233. Which are the vows most frequently made?

A. The vows most frequently made are the three vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, taken by persons living in religious communities or consecrated to God. Persons living in the world are sometimes permitted to make such vows privately, but this should never be done without the advice and consent of their confessor.



Q. 1234. What do the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience require?

A. The vows of poverty, chastity and obedience require that those who make them shall not possess or keep any property or goods for themselves alone; that they shall not marry or be guilty of any immodest acts, and that they shall strictly obey their lawful superiors.



Q. 1235. Has it always been a custom with pious Christians to make vows and promises to God?

A. It has always been a custom with pious Christians to make vows and promises to God; to beg His help for some special end, or to thank Him for some benefit received. They have promised pilgrimages, good works or alms and they have vowed to erect churches, convents, hospitals or schools.



Q. 1236. What is a pilgrimage?

A. A pilgrimage is a journey to a holy place made in a religious manner and for a religious purpose.



Q. 1237. Is it a sin not to fulfill our vows?

A. Not to fulfill our vows is a sin, mortal or venial, according to the nature of the vow and the intention we had in making it.



Q. 1238. Are we bound to keep an unlawful oath or vow?

A. We are not bound, but, on the contrary, positively forbidden to keep an unlawful oath or vow. We are guilty of sin in taking such an oath or making such a vow, and we would be guilty of still greater sin by keeping them.



Q. 1239. What is forbidden by the second Commandment?

A. The second Commandment forbids all false, rash, unjust, and unnecessary oaths, blasphemy, cursing, and profane words.



Q. 1240. When is an oath rash, unjust or unnecessary?

A. An oath is rash when we are not sure of the truth of what we swear; it is unjust when it injures another unlawfully; and it is unnecessary when there is no good reason for taking it.



Q. 1241. What is blasphemy, and what are profane words?

A. Blasphemy is any word or action intended as an insult to God. To say He is cruel or find fault with His works is blasphemy. It is a much greater sin than cursing or taking God's name in vain. Profane words mean here bad, irreverent or irreligious words.



Q. 1242. What is the third Commandment?

A. The third Commandment is: Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath day.



Q. 1243. What are we commanded by the third Commandment?

A. By the third Commandment we are commanded to keep holy the Lord's day and the holydays of obligation, on which we are to give our time to the service and worship of God.



Q. 1244. What are holydays of obligation?

A. Holydays of obligation are special feasts of the Church on which we are bound, under pain of mortal sin, to hear Mass and to keep from servile or bodily labors when it can be done without great loss or inconvenience. Whoever, on account of their circumstances, cannot give up work on holydays of obligation should make every effort to hear Mass and should also explain in confession the necessity of working on holydays.



Q. 1245. How are we to worship God on Sundays and holydays of obligation?

A. We are to worship God on Sundays and holydays of obligation by hearing Mass, by prayer, and by other good works.



Q. 1246. Name some of the good works recommended for Sunday.

A. Some of the good works recommended for Sunday are: The reading of religious books or papers, teaching Catechism, bringing relief to the poor or sick, visiting the Blessed Sacrament, attending Vespers, Rosary or other devotions in the Church; also attending the meetings of religious sodalities or societies. It is not necessary to spend the whole Sunday in such good works, but we should give some time to them, that for the love of God we may do a little more than what is strictly commanded.



Q. 1247. Is it forbidden, then, to seek any pleasure or enjoyment on Sunday?

A. It is not forbidden to seek lawful pleasure or enjoyment on Sunday, especially to those who are occupied during the week, for God did not intend the keeping of the Sunday to be a punishment, but a benefit to us. Therefore, after hearing Mass we may take such recreation as is necessary or useful for us; but we should avoid any vulgar, noisy or disgraceful amusements that turn the day of rest and prayer into a day of scandal and sin.



Q. 1248. Are the Sabbath day and the Sunday the same?

A. The Sabbath day and the Sunday are not the same. The Sabbath is the seventh day of the week, and is the day which was kept holy in the old law; the Sunday is the first day of the week, and is the day which is kept holy in the new law.



Q. 1249. What is meant by the Old and New Law?

A. The Old Law means the law or religion given to the Jews; the New Law means the law or religion given to Christians.



Q. 1250. Why does the Church command us to keep the Sunday holy instead of the Sabbath?

A. The Church commands us to keep the Sunday holy instead of the Sabbath because on Sunday Christ rose from the dead, and on Sunday He sent the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles.



Q. 1251. Do we keep Sunday instead of Saturday holy for any other reason?

A. We keep Sunday instead of Saturday holy also to teach that the Old Law is not now binding upon us, but that we must keep the New Law, which takes its place.



Q. 1252. What is forbidden by the third Commandment?

A. The third Commandment forbids all unnecessary servile work and whatever else may hinder the due observance of the Lord's day.



Q. 1253. What are servile works?

A. Servile works are those which require labor rather of body than of mind.



Q. 1254. From what do servile works derive their name?

A. Servile works derive their name from the fact that such works were formerly done by slaves. Therefore, reading, writing, studying and, in general, all works that slaves did not perform are not considered servile works.



Q. 1255. Are servile works on Sunday ever lawful?

A. Servile works are lawful on Sundays when the honor of God, the good of our neighbor, or necessity requires them.



Q. 1256. Give some examples of when the honor of God, the good of our neighbor or necessity may require servile works on Sunday.

A. The honor of God, the good of our neighbor or necessity may require servile works on Sunday, in such cases as the preparation of a place for Holy Mass, the saving of property in storms or accidents, the cooking of meals and similar works.



LESSON THIRTY-THIRD: From the Fourth to the Seventh Commandment

Q. 1257. What is the fourth Commandment?

A. The fourth Commandment is: Honor thy father and thy mother.



Q. 1258. What does the word "honor" in this commandment include?

A. The word "honor" in this commandment includes the doing of everything necessary for our parents' spiritual and temporal welfare, the showing of proper respect, and the fulfillment of all our duties to them.



Q. 1259. What are we commanded by the fourth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the fourth Commandment to honor, love and obey our parents in all that is not sin.



Q. 1260. Why should we refuse to obey parents or superiors who command us to sin?

A. We should refuse to obey parents or superiors who command us to sin because they are not then acting with God's authority, but contrary to it and in violation of His laws.



Q. 1261. Are we bound to honor and obey others than our parents?

A. We are also bound to honor and obey our bishops, pastors, magistrates, teachers, and other lawful superiors.



Q. 1262. Who are meant by magistrates?

A. By magistrates are meant all officials of whatever rank who have a lawful right to rule over us and our temporal possessions or affairs.



Q. 1263. Who are meant by lawful superiors?

A. By lawful superiors are meant all persons to whom we are in any way subject, such as employers or others under whose authority we live or work.



Q. 1264. What is the duty of servants or workmen to their employers?

A. The duty of servants or workmen to their employers is to serve them faithfully and honestly, according to their agreement, and to guard against injuring their property or reputation.



Q. 1265. Have parents and superiors any duties toward those who are under their charge?

A. It is the duty of parents and superiors to take good care of all under their charge and give them proper direction and example.



Q. 1266. If parents or superiors neglect their duty or abuse their authority in any particular, should we follow their direction and example in that particular?

A. If parents or superiors neglect their duty or abuse their authority in any particular we should not follow their direction or example in that particular, but follow the dictates of our conscience in the performance of our duty.



Q. 1267. What is the duty of employers to their servants or workmen?

A. The duty of employers to their servants or workmen is to see that they are kindly and fairly treated and provided for, according to their agreement, and that they are justly paid their wages at the proper time.



Q. 1268. What is forbidden by the fourth Commandment?

A. The fourth Commandment forbids all disobedience, contempt, and stubbornness towards our parents or lawful superiors.



Q. 1269. What is meant by contempt and stubbornness?

A. By contempt is meant willful disrespect for lawful authority, and by stubbornness is meant willful determination not to yield to lawful authority.



Q. 1270. What is the fifth Commandment?

A. The fifth Commandment is: Thou shalt not kill.



Q. 1271. What killing does this commandment forbid?

A. This commandment forbids the killing only of human beings.



Q. 1272. How do we know that this commandment forbids the killing only of human beings?

A. We know that this commandment forbids the killing only of human beings because, after giving this commandment, God commanded that animals be killed for sacrifice in the temple of Jerusalem, and God never contradicts Himself.



Q. 1273. What are we commanded by the fifth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the fifth Commandment to live in peace and union with our neighbor, to respect his rights, to seek his spiritual and bodily welfare, and to take proper care of our own life and health.



Q. 1274. What sin is it to destroy one's own life, or commit suicide, as this act is called?

A. It is a mortal sin to destroy one's own life or commit suicide, as this act is called, and persons who willfully and knowingly commit such an act die in a state of mortal sin and are deprived of Christian burial. It is also wrong to expose one's self unnecessarily to the danger of death by rash or foolhardy feats of daring.



Q. 1275. Is it ever lawful for any cause to deliberately and intentionally take away the life of an innocent person?

A. It is never lawful for any cause to deliberately and intentionally take away the life of an innocent person. Such deeds are always murder, and can never be excused for any reason, however important or necessary.



Q. 1276. Under what circumstances may human life be lawfully taken?

A. Human life may be lawfully taken:
1.(1) In self-defense, when we are unjustly attacked and have no other means of saving our own lives;
2.(2) In a just war, when the safety or rights of the nation require it;
3.(3) By the lawful execution of a criminal, fairly tried and found guilty of a crime punishable by death when the preservation of law and order and the good of the community require such execution.




Q. 1277. What is forbidden by the fifth Commandment?

A. The fifth Commandment forbids all willful murder, fighting, anger, hatred, revenge, and bad example.



Q. 1278. Can the fifth commandment be broken by giving scandal or bad example and by inducing others to sin?

A. The fifth commandment can be broken by giving scandal or bad example and inducing others to sin, because such acts may destroy the life of the soul by leading it into mortal sin.



Q. 1279. What is scandal?

A. Scandal is any sinful word, deed or omission that disposes others to sin, or lessens their respect for God and holy religion.



Q. 1280. Why are fighting, anger, hatred and revenge forbidden by the fifth commandment?

A. Fighting, anger, hatred and revenge are forbidden by the fifth commandment because they are sinful in themselves and may lead to murder. The commandments forbid not only whatever violates them, but also whatever may lead to their violation.



Q. 1281. What is the sixth Commandment?

A. The sixth Commandment is: Thou shalt not commit adultery.



Q. 1282. What are we commanded by the sixth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the sixth Commandment to be pure in thought and modest in all our looks, words, and actions.



Q. 1283. It is a sin to listen to immodest conversation, songs or jokes?

A. It is a sin to listen to immodest conversation, songs or jokes when we can avoid it, or to show in any way that we take pleasure in such things.



Q. 1284. What is forbidden by the sixth Commandment?

A. The sixth Commandment forbids all unchaste freedom with another's wife or husband; also all immodesty with ourselves or others in looks, dress, words, and actions.



Q. 1285. Why are sins of impurity the most dangerous?

A. Sins of impurity are the most dangerous:
1.(1) Because they have the most numerous temptations;
2.(2) Because, if deliberate, they are always mortal, and
3.(3) Because, more than other sins, they lead to the loss of faith.




Q. 1286. Does the sixth Commandment forbid the reading of bad and immodest books and newspapers?

A. The sixth Commandment does forbid the reading of bad and immodest books and newspapers.



Q. 1287. What should be done with immodest book and newspapers?

A. Immodest books and newspapers should be destroyed as soon as possible, and if we cannot destroy them ourselves we should induce their owners to do so.



Q. 1288. What books does the Church consider bad?

A. The Church considers bad all books containing teaching contrary to faith or morals, or that willfully misrepresent Catholic doctrine and practice.



Q. 1289. What places are dangerous to the virtue of purity?

A. Indecent theaters and similar places of amusement are dangerous to the virtue of purity, because their entertainments are frequently intended to suggest immodest things.



LESSON THIRTY-FOURTH: From the Seventh to the End of the Tenth Commandment

Q. 1290. What is the seventh Commandment?

A. The seventh Commandment is: Thou shalt not steal.



Q. 1291. What sin is it to steal?

A. To steal is a mortal or venial sin, according to the amount stolen either at once or at different times. Circumstances may make the sin greater or less, and they should be explained in confession.



Q. 1292. Is stealing ever a sacrilege?

A. Stealing is a sacrilege when the thing stolen belongs to the Church and when the stealing takes place in the Church.



Q. 1293. What sins are equivalent to stealing?

A. All sins of cheating, defrauding or wronging others of their property; also all sins of borrowing or buying with the intention of never repaying are equivalent to stealing.



Q. 1294. In what other ways may persons sin against honesty?

A. Persons may sin against honesty also by knowingly receiving, buying or sharing in stolen goods; likewise by giving or taking bribes for dishonest purposes.



Q. 1295. What are we commanded by the seventh Commandment?

A. By the seventh Commandment we are commanded to give to all men what belongs to them and to respect their property.



Q. 1296. How may persons working for others be guilty of dishonesty?

A. Persons working for others may be guilty of dishonesty by idling the time for which they are paid; also by doing bad work or supplying bad material without their employer's knowledge.



Q. 1297. In what other way may a person be guilty of dishonesty?

A. A person may be guilty of dishonesty in getting money or goods by false pretenses and by using either for purposes for which they were not given.



Q. 1298. What is forbidden by the seventh Commandment?

A. The seventh Commandment forbids all unjust taking or keeping what belongs to another.



Q. 1299. What must we do with things found?

A. We must return things found to their lawful owners as soon as possible, and we must also use reasonable means to find the owners if they are unknown to us.



Q. 1300. What must we do if we discover we have bought stolen goods?

A. If we discover we have bought stolen goods and know their lawful owners we must return the goods to them as soon as possible without demanding compensation from the owner for what we paid for the goods.



Q. 1301. Are we bound to restore ill-gotten goods?

A. We are bound to restore ill-gotten goods, or the value of them, as far as we are able; otherwise we cannot be forgiven.



Q. 1302. What must we do if we cannot restore all we owe, or if the person to whom we should restore be dead?

A. If we cannot restore all we owe, we must restore as much as we can, and if the person to whom we should restore be dead we must restore to his children or heirs, and if these cannot be found we may give alms to the poor.



Q. 1303. What must one do who cannot pay his debts and yet wishes to receive the Sacraments?

A. One who cannot pay his debts and yet wishes to receive the Sacraments must sincerely promise and intend to pay them as soon as possible, and must without delay make every effort to do so.



Q. 1304. Are we obliged to repair the damage we have unjustly caused?

A. We are bound to repair the damage we have unjustly caused.



Q. 1305. What is the eighth Commandment?

A. The eighth Commandment is: Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.



Q. 1306. What are we commanded by the eighth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the eighth Commandment to speak the truth in all things, and to be careful of the honor and reputation of every one.



Q. 1307. What is a lie?

A. A lie is a sin committed by knowingly saying what is untrue with the intention of deceiving. To swear to a lie makes the sin greater, and such swearing is called perjury. Pretense, hypocrisy, false praise, boasting, etc., are similar to lies.



Q. 1308. How can we know the degree of sinfulness in a lie?

A. We can know the degree of sinfulness in a lie by the amount of harm it does and from the intention we had in telling it.



Q. 1309. Will a good reason for telling a lie excuse it?

A. No reason, however good, will excuse the telling of a lie, because a lie is always bad in itself. It is never allowed, even for a good intention to do a thing that is bad in itself.



Q. 1310. What is forbidden by the eighth Commandment?

A. The eighth Commandment forbids all rash judgments, backbiting, slanders, and lies.



Q. 1311. What are rash judgment, backbiting, slander and detraction?

A. Rash judgment is believing a person guilty of sin without a sufficient cause. Backbiting is saying evil things of another in his absence. Slander is telling lies about another with the intention of injuring him. Detraction is revealing the sins of another without necessity.



Q. 1312. Is it ever allowed to tell the faults of another?

A. It is allowed to tell the faults of another when it is necessary to make them known to his parents or superiors, that the faults may be corrected and the wrong doer prevented from greater sin.



Q. 1313. What is tale-bearing, and why is it wrong?

A. Tale-bearing is the act of telling persons what others have said about them, especially if the things said be evil. It is wrong, because it gives rise to anger, hatred and ill-will, and is often the cause of greater sins.



Q. 1314. What must they do who have lied about their neighbor and seriously injured his character?

A. They who have lied about their neighbor and seriously injured his character must repair the injury done as far as they are able, otherwise they will not be forgiven.



Q. 1315. What is the ninth Commandment?

A. The ninth Commandment is: Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife.



Q. 1316. What are we commanded by the ninth Commandment?

A. We are commanded by the ninth Commandment to keep ourselves pure in thought and desire.



Q. 1317. What is forbidden by the ninth Commandment?

A. The ninth Commandment forbids unchaste thoughts, desires of another's wife or husband, and all other unlawful impure thoughts and desires.



Q. 1318. Are impure thoughts and desires always sins?

A. Impure thoughts and desires are always sins, unless they displease us and we try to banish them.



Q. 1319. What is the tenth Commandment?

A. The tenth Commandment is: Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's goods.



Q. 1320. What does covet mean?

A. Covet means to wish to get wrongfully what another possesses or to begrudge his own to him.



Q. 1321. What are we commanded by the tenth Commandment?

A. By the tenth Commandment we are commanded to be content with what we have, and to rejoice in our neighbor's welfare.



Q. 1322. Should we not, then, try to improve our position in the world?

A. We should try to improve our position in the world, provided we can do so honestly and without exposing ourselves to greater temptation or sin.



Q. 1323. What is forbidden by the tenth Commandment?

A. The tenth Commandment forbids all desires to take or keep wrongfully what belongs to another.



Q. 1324. In what does the sixth commandment differ from the ninth, and the seventh differ from the tenth?

A. The sixth commandment differs from the ninth in this, that the sixth refers chiefly to external acts of impurity, while the ninth refers more to sins of thought against purity. The seventh commandment refers chiefly to external acts of dishonesty, while the tenth refers more to thoughts against honesty.



LESSON THIRTY-FIFTH: On the First and Second Commandments of the Church

Q. 1325. Are not the commandments of the Church also commandments of God?

A. The commandments of the Church are also commandments of God, because they are made by His authority, and we are bound under pain of sin to observe them.



Q. 1326. What is the difference between the commandments of God and the Commandments of the Church?

A. The commandments of God were given by God Himself to Moses on Mount Sinai; the commandments of the Church were given on different occasions by the lawful authorities of the Church. The Commandments given by God Himself cannot be changed by the Church; but the commandments made by the Church itself may be changed by its authority as necessity requires.



Q. 1327. Which are the chief commandments of the Church? A. The chief commandments of the Church are six:
1.1. To hear Mass on Sundays and holydays of obligation.
2.2. To fast and abstain on the days appointed.
3.3. To confess at least once a year.
4.4. To receive the Holy Eucharist during the Easter time.
5.5. To contribute to the support of our pastors.
6.6. Not to marry persons who are not Catholics, or who are related to us within the third degree of kindred, nor privately without witnesses, nor to solemnize marriage at forbidden times.




Q. 1328. Why has the Church made commandments?

A. The Church has made commandments to teach the faithful how to worship God and to guard them from the neglect of their religious duties.



Q. 1329. Is it a mortal sin not to hear Mass on a Sunday or a holyday of obligation?

A. It is a mortal sin not to hear Mass on a Sunday or a holyday of obligation, unless we are excused for a serious reason. They also commit a mortal sin who, having others under their charge, hinder them from hearing Mass, without a sufficient reason.



Q. 1330. What is a "serious reason" excusing one from the obligation of hearing Mass?

A A "serious reason" excusing one from the obligation of hearing Mass is any reason that makes it impossible or very difficult to attend Mass, such as severe illness, great distance from the Church, or the need of certain works that cannot be neglected or postponed.



Q. 1331. Are children obliged, under pain of mortal sin, the same as grown persons, to hear Mass on Sundays and holydays of obligation?

A. Children who have reached the use of reason are obliged under pain of mortal sin, the same as grown persons, to hear Mass on Sundays and holydays of obligation; but if they are prevented from so doing by parents, or others, then the sin falls on those who prevent them.



Q. 1332. Why were holydays instituted by the church?

A. Holydays were instituted by the Church to recall to our minds the great mysteries of religion and the virtues and rewards of the saints.



Q. 1333. How many holydays of obligation are there in this country?

A. In this country there are six holydays of obligation, namely:
1.(1) Feast of the Immaculate Conception (Dec. 8th);
2.(2) Christmas (Dec. 25th);
3.(3) Feast of the Circumcision of Our Lord (Jan. 1st);
4.(4) Feast of the Ascension of Our Lord (forty days after Easter);
5.(5) Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin (Aug. 15th); and
6.(6) Feast of All Saints (Nov. 1st).




Q. 1334. How should we keep the holydays of obligation?

A. We should keep the holydays of obligation as we should keep the Sunday.



Q. 1335. Why are certain holydays called holydays of obligation?

A. Certain holydays are called holydays of obligation because on such days we are obliged under pain of mortal sin to hear Mass and keep from servile works as we do on Sundays.



Q. 1336. What should one do who is obliged to work on a holyday of obligation?

A. One who is obliged to work on a holyday of obligation should, if possible, hear Mass before going to work, and should also explain this necessity in confession, so as to obtain the confessor's advice on the subject.



Q. 1337. What do you mean by fast-days?

A. By fast-days I mean days on which we are allowed but one full meal.



Q. 1338. Is it permitted on fast days to take any food besides the one full meal?

A. It is permitted on fast days, besides the one full meal, to take two other meatless meals, to maintain strength, according to each one's needs. But together these two meatless meals should not equal another full meal.



Q. 1339. Who are obliged to fast?

A. All persons over 21 and under 59 years of age, and whose health and occupation will permit them to fast.



Q. 1340. Does the Church excuse any classes of persons from the obligation of fasting?

A. The Church does excuse certain classes of persons from the obligation of fasting on account of their age, the condition of their health, the nature of their work, or the circumstances in which they live. These things are explained in the Regulations for Lent, read publicly in the Churches each year.



Q. 1341. What should one do who doubts whether or not he is obliged to fast?

A. In doubt concerning fast, a parish priest or confessor should be consulted.



Q. 1342. When do fast days chiefly occur in the year?

A. Fast days chiefly occur in the year during Lent and Advent, on the Ember days and on the vigils or eves of some great feasts. A vigil falling on a Sunday is not observed.



Q. 1343. What do you mean by Lent, Advent, Ember days and the vigils of great feasts?

A. Lent is the seven weeks of penance preceding Easter. Advent is the four weeks of preparation preceding Christmas. Ember days are three days set apart in each of the four seasons of the year as special days of prayer and thanksgiving. Vigils are the days immediately preceding great feasts and spent in spiritual preparation for them.



Q. 1344. What do you mean by days of abstinence?

A. By days of abstinence I mean days on which no meat at all may be taken (complete abstinence) or on which meat may be taken only once a day (partial abstinence). This is explained in the regulations for Lent. All the Fridays of the year are days of abstinence except when a Holyday of obligation falls on a Friday outside of Lent.



Q. 1345. Are children and persons unable to fast bound to abstain on days of abstinence?

A. Children, from the age of seven years, and persons who are unable to fast are bound to abstain on days of abstinence, unless they are excused for sufficient reason.



Q. 1346. Why does the Church command us to fast and abstain?

A. The Church commands us to fast and abstain, in order that we may mortify our passions and satisfy for our sins.



Q. 1347. What is meant by our passions and what by mortifying them?

A. By our passions are meant our sinful desires and inclinations. Mortifying them means restraining them and overcoming them so that they have less power to lead us into sin.



Q. 1348. Why does the Church command us to abstain from flesh-meat on Fridays?

A. The Church commands us to abstain from flesh-meat on Fridays in honor of the day on which our Saviour died.



LESSON THIRTY-SIXTH: On the Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Commandments of the Church

Q. 1349. What is meant by the command of confessing at least once a year?

A. By the command of confessing at least once a year is meant that we are obliged, under pain of mortal sin, to go to confession within the year.



Q. 1350. Should we confess only once a year?

A. We should confess frequently, if we wish to lead a good life.



Q. 1351. Should we go to confession at our usual time even if we think we have not committed sin since our last confession?

A. We should go to confession at our usual time even if we think we have not committed sin since our last confession, because the Sacrament of Penance has for its object not only to forgive sins, but also to bestow grace and strengthen the soul against temptation.



Q. 1352. Should children go to confession?

A. Children should go to confession when they are old enough to commit sin, which is commonly about the age of seven years.



Q. 1353. What sin does he commit who neglects to receive Communion during the Easter time?

A. He who neglects to receive Communion during the Easter time commits a mortal sin.



Q. 1354. What is the Easter time?

A. The Easter time is, in this country, the time between the first Sunday of Lent and Trinity Sunday.



Q. 1355. When is Trinity Sunday?

A. Trinity Sunday is the Sunday after Pentecost, or eight weeks after Easter Sunday; so that there are fourteen weeks in which one may comply with the command of the Church to receive Holy Communion between the first Sunday of Lent and Trinity Sunday.



Q. 1356. Are we obliged to contribute to the support of our pastors?

A. We are obliged to contribute to the support of our pastors, and to bear our share in the expense of the Church and school.



Q. 1357. Where did the duty of contributing to the support of the Church and clergy originate?

A. The duty of contributing to the support of the Church and clergy originated in the Old Law, when God commanded all the people to contribute to the support of the temple and of its priests.



Q. 1358. What does the obligation of supporting the Church and school imply?

A. The obligation of supporting the Church and school implies the duty of making use of the Church and school by attending religious worship in the one and by giving Catholic education in the other; because if the Church and school were not necessary for our spiritual welfare we would not be commanded to support them.



Q. 1359. Does the fifth commandment of the Church include the support only of our pastors and the Church and school?

A. The fifth commandment of the Church includes the support also of our holy father, the Pope, bishops, priests, missions, religious institutions and religion in general.



Q. 1360. What is the meaning of the commandment not to marry within the third degree of kindred?

A. The meaning of the commandment not to marry within the third degree of kindred is that no one is allowed to marry another within the third degree of blood relationship.



Q. 1361. Who are in the third degree of blood relationship?

A. Second cousins are in the third degree of blood relationship, and persons whose relationship is nearer than second cousins are in closer degrees of kindred. It is unlawful for persons thus related to marry without a dispensation or special permission of the Church.



Q. 1362. Are there other relationships besides blood relationship that render marriage unlawful without a dispensation?

A. There are other relationships besides blood relationship that render marriage unlawful without a dispensation, namely, the relationships contracted by marriage, which are called degrees of affinity, and the relationship contracted by being sponsors at Baptism, which is called spiritual affinity.



Q. 1363. What should persons about to marry do, if they suspect they are related to each other?

A. Persons about to marry, if they suspect they are related to each other, should make known the facts to the priest, that he may examine the degree of relationship and procure a dispensation if necessary.



Q. 1364. What is the meaning of the command not to marry privately?

A. The command not to marry privately means that none should marry without the blessing of God's priests or without witnesses.



Q. 1365. What sin is it for Catholics to be married before the minister of another religion?

A. It is a mortal sin for Catholics to be married before the minister of another religion, and they who attempt to do so incur excommunication, and absolution from their sin is reserved to the bishop.



Q. 1366. What is the meaning of the precept not to solemnize marriage at forbidden times?

A. The meaning of the precept not to solemnize marriage at forbidden times is that during Lent and Advent the marriage ceremony should not be performed with pomp or a nuptial Mass.



Q. 1367. What is the nuptial Mass?

A. The nuptial Mass is a Mass appointed by the Church to invoke a special blessing upon the married couple.



Q. 1368. Should Catholics be married at a nuptial Mass?

A. Catholics should be married at a nuptial Mass, because they thereby show greater reverence for the holy Sacrament and bring richer blessings upon their wedded life.



Q. 1369. What restrictions does the Church place on the ceremonies of marriage when one of the persons is not a Catholic?

A. The Church places several restrictions on the ceremonies of marriage when one of the persons is not a Catholic. The marriage cannot take place in the church; the priest cannot wear his sacred vestments nor use holy water nor bless the ring nor the marriage itself. The Church places these restrictions to show her dislike for such marriages, commonly called mixed marriages.



Q. 1370. Why does the Church dislike mixed marriages?

A. The Church dislikes mixed marriages because such marriages are frequently unhappy, give rise to many disputes, endanger the faith of the Catholic member of the family, and prevent the religious education of the children.



LESSON THIRTY-SEVENTH: On the Last Judgment and the Resurrection, Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven

Q. 1371. When will Christ judge us?

A. Christ will judge us immediately after our death, and on the last day.



Q. 1372. What is the judgment called which we have to undergo immediately after death?

A. The judgment we have to undergo immediately after death is called the Particular Judgment.



Q. 1373. Where will the particular judgment be held?

A. The particular judgment will be held in the place where each person dies, and the soul will go immediately to its reward or punishment.



Q. 1374. What is the judgment called which all men have to undergo on the last day?

A. The judgment which all men have to undergo on the last day is called the General Judgment.



Q. 1375. Will the sentence given at the particular judgment be changed at the general judgment?

A. The sentence given at the particular judgment will not be changed at the general judgment, but it will be repeated and made public to all.



Q. 1376. Why does Christ judge men immediately after death?

A. Christ judges men immediately after death to reward or punish them according to their deeds.



Q. 1377. How may we daily prepare for our judgment?

A. We may daily prepare for our judgment by a good examination of conscience, in which we will discover our sins and learn to fear the punishment they deserve.



Q. 1378. What are the rewards or punishments appointed for men's souls after the Particular Judgment?

A. The rewards or punishments appointed for men's souls after the Particular Judgment are Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell.



Q. 1379. What is Hell?

A. Hell is a state to which the wicked are condemned, and in which they are deprived of the sight of God for all eternity, and are in dreadful torments.



Q. 1380. Will the damned suffer in both mind and body?

A. The damned will suffer in both mind and body, because both mind and body had a share in their sins. The mind suffers the "pain of loss" in which it is tortured by the thought of having lost God forever, and the body suffers the "pain of sense" by which it is tortured in all its members and senses.



Q. 1381. What is Purgatory?

A. Purgatory is the state in which those suffer for a time who die guilty of venial sins, or without having satisfied for the punishment due to their sins.



Q. 1382. Why is this state called Purgatory?

A. This state is called Purgatory because in it the souls are purged or purified from all their stains; and it is not, therefore, a permanent or lasting state for the soul.



Q. 1383. Are the souls in Purgatory sure of their salvation?

A. The souls in Purgatory are sure of their salvation, and they will enter heaven as soon as they are completely purified and made worthy to enjoy that presence of God which is called the Beatific Vision.



Q. 1384. Do we know what souls are in Purgatory, and how long they have to remain there?

A. We do not know what souls are in Purgatory nor how long they have to remain there; hence we continue to pray for all persons who have died apparently in the true faith and free from mortal sin. They are called the faithful departed.



Q. 1385. Can the faithful on earth help the souls in Purgatory?

A. The faithful on earth can help the souls in Purgatory by their prayers, fasts, alms, deeds; by indulgences, and by having Masses said for them.



Q. 1386. Since God loves the souls in Purgatory, why does He punish them?

A. Though God loves the souls in Purgatory, He punishes them because His holiness requires that nothing defiled may enter heaven and His justice requires that everyone be punished or rewarded according to what he deserves.



Q. 1387. If every one is judged immediately after death, what need is there of a general judgment?

A. There is need of a general judgment, though every one is judged immediately after death, that the providence of God, which, on earth, often permits the good to suffer and the wicked to prosper, may in the end appear just before all men.



Q. 1388. What is meant by "the Providence of God"?

A. By "the Providence of God" is meant the manner in which He preserves, provides for, rules and governs the world and directs all things by His infinite Will.



Q. 1389. Are there other reasons for the general judgment?

A. There are other reasons for the general judgment, and especially that Christ Our Lord may receive from the whole world the honor denied Him at His first coming, and that all may be forced to acknowledge Him their God and Redeemer.



Q. 1390. Will our bodies share in the reward or punishment of our souls?

A. Our bodies will share in the reward or punishment of our souls, because through the resurrection they will again be united to them.



Q. 1391. When will the general resurrection or rising of all the dead take place?

A. The general resurrection or rising of all the dead will take place at the general judgment, when the same bodies in which we lived on earth will come forth from the grave and be united to our souls and remain united with them forever either in heaven or in hell.



Q. 1392. In what state will the bodies of the just rise?

A. The bodies of the just will rise glorious and immortal.



Q. 1393. Will the bodies of the damned also rise?

A. The bodies of the damned will also rise, but they will be condemned to eternal punishment.



Q. 1394. Why do we show respect for the bodies of the dead?

A. We show respect for the bodies of the dead because they were the dwelling-place of the soul, the medium through which it received the Sacraments, and because they were created to occupy a place in heaven.



Q. 1395. What is Heaven?

A. Heaven is the state of everlasting life in which we see God face to face, are made like unto Him in glory, and enjoy eternal happiness.



Q. 1396. In what does the happiness in heaven consist?

A. The happiness in heaven consists in seeing the beauty of God, in knowing Him as He is, and in having every desire fully satisfied.



Q. 1397. What does St. Paul say of heaven?

A. St. Paul says of heaven, "That eye hath not seen. nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man what things God hath prepared for them that love Him." (I. Cor. ii., 9.)



Q. 1398. Are the rewards in heaven and the punishments in hell the same for all who enter into either of these states?

A. The rewards of heaven and the punishments in hell are not the same for all who enter into either of these states, because each one's reward or punishment is in proportion to the amount of good or evil he has done in this world. But as heaven and hell are everlasting, each one will enjoy his reward or suffer his punishment forever.



Q. 1399. What words should we bear always in mind?

A. We should bear always in mind these words of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ: "What doth it profit a man if he gain the whole world and suffer the loss of his own soul, or what exchange shall a man give for his soul? For the Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father with His angels; and then will He render to every man according to his works."



Q. 1400. Name some of the more essential religious truths we must know and believe.

A. Some of the more essential religious truths we must know and believe are:
1.(1) That there is but one God, and He will reward the good and punish the wicked.
2.(2) That in God there are three Divine Persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and these Divine Persons are called the Blessed Trinity.
3.(3) That Jesus Christ, the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, became man and died for our redemption.
4.(4) That the grace of God is necessary for our salvation.
5.(5) That the human soul is immortal.




THE HOLY BIBLE

Douay-Rheims Version

Translated from the Latin Vulgate, the Official Bible of the Catholic Church

NOTE: To traverse the Books and Chapters of the Holy Bible click on a link in the Table below. You can also continually search for the string "***" to traverse Books. Continually search for the string "Chapter" to traverse Chapters. To jump to the New Testment search for the string "New Testament of Our Lord". After clicking on a Link in the Table of Contents, to get back to the Table of Contents, click on the Back button.

How to search the Holy Bible:

1) Double click on My Computer, double click on DOCTRINE, double click on the file "32exam" and follow the installation instructions.
2) Using Examine, search the file Bible.htm on this CD for a word or phrase.

NOTE: Various complex searching can be done using Examine. Look at both icons that have the magnifying glass. One has a "T" in it and the other has a "+" in it. See wich one suits your search the best. With the "+" option, where it displays proximity, either choose "whole file" or chose "line(s)" with a proximity of anywhwere between 5 and 15. You can also search more than 1 text using the logical AND, OR, XOR, NOT by clicking on the Text2, Text3, Text4. Be sure to check or leave unchecked "Search subfolders", "Match Case", "Regular Expression", "Whole words" correctly.

After the search results are returned, double click on any of the returned lines to open up the file at the location the search criteria was found at.

Examine is also very useful for searching words or phrases in the SUMMA THEOLOGICA in the directory Summa, the Main Works of Saint Augustine in the directory Augustine, or the text of all Ecumenical Councils in the directory Ecumenical_Councils, the Latin Vulgate in the directory BIBLE, the Baltimore Catechism #3 in the file Baltimore_Catechism3.htm, the Main Works of Saint Louis Marie de Montfort in the file MONTFORT.TXT, the 1917 Code of Canon Law in the file 1917LAWS.TXT, on this web site or for searching anything on this entire web site starting at the root directory, "DOCTRINE".

The New Testament of Our Lord (Click Here)

The Old Testament

Book of Genesis: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
  46 47 48 49 50
Book of Exodus: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Book of Leviticus: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
Book of Numbers: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34 35 36
Book of Deuteronomy: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34
Book of Josue: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Book of Judges: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21
Book of Ruth: 1 2 3 4
 
First Book of Samuel, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
alias 1 Kings: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31
Second Book of Samuel, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
alias 2 Kings: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
 
First or Third Book 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
of Kings: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
 
Second or Fourth Book 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
of Kings: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
 
First Book of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Paralipomenon: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
 
Second Book of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Paralipomenon: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34 35 36
First Book of Esdras: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
 
Book of Nehemias, alias 2 Esdras: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
 
Book of Tobias: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
 
Book of Judith: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16
Book of Esther: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16
Book of Job: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
Book of Psalms: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
The 150 Psalms 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
of King David, 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
a Type, a Prefigurement 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
of Mary's Psalter, 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75
The Most Holy Rosary 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105
  106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
  121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135
  136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150
Book of Proverbs: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31
Book of Ecclesiastes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
 
Canticle of Canticles: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
 
Book of Wisdom: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19
Book of Ecclesiasticus: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
  46 48 49 50 51
Prophecy of Isaias: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
  46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
  61 62 63 64 65 66
Prophecy of Jeremias: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
  46 47 48 49 50 51 52
Lamentations of Jeremias: 1 2 3 4 5
 
Prophecy of Baruch: 1 2 3 4 5 6
 
Prophecy of Ezechiel: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
  46 47 48
Prophecy of Daniel: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
 
Prophecy of Osee: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
 
Prophecy of Joel: 1 2 3
 
Prophecy of Amos: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
 
Prophecy of Abdias: 1
 
Prophecy of Jonas: 1 2 3 4
 
Prophecy of Micheas: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
 
Prophecy of Nahum: 1 2 3
 
Prophecy of Habacuc: 1 2 3
 
Prophecy of Sophonias: 1 2 3
 
Prophecy of Aggeus: 1 2
 
Prophecy of Zacharias: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
 
Prophecy of Malachias: 1 2 3 4
 
First Book of Machabees: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16
Second Book of Machabees: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

The New Testament of Our Lord

Gospel According 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
to St. Matthew: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
                                      
Gospel According 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
to St. Mark: 16
 
Gospel According 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
to St. Luke: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
 
Gospel According 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
to St. John: 16 17 18 19 20 21
 
Acts: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Romans: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16
1 Corinthians: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16
2 Corinthians: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
 
Galatians: 1 2 3 4 5 6
 
Ephesians: 1 2 3 4 5 6
 
Philippians: 1 2 3 4
 
Colossians: 1 2 3 4
 
1 Thessalonians: 1 2 3 4 5
 
2 Thessalonians: 1 2 3
 
1 Timothy: 1 2 3 4 5 6
 
2 Timothy: 1 2 3 4
 
Titus: 1 2 3
 
Philemon: 1
 
Hebrews: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
 
James: 1 2 3 4 5
 
1 Peter: 1 2 3 4 5
 
2 Peter: 1 2 3
 
1 John: 1 2 3 4 5
 
2 John: 1
 
3 John: 1
 
Jude: 1
 
Apocalypse: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  16 17 18 19 20 21 22



The Books of the Holy Bible
===========================

The Old Testament
=================

Book of Genesis

Book of Exodus

Book of Leviticus

Book of Numbers

Book of Deuteronomy

Book of Josue

Book of Judges

Book of Ruth

First Book of Samuel, alias 1 Kings

Second Book of Samuel, alias 2 Kings

Third Book of Kings

Fourth Book of Kings

First Book of Paralipomenon

Second Book of Paralipomenon

First Book of Esdras

Book of Nehemias, alias 2 Esdras

Book of Tobias

Book of Judith

Book of Esther

Book of Job

Book of Psalms

Book of Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Solomon's Canticle of Canticles

Book of Wisdom

Ecclesiasticus

Prophecy of Isaias

Prophecy of Jeremias

Lamentations of Jeremias

Prophecy of Baruch

Prophecy of Ezechiel

Prophecy of Daniel

Prophecy of Osee

Prophecy of Joel

Prophecy of Amos

Prophecy of Abdias

Prophecy of Jonas

Prophecy of Micheas

Prophecy of Nahum

Prophecy of Habacuc

Prophecy of Sophonias

Prophecy of Aggeus

Prophecy of Zacharias

Prophecy of Malachias

First Book of Machabees

Second Book of Machabees

The New Testament
=================

Gospel According to St. Matthew

Gospel According to St. Mark

Gospel According to St. Luke

Gospel According to St. John

Acts of the Apostles

Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans

First Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians

Second Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians

Epistle of St. Paul to the Galatians

Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians

Epistle of St. Paul to the Philippians

Epistle of St. Paul to the Colossians

First Epistle of St. Paul to the Thessalonians

Second Epistle of St. Paul to the Thessalonians

First Epistle of St. Paul to Timothy

Second Epistle of St. Paul to Timothy

Epistle of St. Paul to Titus

Epistle of St. Paul to Philemon

Epistle of St. Paul to the Hebrews

Catholic Epistle of St. James the Apostle

First Epistle of St. Peter the Apostle

Second Epistle of St. Peter the Apostle

First Epistle of St. John the Apostle

Second Epistle of St. John the Apostle

Third Epistle of St. John the Apostle

Catholic Epistle of St. Jude the Apostle

Apocalypse of St. John the Apostle

THE OLD TESTAMENT
=================

*** THE BOOK OF GENESIS This book is so called from its treating of the GENERATION, that is, of the creation and the beginning of the world. The Hebrews call it BERESITH, from the Word with which it begins. It contains not only the history of the Creation of the world; but also an account of its progress during the space of 2369 years, that is, until the death of JOSEPH.



Chapter 1



God createth Heaven and Earth, and all things therein, in six days.



1:1. In the beginning God created heaven, and earth.



1:2. And the earth was void and empty, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God moved over the waters.



1:3. And God said: Be light made. And light was made.



1:4. And God saw the light that it was good; and he divided the light from the darkness.



1:5. And he called the light Day, and the darkness Night; and there was evening and morning one day.



1:6. And God said: Let there be a firmament made amidst the waters: and let it divide the waters from the waters.



A firmament. . .By this name is here understood the whole space between the earth, and the highest stars. The lower part of which divideth the waters that are upon the earth, from those that are above in the clouds.



1:7. And God made a firmament, and divided the waters that were under the firmament, from those that were above the firmament, and it was so.



1:8. And God called the firmament, Heaven; and the evening and morning were the second day.



1:9. God also said; Let the waters that are under the heaven, be gathered together into one place: and let the dry land appear. And it was so done.



1:10. And God called the dry land, Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, he called Seas. And God saw that it was good.



1:11. And he said: let the earth bring forth green herb, and such as may seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind, which may have seed in itself upon the earth. And it was so done.



1:12. And the earth brought forth the green herb, and such as yieldeth seed according to its kind, and the tree that beareth fruit, having seed each one according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.



1:13. And the evening and the morning were the third day.



1:14. And God said: Let there be lights made in the firmament of heaven, to divide the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years:



1:15. To shine in the firmament of heaven, and to give light upon the earth, and it was so done.



1:16. And God made two great lights: a greater light to rule the day; and a lesser light to rule the night: and the stars.



Two great lights. . .God created on the first day, light, which being moved from east to west, by its rising and setting, made morning and evening. But on the fourth day he ordered and distributed this light, and made the sun, moon, and stars. The moon, though much less than the stars, is here called a great light, from its giving a far greater light to the earth than any of them.



1:17. And he set them in the firmament of heaven to shine upon the earth.



1:18. And to rule the day and the night, and to divide the light and the darkness. And God saw that it was good.



1:19. And the evening and morning were the fourth day.



1:20. God also said: let the waters bring forth the creeping creature having life, and the fowl that may fly over the earth under the firmament of heaven.



1:21. And God created the great whales, and every living and moving creature, which the waters brought forth, according to their kinds, and every winged fowl according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.



1:22. And he blessed them, saying: Increase and multiply, and fill the waters of the sea: and let the birds be multiplied upon the earth.



1:23. And the evening and morning were the fifth day.



1:24. And God said: Let the earth bring forth the living creature in its kind, cattle and creeping things, and beasts of the earth, according to their kinds. And it was so done.



1:25. And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kinds, and cattle, and every thing that creepeth on the earth after its kind. And God saw that it was good.



1:26. And he said: Let us make man to our image and likeness: and let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and the beasts, and the whole earth, and every creeping creature that moveth upon the earth.



Let us make man to our image. . .This image of God in man, is not in the body, but in the soul; which is a spiritual substance, endued with understanding and free will. God speaketh here in the plural number, to insinuate the plurality of persons in the Deity.



1:27. And God created man to his own image: to the image of God he created him: male and female he created them.



1:28. And God blessed them, saying: Increase and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it, and rule over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and all living creatures that move upon the earth.



Increase and multiply. . .This is not a precept, as some Protestant controvertists would have it, but a blessing, rendering them fruitful; for God had said the same words to the fishes, and birds, (ver. 22) who were incapable of receiving a precept.



1:29. And God said: Behold I have given you every herb bearing seed upon the earth, and all trees that have in themselves seed of their own kind, to be your meat:



1:30. And to all beasts of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to all that move upon the earth, and wherein there is life, that they may have to feed upon. And it was so done.



1:31. And God saw all the things that he had made, and they were very good. And the evening and morning were the sixth day.











Genesis Chapter 2



God resteth on the seventh day and blesseth it. The earthly paradise, in which God placeth man. He commandeth him not to eat of the tree of knowledge. And formeth a woman of his rib.



2:1. So the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the furniture of them.



2:2. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made: and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done.



He rested, etc. . .That is, he ceased to make or create any new kinds of things. Though, as our Lord tells us, John 5.17, "He still worketh", viz., by conserving and governing all things, and creating souls.



2:3. And he blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.



2:4. These are the generations of the heaven and the earth, when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the heaven and the earth:



2:5. And every plant of the field before it sprung up in the earth, and every herb of the ground before it grew: for the Lord God had not rained upon the earth; and there was not a man to till the earth.



2:6. But a spring rose out of the earth, watering all the surface of the earth.



2:7. And the Lord God formed man of the slime of the earth: and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul.



2:8. And the Lord God had planted a paradise of pleasure from the beginning: wherein he placed man whom he had formed.



2:9. And the Lord God brought forth of the ground all manner of trees, fair to behold, and pleasant to eat of: the tree of life also in the midst of paradise: and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.



The tree of life. . .So called because it had that quality, that by eating of the fruit of it, man would have been preserved in a constant state of health, vigour, and strength, and would not have died at all. The tree of knowledge. . .To which the deceitful serpent falsely attributed the power of imparting a superior kind of knowledge, beyond that which God was pleased to give.



2:10. And a river went out of the place of pleasure to water paradise, which from thence is divided into four heads.



2:11. The name of the one is Phison: that is it which compasseth all the land of Hevilath, where gold groweth.



2:12. And the gold of that land is very good: there is found bdellium, and the onyx stone.



2:13. And the name of the second river is Gehon: the same is it that compasseth all the land of Ethiopia.



2:14. And the name of the third river is Tigris: the same passeth along by the Assyrians. And the fourth river is Euphrates.



2:15. And the Lord God took man, and put him into the paradise of pleasure, to dress it, and to keep it.



2:16. And he commanded him, saying: Of every tree of paradise thou shalt eat:



2:17. But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat. For in what day soever thou shalt eat of it, thou shalt die the death.



2:18. And the Lord God said: It is not good for man to be alone: let us make him a help like unto himself.



2:19. And the Lord God having formed out of the ground all the beasts of the earth, and all the fowls of the air, brought them to Adam to see what he would call them: for whatsoever Adam called any living creature the same is its name.



2:20. And Adam called all the beasts by their names, and all the fowls of the air, and all the cattle of the field: but for Adam there was not found a helper like himself.



2:21. Then the Lord God cast a deep sleep upon Adam: and when he was fast asleep, he took one of his ribs, and filled up flesh for it.



2:22. And the Lord God built the rib which he took from Adam into a woman: and brought her to Adam.



2:23. And Adam said: This now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man.



2:24. Wherefore a man shall leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they shall be two in one flesh.



2:25. And they were both naked: to wit, Adam and his wife: and were not ashamed.



Genesis Chapter 3



The serpent's craft. The fall of our first parents. Their punishment. The promise of a Redeemer.



3:1. Now the serpent was more subtle than any of the beasts of the earth which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman: Why hath God commanded you, that you should not eat of every tree of paradise?



3:2. And the woman answered him, saying: Of the fruit of the trees that are in paradise we do eat:



3:3. But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of paradise, God hath commanded us that we should not eat; and that we should not touch it, lest perhaps we die.



3:4. And the serpent said to the woman: No, you shall not die the death.



3:5. For God doth know that in what day soever you shall eat thereof, your eyes shall be opened: and you shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil.



3:6. And the woman saw that the tree was good to eat, and fair to the eyes, and delightful to behold: and she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave to her husband, who did eat.



3:7. And the eyes of them both were opened: and when they perceived themselves to be naked, they sewed together fig leaves, and made themselves aprons.



And the eyes, etc. . .Not that they were blind before, (for the woman saw that the tree was fair to the eyes, ver. 6.) nor yet that their eyes were opened to any more perfect knowledge of good; but only to the unhappy experience of having lost the good of original grace and innocence, and incurred the dreadful evil of sin. From whence followed a shame of their being naked; which they minded not before; because being now stript of original grace, they quickly began to be subject to the shameful rebellions of the flesh.



3:8. And when they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in paradise at the afternoon air, Adam and his wife hid themselves from the face of the Lord God, amidst the trees of paradise.



3:9. And the Lord God called Adam, and said to him: Where art thou?



3:10. And he said: I heard thy voice in paradise; and I was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid myself.



3:11. And he said to him: And who hath told thee that thou wast naked, but that thou hast eaten of the tree whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldst not eat?



3:12. And Adam said: The woman, whom thou gavest me to be my companion, gave me of the tree, and I did eat.



3:13. And the Lord God said to the woman: Why hast thou done this? And she answered: The serpent deceived me, and I did eat.



3:14. And the Lord God said to the serpent: Because thou hast done this thing, thou art cursed among all cattle, and beasts of the earth: upon thy breast shalt thou go, and earth shalt thou eat all the days of thy life.



3:15. I will put enmities between thee and the woman, and thy seed and her seed: she shall crush thy head, and thou shalt lie in wait for her heel.



She shall crush. . .Ipsa, the woman; so divers of the fathers read this place, conformably to the Latin: others read it ipsum, viz., the seed. The sense is the same: for it is by her seed, Jesus Christ, that the woman crushes the serpent's head.



3:16. To the woman also he said: I will multiply thy sorrows, and thy conceptions: in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children, and thou shalt be under thy husband's power, and he shall have dominion over thee.



3:17. And to Adam he said: Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee, that thou shouldst not eat, cursed is the earth in thy work: with labour and toil shalt thou eat thereof all the days of thy life.



3:18. Thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat the herbs of the earth.



3:19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return to the earth out of which thou wast taken: for dust thou art, and into dust thou shalt return.



3:20. And Adam called the name of his wife Eve: because she was the mother of all the living.



3:21. And the Lord God made for Adam and his wife garments of skins, and clothed them.



3:22. And he said: Behold Adam is become as one of us, knowing good and evil: now therefore lest perhaps he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.



Behold Adam, etc. . .This was spoken by way of reproaching him with his pride, in affecting a knowledge that might make him like to God.



3:23. And the Lord God sent him out of the paradise of pleasure, to till the earth from which he was taken.



3:24. And he cast out Adam: and placed before the paradise of pleasure Cherubims, and a flaming sword, turning every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.



Genesis Chapter 4



The history of Cain and Abel.



4:1. And Adam knew Eve his wife; who conceived and brought forth Cain, saying: I have gotten a man through God.



4:2. And again she brought forth his brother Abel. And Abel was a shepherd, and Cain a husbandman.



4:3. And it came to pass after many days, that Cain offered, of the fruits of the earth, gifts to the Lord.



4:4. Abel also offered of the firstlings of his flock, and of their fat: and the Lord had respect to Abel, and to his offerings.



Had respect. . .That is, shewed his acceptance of his sacrifice (as coming from a heart full of devotion): and that, as we may suppose, by some visible token, such as sending fire from heaven upon his offerings.



4:5. But to Cain and his offerings he had no respect: and Cain was exceeding angry, and his countenance fell.



4:6. And the Lord said to him: Why art thou angry? and why is thy countenance fallen?



4:7. If thou do well, shalt thou not receive? but if ill, shall not sin forthwith be present at the door? but the lust thereof shall be under thee, and thou shalt have dominion over it.



4:8. And Cain said to Abel his brother: Let us go forth abroad. And when they were in the field, Cain rose up against his brother Abel, and slew him.



4:9. And the Lord said to Cain: Where is thy brother Abel? And he answered: I know not: am I my brother's keeper?



4:10. And he said to him: What hast thou done? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth to me from the earth.



4:11. Now therefore cursed shalt thou be upon the earth, which hath opened her mouth and received the blood of thy brother at thy hand.



4:12. When thou shalt till it, it shall not yield to thee its fruit: a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be upon the earth.



4:13. And Cain said to the Lord: My iniquity is greater than that I may deserve pardon.



4:14. Behold thou dost cast me out this day from the face of the earth, and from thy face I shall be hid, and I shall be a vagabond and a fugitive on the earth: every one therefore that findeth me, shall kill me.



Every one that findeth me shall kill me. . .His guilty conscience made him fear his own brothers and nephews; of whom, by this time, there might be a good number upon the earth; which had now endured near 130 years; as may be gathered from Gen. 5.3, compared with chap. 4.25, though in the compendious account given in the scriptures, only Cain and Abel are mentioned.



4:15. And the Lord said to him: No, it shall not so be: but whosoever shall kill Cain, shall be punished sevenfold. And the Lord set a mark upon Cain, that whosoever found him should not kill him.



Set a mark, etc. . .The more common opinion of the interpreters of holy writ supposes this mark to have been a trembling of the body; or a horror and consternation in his countenance.



4:16. And Cain went out from the face of the Lord, and dwelt as a fugitive on the earth at the east side of Eden.



4:17. And Cain knew his wife, and she conceived, and brought forth Henoch: and he built a city, and called the name thereof by the name of his son Henoch.



His wife. . .She was a daughter of Adam, and Cain's own sister; God dispensing with such marriages in the beginning of the world, as mankind could not otherwise be propagated. He built a city, viz. . .In process of time, when his race was multiplied, so as to be numerous enough to people it. For in the many hundred years he lived, his race might be multiplied even to millions.



4:18. And Henoch begot Irad, and Irad begot Maviael, and Maviael begot Mathusael, and Mathusael begot Lamech,



4:19. Who took two wives: the name of the one was Ada, and the name of the other Sella.



4:20. And Ada brought forth Jabel: who was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of herdsmen.



4:21. And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of them that play upon the harp and the organs.



4:22. Sella also brought forth Tubalcain, who was a hammerer and artificer in every work of brass and iron. And the sister of Tubalcain was Noema.



4:23. And Lamech said to his wives Ada and Sella: Hear my voice, ye wives of Lamech, hearken to my speech: for I have slain a man to the wounding of myself, and a stripling to my own bruising.



I have slain a man, etc. . .It is the tradition of the Hebrews, that Lamech in hunting slew Cain, mistaking him for a wild beast; and that having discovered what he had done, he beat so unmercifully the youth, by whom he was led into that mistake, that he died of the blows.



4:24. Sevenfold vengeance shall be taken for Cain: but for Lamech seventy times sevenfold.



4:25. Adam also knew his wife again: and she brought forth a son, and called his name Seth, saying: God hath given me another seed for Abel, whom Cain slew.



4:26. But to Seth also was born a son, whom he called Enos: this man began to call upon the name of the Lord.



Began to call upon, etc. . .Not that Adam and Seth had not called upon God, before the birth of Enos; but that Enos used more solemnity in the worship and invocation of God.



Genesis Chapter 5



The genealogy, age, and death of the Patriarchs, from Adam to Noe. The translation of Henoch.



5:1. This is the book of the generation of Adam. In the day that God created man, he made him to the likeness of God.



5:2. He created them male and female; and blessed them: and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.



5:3. And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son to his own image and likeness, and called his name Seth.



5:4. And the days of Adam, after he begot Seth, were eight hundred years: and he begot sons and daughters.



5:5. And all the time that Adam lived, came to nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.



5:6. Seth also lived a hundred and five years, and begot Enos.



5:7. And Seth lived after he begot Enos, eight hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters.



5:8. And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and twelve years, and he died.



5:9. And Enos lived ninety years, and begot Cainan.



5:10. After whose birth he lived eight hundred and fifteen years, and begot sons and daughters.



5:11. And all the days of Enos were nine hundred and five years, and he died.



5:12. And Cainan lived seventy years, and begot Malaleel.



5:13. And Cainan lived after he begot Malaleel, eight hundred and forty years, and begot sons and daughters.



5:14. And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years, and he died.



5:15. And Malaleel lived sixty-five years and begot Jared.



5:16. And Malaleel lived after he begot Jared, eight hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters.



5:17. And all the days of Malaleel were eight hundred and ninety- five years, and he died.



5:18. And Jared lived a hundred and sixty-two years, and begot Henoch.



5:19. And Jared lived after he begot Henoch, eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.



5:20. And all the days of Jared were nine hundred and sixty-two years, and he died.



5:21. And Henoch lived sixty-five years, and begot Mathusala.



5:22. And Henoch walked with God: and lived after he begot Mathusala, three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.



5:23. And all the days of Henoch were three hundred and sixty- five years.



5:24. And he walked with God, and was seen no more: because God took him.



5:25. And Mathusala lived a hundred and eighty-seven years, and begot Lamech.



5:26. And Mathlusala lived after he begot Lamech, seven hundred and eighty-two years, and begot sons and daughters.



5:27. And all the days of Mathusala were nine hundred and sixty- nine years, and he died.



5:28. And Lamech lived a hundred and eighty-two years, and begot a son.



5:29. And he called his name Noe, saying: This same shall comfort us from the works and labours of our hands on the earth, which the Lord hath cursed.



5:30. And Lamech lived after he begot Noe, five hundred and ninety-five years, and begot sons and daughters.



5:31. And all the days of Lamech came to seven hundred and seventy-seven years, and he died. And Noe, when he was five hundred years old, begot Sem, Cham, and Japheth.







Genesis Chapter 6



Man's sin is the cause of the deluge. Noe is commanded to build the ark.



6:1. And after that men began to be multiplied upon the earth, and daughters were born to them,



6:2. The sons of God seeing the daughters of men, that they were fair, took to themselves wives of all which they chose.



The sons of God. . .The descendants of Seth and Enos are here called sons of God from their religion and piety: whereas the ungodly race of Cain, who by their carnal affections lay grovelling upon the earth, are called the children of men. The unhappy consequence of the former marrying with the latter, ought to be a warning to Christians to be very circumspect in their marriages; and not to suffer themselves to be determined in their choice by their carnal passion, to the prejudice of virtue or religion.



6:3. And God said: My spirit shall not remain in man for ever, because he is flesh, and his days shall be a hundred and twenty years.



His days shall be, etc. . .The meaning is, that man's days, which before the flood were usually 900 years, should now be reduced to 120 years. Or rather, that God would allow men this term of 120 years, for their repentance and conversion, before he would send the deluge.



6:4. Now giants were upon the earth in those days. For after the sons of God went in to the daughters of men, and they brought forth children, these are the mighty men of old, men of renown.



Giants. . .It is likely the generality of men before the flood were of a gigantic stature in comparison with what men now are. But these here spoken of are called giants, as being not only tall in stature, but violent and savage in their dispositions, and mere monsters of cruelty and lust.



6:5. And God seeing that the wickedness of men was great on the earth, and that all the thought of their heart was bent upon evil at all times,



6:6. It repented him that he had made man on the earth. And being touched inwardly with sorrow of heart,



It repented him, etc. . .God, who is unchangeable, is not capable of repentance, grief, or any other passion. But these expressions are used to declare the enormity of the sins of men, which was so provoking as to determine their Creator to destroy these his creatures, whom before he had so much favoured.



6:7. He said: I will destroy man, whom I have created, from the face of the earth, from man even to beasts, from the creeping thing even to the fowls of the air, for it repenteth me that I have made them.



6:8. But Noe found grace before the Lord.



6:9. These are the generations of Noe: Noe was a just and perfect man in his generations, he walked with God.



6:10. And he begot three sons, Sem, Cham, and Japheth.



6:11. And the earth was corrupted before God, and was filled with iniquity.



6:12. And when God had seen that the earth was corrupted (for all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth),



6:13. He said to Noe: The end of all flesh is come before me, the earth is filled with iniquity through them, and I will destroy them with the earth.



6:14. Make thee an ark of timber planks: thou shalt make little rooms in the ark, and thou shalt pitch it within and without.



6:15. And thus shalt thou make it. The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits: the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.



Three hundred cubits, etc. . .The ark, according to the dimensions here set down, contained four hundred and fifty thousand square cubits; which was more than enough to contain all the kinds of living creatures, with all necessary provisions: even supposing the cubits here spoken of to have been only a foot and a half each, which was the least kind of cubits.



6:16. Thou shalt make a window in the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish the top of it: and the door of the ark thou shalt set in the side: with lower, middle chambers, and third stories shalt thou make it.



6:17. Behold, I will bring the waters of a great flood upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life under heaven. All things that are in the earth shall be consumed.



6:18. And I will establish my covenant with thee, and thou shalt enter into the ark, thou and thy sons, and thy wife, and the wives of thy sons with thee.



6:19. And of every living creature of all flesh, thou shalt bring two of a sort into the ark, that they may live with thee: of the male sex, and the female.



6:20. Of fowls according to their kind, and of beasts in their kind, and of every thing that creepeth on the earth according to its kind: two of every sort shall go in with thee, that they may live.



6:21. Thou shalt take unto thee of all food that may be eaten, and thou shalt lay it up with thee: and it shall be food for thee and them.



6:22. And Noe did all things which God commanded him.



Genesis Chapter 7



Noe with his family go into the ark. The deluge overflows the earth.



7:1. And the Lord said to him: Go in, thou and all thy house, into the ark: for thee I have seen just before me in this generation.



7:2. Of all clean beasts take seven and seven, the male and the female.



Of all clean. . .The distinction of clean and unclean beasts appears to have been made before the law of Moses, which was not promulgated till the year of the world 2514.



7:3. But of the beasts that are unclean two and two, the male and the female. Of the fowls also of the air seven and seven, the male and the female: that seed may be saved upon the face of the whole earth.



7:4. For yet a while, and after seven days, I will rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights: and I will destroy every substance that I have made, from the face of the earth.



7:5. And Noe did all things which the Lord had commanded him.



7:6. And he was six hundred years old, when the waters of the flood overflowed the earth.



7:7. And Noe went in and his sons, his wife and the wives of his sons with him into the ark, because of the waters of the flood.



7:8. And of beasts clean and unclean, and of fowls, and of every thing that moveth upon the earth,



7:9. Two and two went in to Noe into the ark, male and female, as the Lord had commanded Noe.



7:10. And after the seven days were passed, the waters of the flood overflowed the earth.



7:11. In the six hundredth year of the life of Noe, in the second month, in the seventeenth day of the month, all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the floodgates of heaven were opened:



7:12. And the rain fell upon the earth forty days and forty nights.



7:13. In the selfsame day Noe, and Sem, and Cham, and Japheth, his sons: his wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, went into the ark.



7:14. They and every beast according to its kind, and all the cattle in their kind, and every thing that moveth upon the earth, according to its kind, and every fowl according to its kind, all birds, and all that fly,



7:15. Went in to Noe into the ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein was the breath of life.



7:16. And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had commanded him: and the Lord shut him in on the outside.



7:17. And the flood was forty days upon the earth: and the waters increased, and lifted up the ark on high from the earth.



7:18. For they overflowed exceedingly: and filled all on the face of the earth: and the ark was carried upon the waters.



7:19. And the waters prevailed beyond measure upon the earth: and all the high mountains under the whole heaven were covered.



7:20. The water was fifteen cubits higher than the mountains which it covered.



7:21. And all flesh was destroyed that moved upon the earth, both of fowl and of cattle, and of beasts, and of all creeping things that creep upon the earth: and all men.



7:22. And all things wherein there is the breath of life on the earth, died.



7:23. And he destroyed all the substance that was upon the earth, from man even to beast, and the creeping things and fowls of the air: and they were destroyed from the earth: and Noe only remained, and they that were with him in the ark.



7:24. And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.



Genesis Chapter 8



The deluge ceaseth. Noe goeth out of the ark, and offereth a sacrifice. God's covenant to him.



8:1. And God remembered Noe, and all the living creatures, and all the cattle which were with him in the ark, and brought a wind upon the earth, and the waters were abated:



8:2. The fountains also of the deep, and the floodgates of heaven, were shut up, and the rain from heaven was restrained.



8:3. And the waters returned from off the earth going and coming: and they began to be abated after a hundred and fifty days.



8:4. And the ark rested in the seventh month, the seven and twentieth day of the month, upon the mountains of Armenia.



8:5. And the waters were going and decreasing until the tenth month: for in the tenth month, the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains appeared.



8:6. And after that forty days were passed, Noe opening the window of the ark, which he had made, sent forth a raven:



8:7. Which went forth and did not return, till the waters were dried up upon the earth.



Did not return. . .The raven did not return into the ark; but (as it may be gathered from the Hebrew) went to and fro; sometimes going to the mountains, where it found carcasses to feed on: and other times returning, to rest upon the top of the ark.



8:8. He sent forth also a dove after him, to see if the waters had now ceased upon the face of the earth.



8:9. But she not finding where her foot might rest, returned to him into the ark: for the waters were upon the whole earth: and he put forth his hand, and caught her, and brought her into the ark.



8:10. And having waited yet seven other days, he again sent forth the dove out of the ark.



8:11. And she came to him in the evening carrying a bough of an olive tree, with green leaves, in her mouth. Noe therefore understood that the waters were ceased upon the earth.



8:12. And he stayed yet other seven days: and he sent forth the dove, which returned not any more unto him.



8:13. Therefore in the six hundredth and first year, the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were lessened upon the earth, and Noe opening the covering of the ark, looked, and saw that the face of the earth was dried.



8:14. In the second month, the seven and twentieth day of the month, the earth was dried.



8:15. And God spoke to Noe, saying:



8:16. Go out of the ark, thou and thy wife, thy sons and the wives of thy sons with thee.



8:17. All living things that are with thee of all flesh, as well in fowls as in beasts, and all creeping things that creep upon the earth, bring out with thee, and go ye upon the earth: increase and multiply upon it.



8:18. So Noe went out, he and his sons: his wife, and the wives of his sons with him.



8:19. And all living things, and cattle, and creeping things that creep upon the earth, according to their kinds went out of the ark.



8:20. And Noe built an altar unto the Lord: and taking of all cattle and fowls that were clean, offered holocausts upon the altar.



Holocausts,. . .or whole burnt offerings. In which the whole victim was consumed by fire upon God's altar, and no part was reserved for the use of priest or people.



8:21. And the Lord smelled a sweet savour, and said: I will no more curse the earth for the sake of man: for the imagination and thought of man's heart are prone to evil from his youth: therefore I will no more destroy every living soul as I have done.



Smelled, etc. . .A figurative expression, denoting that God was well pleased with the sacrifices which his servant offered.



8:22. All the days of the earth, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, night and day, shall not cease.



Genesis Chapter 9



God blesseth Noe: forbiddeth blood, and promiseth never more to destroy the world by water. The blessing of Sem and Japheth.



9:1. And God blessed Noe and his sons. And he said to them: Increase, and multiply, and fill the earth.



9:2. And let the fear and dread of you be upon all the beasts of the earth, and upon all the fowls of the air, and all that move upon the earth: all the fishes of the sea are delivered into your hand.



9:3. And every thing that moveth, and liveth shall be meat for you: even as the green herbs have I delivered them all to you:



9:4. Saving that flesh with blood you shall not eat.



9:5. For I will require the blood of your lives at the hand of every beast, and at the hand of man, at the hand of every man, and of his brother, will I require the life of man.



9:6. Whosoever shall shed man's blood, his blood shall be shed: for man was made to the image of God.



9:7. But increase you and multiply, and go upon the earth and fill it.



9:8. Thus also said God to Noe, and to his sons with him:



9:9. Behold I will establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you:



9:10. And with every living soul that is with you, as well in all birds, as in cattle and beasts of the earth, that are come forth out of the ark, and in all the beasts of the earth.



9:11. I will establish my covenant with you, and all flesh shall be no more destroyed with the waters of a flood, neither shall there be from henceforth a flood to waste the earth.



9:12. And God said: This is the sign of the covenant which I give between me and you, and to every living soul that is with you, for perpetual generations.



9:13. I will set my bow in the clouds, and it shall be the sign of a covenant between me and between the earth.



9:14. And when I shall cover the sky with clouds, my bow shall appear in the clouds:



9:15. And I will remember my covenant with you, and with every living soul that beareth flesh: and there shall no more be waters of a flood to destroy all flesh.



9:16. And the bow shall be in the clouds, and I shall see it, and shall remember the everlasting covenant, that was made between God and every living soul of all flesh which is upon the earth.



9:17. And God said to Noe: This shall be the sign of the covenant, which I have established, between me and all flesh upon the earth.



9:18. And the sons of Noe, who came out of the ark, were Sem, Cham, and Japheth: and Cham is the father of Chanaan.



9:19. These three are the sons of Noe: and from these was all mankind spread over the whole earth.



9:20. And Noe a husbandman began to till the ground, and planted a vineyard.



9:21. And drinking of the wine was made drunk, and was uncovered in his tent.



Drunk. . .Noe by the judgment of the fathers was not guilty of sin, in being overcome by wine: because he knew not the strength of it.



9:22. Which when Cham the father of Chanaan had seen, to wit, that his father's nakedness was uncovered, he told it to his two brethren without.



9:23. But Sem and Japheth put a cloak upon their shoulders, and going backward, covered the nakedness of their father: and their faces were turned away, and they saw not their father's nakedness.



Covered the nakedness. . .Thus, as St. Gregory takes notice L. 35; Moral. c. 22, we ought to cover the nakedness, that is, the sins, of our spiritual parents and superiors.



9:24. And Noe awaking from the wine, when he had learned what his younger son had done to him,



9:25. He said: Cursed be Chanaan, a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.



Cursed be Chanaan. . .The curses, as well as the blessings, of the patriarchs, were prophetical: And this in particular is here recorded by Moses, for the children of Israel, who were to possess the land of Chanaan. But why should Chanaan be cursed for his father's faults? The Hebrews answer, that he being then a boy, was the first that saw his grandfather's nakedness, and told his father Cham of it; and joined with him in laughing at it: which drew upon him, rather than upon the rest of the children of Cham, this prophetical curse.



9:26. And he said: Blessed be the Lord God of Sem, be Chanaan his servant.



9:27. May God enlarge Japheth, and may he dwell in the tents of Sem, and Chanaan be his servant.



9:28. And Noe lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years.



9:29. And all his days were in the whole nine hundred and fifty years: and he died.







Genesis Chapter 10



The genealogy of the children of Noe, by whom the world was peopled after the flood.



10:1. These are the generations of the sons of Noe: Sem, Cham, and Japheth: and unto them sons were born after the flood.



10:2. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Thubal, and Mosoch, and Thiras.



10:3. And the sons of Gomer: Ascenez and Riphath and Thogorma.



10:4. And the sons of Javan: Elisa and Tharsis, Cetthim and Dodanim.



10:5. By these were divided the islands of the Gentiles in their lands, every one according to his tongue and their families in their nations.



The islands. . .So the Hebrews called all the remote countries, to which they went by ships from Judea, to Greece, Italy, Spain, etc.



10:6. And the Sons of Cham: Chus, and Mesram, and Phuth, and Chanaan.



10:7. And the sons of Chus: Saba, and Hevila, and Sabatha, and Regma, and Sabatacha. The sons of Regma: Saba, and Dadan.



10:8. Now Chus begot Nemrod: he began to be mighty on the earth.



10:9. And he was a stout hunter before the Lord. Hence came a proverb: Even as Nemrod the stout hunter before the Lord.



A stout hunter. . .Not of beasts but of men: whom by violence and tyranny he brought under his dominion. And such he was, not only in the opinion of men, but before the Lord, that is, in his sight who cannot be deceived.



10:10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, and Arach, and Achad, and Chalanne in the land of Sennaar.



10:11. Out of that land came forth Assur, and built Ninive, and the streets of the city, and Chale.



10:12. Resen also between Ninive and Chale: this is the great city.



10:13. And Mesraim begot Ludim, and Anamim and Laabim, Nephthuim.



10:14. And Phetrusim, and Chasluim; of whom came forth the Philistines, and the Capthorim.



10:15. And Chanaan begot Sidon his firstborn, the Hethite,



10:16. And the Jebusite, and the Amorrhite, and the Gergesite.



10:17. The Hevite and Aracite: the Sinite,



10:18. And the Aradian, the Samarite, and the Hamathite: and afterwards the families of the Chanaanites were spread abroad.



10:19. And the limits of Chanaan were from Sidon as one comes to Gerara even to Gaza, until thou enter Sodom and Gomorrha, and Adama, and Seboim even to Lesa.



10:20. These are the children of Cham in their kindreds and tongues, and generations, and lands, and nations.



10:21. Of Sem also the father of all the children of Heber, the elder brother of Japheth, sons were born.



10:22. The sons of Sem: Elam and Assur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram.



10:23. The sons of Aram: Us, and Hull, and Gether; and Mes.



10:24. But Arphaxad begot Sale, of whom was born Heber.



10:25. And to Heber were born two sons: the name of the one was Phaleg, because in his days was the earth divided: and his brother's name Jectan.



10:26. Which Jectan begot Elmodad, and Saleph, and Asarmoth, Jare,



10:27. And Aduram, and Uzal, and Decla,



10:28. And Ebal, and Abimael, Saba,



10:29. And Ophir, and Hevila, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Jectan.



10:30. And their dwelling was from Messa as we go on as far as Sephar, a mountain in the east.



10:31. These are the children of Sem according to their kindreds and tongues, and countries in their nations.



10:32. These are the families of Noe, according to their people and nations. By these were the nations divided on the earth after the flood.







Genesis Chapter 11



The tower of Babel. The confusion of tongues. The genealogy of Sem down to Abram.



11:1. And the earth was of one tongue, and of the same speech.



11:2. And when they removed from the east, they found a plain in the land of Sennaar, and dwelt in it.



11:3. And each one said to his neighbour: Come let us make brick, and bake them with fire. And they had brick instead of stones, and slime instead of mortar:



11:4. And they said: Come, let us make a city and a tower, the top whereof may reach to heaven; and let us make our name famous before we be scattered abroad into all lands.



11:5. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of Adam were building.



11:6. And he said: Behold, it is one people, and all have one tongue: and they have begun to do this, neither will they leave off from their designs, till they accomplish them in deed.



11:7. Come ye, therefore, let us go down, and there confound their tongue, that they may not understand one another's speech.



11:8. And so the Lord scattered them from that place into all lands, and they ceased to build the city.



11:9. And therefore the name thereof was called Babel, because there the language of the whole earth was confounded: and from thence the Lord scattered them abroad upon the face of all countries.



Babel. . .That is, confusion.



11:10. These are the generations of Sem: Sem was a hundred years old when he begot Arphaxad, two years after the flood.



11:11. And Sem lived after he begot Arphaxad, five hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.



11:12. And Arphaxad lived thirty-five years, and begot Sale.



11:13. And Arphaxad lived after he begot Sale, three hundred and three years, and begot sons and daughters.



11:14. Sale also lived thirty years, and begot Heber.



11:15. And Sale lived after he begot Heber, four hundred and three years: and begot sons and daughters.



11:16. And Heber lived thirty-four years, and begot Phaleg.



11:17. And Heber lived after he begot Phaleg, four hundred and thirty years: and begot sons and daughters.



11:18. Phaleg also lived thirty years, and begot Reu.



11:19. And Phaleg lived after he begot Reu, two hundred and nine years, and begot sons and daughters.



11:20. And Reu lived thirty-two years, and begot Sarug.



11:21. And Reu lived after he begot Sarug, two hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters.



11:22. And Sarug lived thirty years, and begot Nachor.



11:23. And Sarug lived after he begot Nachor, two hundred years, and begot sons and daughters.



11:24. And Nachor lived nine and twenty years, and begot Thare.



11:25. And Nachor lived after he begot Thare, a hundred and nineteen years, and begot sons and daughters.



11:26. And Thare lived seventy years, and begot Abram, and Nachor, and Aran.



11:27. And these are the generations of Thare: Thare begot Abram, Nachor, and Aran. And Aran begot Lot.



11:28. And Aran died before Thare his father, in the land of his nativity in Ur of the Chaldees.



11:29. And Abram and Nachor married wives: the name of Abram's wife was Sarai: and the name of Nachor's wife, Melcha, the daughter of Aran, father of Melcha and father of Jescha.



11:30. And Sarai was barren, and had no children.



11:31. And Thare took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Aran, his son's son, and Sarai his daughter in law, the wife of Abram his son, and brought them out of Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Chanaan: and they came as far as Haran, and dwelt there.



11:32. And the days of Thare were two hundred and five years, and he died in Haran.







Genesis Chapter 12



The call of Abram, and the promise made to him. He sojourneth in Chanaan, and then by occasion of a famine, goeth down to Egypt.



12:1. And the Lord said to Abram: Go forth out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and out of thy father's house, and come into the land which I shall shew thee.



12:2. And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and magnify thy name, and thou shalt be blessed.



12:3. I will bless them that bless thee, and curse them that curse thee, and IN THEE shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed.



12:4. So Abram went out as the Lord had commanded him, and Lot went with him: Abram was seventy-five years old when he went forth from Haran.



12:5. And he took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all the substance which they had gathered, and the souls which they had gotten in Haran: and they went out to go into the land of Chanaan. And when they were come into it,



12:6. Abram passed through the country unto the place of Sichem, as far as the noble vale: now the Chanaanite was at that time in the land.



12:7. And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said to him: To thy seed will I give this land. And he built there an altar to the Lord, who had appeared to him.



12:8. And passing on from thence to a mountain, that was on the east side of Bethel, he there pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west, and Hai on the east: he built there also an altar to the Lord, and called upon his name.



12:9. And Abram went forward, going and proceeding on to the south.



12:10. And there came a famine in the country: and Abram went down into Egypt, to sojourn there: for the famine was very grievous in the land.



12:11. And when he was near to enter into Egypt, he said to Sarai his wife: I know that thou art a beautiful woman:



12:12. And that when the Egyptians shall see thee, they will say: She is his wife: and they will kill me, and keep thee.



12:13. Say, therefore, I pray thee, that thou art my sister: that I may be well used for thee, and that my soul may live for thy sake.



My sister. . .This was no lie; because she was his niece, being daughter to his brother Aran, and therefore, in the style of the Hebrews, she might truly be called his sister, as Lot is called Abram's brother, Gen. 14.14. See Gen. 20.12.



12:14. And when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians saw the woman that she was very beautiful.



12:15. And the princes told Pharao, and praised her before him: and the woman was taken into the house of Pharao.



12:16. And they used Abram well for her sake. And he had sheep and oxen and he asses, and men servants, and maid servants, and she asses, and camels.



12:17. But the Lord scourged Pharao and his house with most grievous stripes for Sarai, Abram's wife.



12:18. And Pharao called Abram, and said to him: What is this that thou hast done to me? Why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?



12:19. For what cause didst thou say, she was thy sister, that I might take her to my wife? Now therefore there is thy wife, take her, and go thy way.



12:20. And Pharao gave his men orders concerning Abram: and they led him away and his wife, and all that he had.







Genesis Chapter 13



Abram and Lot part from each other. God's promise to Abram.



13:1. And Abram went up out of Egypt, he and his wife, and all that he had, and Lot with him into the south.



13:2. And he was very rich in possession of gold and silver.



13:3. And he returned by the way, that he came, from the south to Bethel, to the place where before he had pitched his tent between Bethel and Hai,



13:4. In the place of the altar which he had made before, and there he called upon the name of the Lord.



13:5. But Lot also, who was with Abram, had flocks of sheep, and herds of beasts, and tents.



13:6. Neither was the land able to bear them, that they might dwell together: for their substance was great, and they could not dwell together.



13:7. Whereupon also there arose a strife between the herdsmen of Abram and of Lot. And at that time the Chanaanite and the Pherezite dwelled in that country.



13:8. Abram therefore said to Lot: Let there be no quarrel, I beseech thee, between me and thee, and between my herdsmen and thy herdsmen: for we are brethren.



13:9. Behold the whole land is before thee: depart from me, I pray thee: if thou wilt go to the left hand, I will take the right: if thou choose the right hand, I will pass to the left.



13:10. And Lot lifting up his eyes, saw all the country about the Jordan, which was watered throughout, before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrha, as the paradise of the Lord, and like Egypt as one comes to Segor.



13:11. And Lot chose to himself the country about the Jordan, and he departed from the east: and they were separated one brother from the other.



13:12. Abram dwelt in the land of Chanaan: and Lot abode in the towns, that were about the Jordan, and dwelt in Sodom.



13:13. And the men of Sodom were very wicked, and sinners before the face of the Lord beyond measure.



13:14. And the Lord said to Abram, after Lot was separated from him: Lift up thy eyes, and look from the place wherein thou now art, to the north and to the south, to the east and to the west.



13:15. All the land which thou seest, I will give to thee, and to thy seed for ever.



13:16. And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth: if any man be able to number the dust of the earth, he shall be able to number thy seed also.



13:17. Arise and walk through the land in the length, and the breadth thereof: for I will give it to thee.



13:18. So Abram removing his tent, came, and dwelt by the vale of Mambre, which is in Hebron: and he built there an altar to the Lord.







Genesis Chapter 14



The expedition of the four kings; the victory of Abram; he is blessed by Melchisedech.



14:1. And it came to pass at that time, that Amraphel, king of Sennaar, and Arioch, king of Pontus, and Chodorlahomor, king of the Elamites, and Thadal, king of nations,



14:2. Made war against Bara, king of Sodom, and against Bersa, king of Gomorrha, and against Sennaab, king of Adama, and against Semeber, king of Seboim, and against the king of Bala, which is Segor.



14:3. All these came together into the woodland vale, which now is the salt sea.



14:4. For they had served Chodorlahomor twelve years, and in the thirteenth year they revolted from him.



14:5. And in the fourteenth year came Chodorlahomor, and the kings that were with him: and they smote the Raphaim in Astarothcarnaim, and the Zuzim with them, and the Emim in Save of Cariathaim.



14:6. And the Chorreans in the mountains of Seir, even to the plains of Pharan, which is in the wilderness.



14:7. And they returned, and came to the fountain of Misphat, the same is Cades: and they smote all the country of the Amalecites, and the Amorrhean that dwelt in Asasonthamar.



14:8. And the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrha, and the king of Adama, and the king of Seboim, and the king of Bala, which is Segor, went out: and they set themselves against them in battle array, in the woodland vale:



14:9. To wit, against Chodorlahomor king of the Elamites, and Thadal king of nations, and Amraphel king of Sennaar, and Arioch king of Pontus: four kings against five.



14:10. Now the woodland vale had many pits of slime. And the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrha turned their backs, and were overthrown there: and they that remained, fled to the mountain.



Of slime. Bituminis. . .This was a kind of pitch, which served for mortar in the building of Babel, Gen. 11.3, and was used by Noe in pitching the ark.



14:11. And they took all the substance of the Sodomites, and Gomorrhites, and all their victuals, and went their way:



14:12. And Lot also, the son of Abram's brother, who dwelt in Sodom, and his substance.



14:13. And behold one, that had escaped, told Abram the Hebrew, who dwelt in the vale of Mambre the Amorrhite, the brother of Escol, and the brother of Aner: for these had made a league with Abram.



14:14. Which when Abram had heard, to wit, that his brother Lot was taken, he numbered of the servants born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, well appointed: and pursued them to Dan.



14:15. And dividing his company, he rushed upon them in the night, and defeated them: and pursued them as far as Hoba, which is on the left hand of Damascus.



14:16. And he brought back all the substance, and Lot his brother, with his substance, the women also, and the people.



14:17. And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after he returned from the slaughter of Chodorlahomor, and of the kings that were with him in the vale of Save, which is the king's vale.



14:18. But Melchisedech, the king of Salem, bringing forth bread and wine, for he was the priest of the most high God,



14:19. Blessed him, and said: Blessed be Abram by the most high God, who created heaven and earth.



14:20. And blessed be the most high God, by whose protection, the enemies are in thy hands. And he gave him the tithes of all.



14:21. And the king of Sodom said to Abram: Give me the persons, and the rest take to thyself.



14:22. And he answered him: I lift up my hand to the Lord God the most high, the possessor of heaven and earth,



14:23. That from the very woof thread unto the shoe latchet, I will not take of any things that are thine, lest thou say: I have enriched Abram.



14:24. Except such things as the young men have eaten, and the shares of the men that came with me, Aner, Escol, and Mambre: these shall take their shares.







Genesis Chapter 15



God promiseth seed to Abram. His faith, sacrifice and vision.



15:1. Now when these things were done, the word of the Lord came to Abram by a vision, saying: Fear not, Abram, I am thy protector, and thy reward exceeding great.



15:2. And Abram said: Lord God, what wilt thou give me? I shall go without children: and the son of the steward of my house is this Damascus Eliezer.



15:3. And Abram added: But to me thou hast not given seed: and lo my servant born in my house, shall be my heir.



15:4. And immediately the word of the Lord came to him, saying : He shall not be thy heir: but he that shall come out of thy bowels, him shalt thou have for thy heir.



15:5. And he brought him forth abroad, and said to him: Look up to heaven and number the stars if thou canst. And he said to him: So shall thy seed be.



15:6. Abram believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice.



15:7. And he said to him: I am the Lord who brought thee out from Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land, and that thou mightest possess it.



15:8. But he said: Lord God, whereby may I know that I shall possess it?



15:9. And the Lord answered, and said: Take me a cow of three years old, and a she-goat of three years. and a ram of three years, a turtle also, and a pigeon.



15:10. And he took all these, and divided them in the midst, and laid the two pieces of each one against the other: but the birds he divided not.



15:11. And the fowls came down upon the carcasses, and Abram drove them away.



15:12. And when the sun was setting, a deep sleep fell upon Abram, and a great and darksome horror seized upon him.



15:13. And it was said unto him: Know thou beforehand that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land not their own, and they shall bring them under bondage, and afflict them four hundred years.



15:14. But I will judge the nation which they shall serve, and after this they shall come out with great substance.



15:15. And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace, and be buried in a good old age.



15:16. But in the fourth generation they shall return hither: for as yet the iniquities of the Amorrhites are not at the full until this present time.



15:17. And when the sun was set, there arose a dark mist, and there appeared a smoking furnace, and a lamp of fire passing between those divisions.



15:18. That day God made a covenant with Abram, saying: To thy seed will I give this land, from the river to Egypt even to the great river Euphrates.



15:19. The Cineans, and Cenezites, the Cedmonites,



15:20. And the Hethites, and the Pherezites, the Raphaim also,



15:21. And the Amorrhites, and the Chanaanites, and the Gergesites, and the Jebusites.







Genesis Chapter 16



Abram marrieth Agar, who bringeth forth Ismael.



16:1. Now Sarai, the wife of Abram, had brought forth no children: but having a handmaid, an Egyptian, named Agar,



16:2. She said to her husband: Behold, the Lord hath restrained me from bearing: go in unto my handmaid, it may be I may have children of her at least. And when he agreed to her request,



16:3. She took Agar the Egyptian her handmaid, ten years after they first dwelt in the land of Chanaan, and gave her to her husband to wife.



To wife. . .Plurality of wives, though contrary to the primitive institution of marriage, Gen. 2.24, was by divine dispensation allowed to the patriarchs: which allowance seems to have continued during the time of the law of Moses. But Christ our Lord reduced marriage to its primitive institution. Matt. 19.



16:4. And he went in to her. But she perceiving that she was with child, despised her mistress.



16:5. And Sarai said to Abram: Thou dost unjustly with me: I gave my handmaid into thy bosom, and she perceiving herself to be with child, despiseth me. The Lord judge between me and thee.



16:6. And Abram made answer, and said to her: Behold thy handmaid is in thy own hand, use her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai afflicted her, she ran away.



16:7. And the angel of the Lord having found her, by a fountain of water in the wilderness, which is in the way to Sur in the desert,



16:8. He said to her: Agar, handmaid of Sarai, whence comest thou? and whither goest thou? And she answered: I flee from the face of Sarai, my mistress.



16:9. And the angel of the Lord said to her: Return to thy mistress, and humble thyself under her hand.



16:10. And again he said: I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, and it shall not be numbered for multitude.



16:11. And again: Behold, said he, thou art with child, and thou shalt bring forth a son: and thou shalt call his name Ismael, because the Lord hath heard thy affliction.



16:12. He shall be a wild man: his hand will be against all men, and all men's hands against him: and he shall pitch his tents over against all his brethren.



16:13. And she called the name of the Lord that spoke unto her: Thou the God who hast seen me. For she said: Verily, here have I seen the hinder parts of him that seeth me.



16:14. Therefore she called that well, the well of him that liveth and seeth me. The same is between Cades and Barad.



16:15. And Agar brought forth a son to Abram: who called his name Ismael.



16:16. Abram was four score and six years old when Agar brought him forth Ismael.







Genesis Chapter 17



The Covenant of circumcision.



17:1. And after he began to be ninety and nine years old, the Lord appeared to him: and said unto him: I am the Almighty God: walk before me, and be perfect.



17:2. And I will make my covenant between me and thee: and I will multiply thee exceedingly.



17:3. Abram fell flat on his face.



17:4. And God said to him: I am, and my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations.



17:5. Neither shall thy name be called any more Abram: but thou shalt be called Abraham: because I have made thee a father of many nations.



Abram. . .in the Hebrew, signifies a high father: but Abraham, the father of the multitude; Sarai signifies my Lady, but Sara absolutely Lady.



17:6. And I will make thee increase exceedingly, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee.



17:7. And I will establish my covenant between me and thee, and between thy seed after thee in their generations, by a perpetual covenant: to be a God to thee, and to thy seed after thee.



17:8. And I will give to thee, and to thy seed, the land of thy sojournment, all the land of Chanaan, for a perpetual possession, and I will be their God.



17:9. Again God said to Abraham: And thou therefore shalt keep my covenant, and thy seed after thee in their generations.



17:10. This is my covenant which you shall observe between me and you, and thy seed after thee: All the male-kind of you shall be circumcised.



17:11. And you shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, that it may be for a sign of the covenant between me and you.



17:12. An infant of eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every manchild in your generations: he that is born in the house, as well as the bought servant, shall be circumcised, and whosoever is not of your stock:



17:13. And my covenant shall be in your flesh for a perpetual covenant.



17:14. The male whose flesh of his foreskin shall not be circumcised, that soul shall be destroyed out of his people: because he hath broken my covenant.



17:15. God said also to Abraham: Sarai thy wife thou shalt not call Sarai, but Sara.



17:16. And I will bless her, and of her I will give thee a son, whom I will bless, and he shall become nations, and kings of people shall spring from him.



17:17. Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, saying in his heart: Shall a son, thinkest thou, be born to him that is a hundred years old? and shall Sara that is ninety years old bring forth?



17:18. And he said to God: O that Ismael may live before thee.



17:19. And God said to Abraham: Sara thy wife shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name Isaac, and I will establish my covenant with him for a perpetual covenant, and with his seed after him.



17:20. And as for Ismael I have also heard thee. Behold, I will bless him, and increase, and multiply him exceedingly: he shall beget twelve chiefs, and I will make him a great nation.



17:21. But my covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sara shall bring forth to thee at this time in the next year.



17:22. And when he had left off speaking with him, God went up from Abraham.



17:23. And Abraham took Ismael his son, and all that were born in his house: and all whom he had bought, every male among the men of his house: and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskin forthwith the very same day, as God had commanded him.



17:24. Abraham was ninety and nine years old, when he circumcised the flesh of his foreskin.



17:25. And Ismael his son was full thirteen years old at the time of his circumcision.



17:26. The self-same day was Abraham circumcised and Ismael his son.



17:27. And all the men of his house, as well they that were born in his house, as the bought servants and strangers, were circumcised with him.







Genesis Chapter 18



Angels are entertained by Abraham. They foretell the birth of Isaac. Abraham's prayer for the men of Sodom.



18:1. And the Lord appeared to him in the vale of Mambre as he was sitting at the door of his tent, in the very heat of the day.



18:2. And when he had lifted up his eyes, there appeared to him three men standing near to him: and as soon as he saw them, he ran to meet them from the door of his tent, and adored down to the ground.



18:3. And he said: Lord, if I have found favour in thy sight, pass not away from thy servant.



18:4. But I will fetch a little water, and wash ye your feet, and rest ye under the tree.



18:5. And I will set a morsel of bread, and strengthen ye your heart, afterwards you shall pass on: for therefore are you come aside to your servant. And they said: Do as thou hast spoken.



18:6. Abraham made haste into the tent to Sara, and said to her: Make haste, temper together three measures of flour, and make cakes upon the hearth.



18:7. And he himself ran to the herd, and took from thence a calf, very tender and very good, and gave it to a young man, who made haste and boiled it.



18:8. He took also butter and milk, and the calf which he had boiled, and set before them: but he stood by them under the tree.



18:9. And when they had eaten, they said to him: Where is Sara thy wife? He answered: Lo she is in the tent.



18:10. And he said to him: I will return and come to thee at this time, life accompanying, and Sara, thy wife, shall have a son. Which when Sara heard, she laughed behind the door of the tent.



18:11. Now they were both old, and far advanced in years, and it had ceased to be with Sara after the manner of women.



18:12. And she laughed secretly, saying: After I am grown old, and my lord is an old man, shall I give myself to pleasure?



18:13. And the Lord said to Abraham: Why did Sara laugh, saying: Shall I, who am an old woman, bear a child indeed?



18:14. Is there any thing hard to God? According to appointment I will return to thee at this same time, life accompanying, and Sara shall have a son.



18:15. Sara denied, saying: I did not laugh: for she was afraid. But the Lord said: Nay; but thou didst laugh.



18:16. And when the men rose up from thence, they turned their eyes towards Sodom: and Abraham walked with them, bringing them on the way.



18:17. And the Lord said: Can I hide from Abraham what I am about to do:



18:18. Seeing he shall become a great and mighty nation, and in him all the nations of the earth shall be blessed?



18:19. For I know that he will command his children, and his household after him, to keep the way of the Lord, and do judgment and justice: that for Abraham's sake, the Lord may bring to effect all the things he hath spoken unto him.



18:20. And the Lord said: The cry of Sodom and Gomorrha is multiplied, and their sin is become exceedingly grievous.



18:21. I will go down and see whether they have done according to the cry that is come to me; or whether it be not so, that I may know.



I will go down, etc. . .The Lord here accommodates his discourse to the way of speaking and acting amongst men; for he knoweth all things, and needeth not to go anywhere for information. Note here, that two of the three angels went away immediately for Sodom; whilst the third, who represented the Lord, remained with Abraham.



18:22. And they turned themselves from thence, and went their way to Sodom: but Abraham as yet stood before the Lord.



18:23. And drawing nigh, he said: Wilt thou destroy the just with the wicked?



18:24. If there be fifty just men in the city, shall they perish withal? and wilt thou not spare that place for the sake of the fifty just, if they be therein?



18:25. Far be it from thee to do this thing, and to slay the just with the wicked, and for the just to be in like case as the wicked; this is not beseeming thee: thou who judgest all the earth, wilt not make this judgment.



18:26. And the Lord said to him: If I find in Sodom fifty just within the city, I will spare the whole place for their sake.



18:27. And Abraham answered, and said: Seeing I have once begun, I will speak to my Lord, whereas I am dust and ashes.



18:28. What if there be five less than fifty just persons? wilt thou for five and forty destroy the whole city: And he said: I will not destroy it, if I find five and forty.



18:29. And again he said to him: But if forty be found there, what wilt thou do? He said: I will not destroy it for the sake of forty.



18:30. Lord, saith he, be not angry, I beseech thee, if I speak: What if thirty shall be found there? He answered: I will not do it, if I find thirty there.



18:31. Seeing, saith he, I have once begun, I will speak to my Lord: What if twenty be found there? He said: I will not destroy it for the sake of twenty.



18:32. I beseech thee, saith he, be not angry, Lord, if I speak yet once more: What if ten shall be found there? And he said: I will not destroy it for the sake of ten.



18:33. And the Lord departed, after he had left speaking to Abraham: and Abraham returned to his place.







Genesis Chapter 19



Lot, entertaining Angels in his house, is delivered from Sodom, which is destroyed: his wife for looking back is turned into a statue of salt.



19:1. And the two angels came to Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of the city. And seeing them, he rose up and went to meet them: and worshipped prostrate to the ground.



19:2. And said: I beseech you, my lords, turn in to the house of your servant, and lodge there: wash your feet, and in the morning you shall go on your way. And they said: No, but we will abide in the street.



19:3. He pressed them very much to turn in unto him: and when they were come into his house, he made them a feast, and baked unleavened bread, and they ate:



19:4. But before they went to bed, the men of the city beset the house, both young and old, all the people together.



19:5. And they called Lot, and said to him: Where are the men that came in to thee at night? bring them out hither, that we may know them:



19:6. Lot went out to them, and shut the door after him, and said:



19:7. Do not so, I beseech you, my brethren, do not commit this evil.



19:8. I have two daughters who, as yet, have not known man; I will bring them out to you, and abuse you them as it shall please you, so that you do no evil to these men, because they are come in under the shadow of my roof.



19:9. But they said: Get thee back thither. And again: Thou camest in, said they, as a stranger, was it to be a judge? therefore we will afflict thee more than them. And they pressed very violently upon Lot: and they were even at the point of breaking open the doors.



19:10. And behold the men put out their hand, and drew in Lot unto them, and shut the door.



19:11. And them, that were without, they struck with blindness from the least to the greatest, so that they could not find the door.



19:12. And they said to Lot: Hast thou here any of thine? son in law, or sons, or daughters, all that are thine bring them out of this city:



19:13. For we will destroy this place, because their cry is grown loud before the Lord, who hath sent us to destroy them.



19:14. So Lot went out, and spoke to his sons in law that were to have his daughters, and said: Arise: get you out of this place, because the Lord will destroy this city. And he seemed to them to speak as it were in jest.



19:15. And when it was morning, the angels pressed him, saying: Arise, take thy wife, and the two daughters that thou hast: lest thou also perish in the wickedness of the city.



19:16. And as he lingered, they took his hand, and the hand of his wife, and of his two daughters, because the Lord spared him.



19:17. And they brought him forth, and set him without the city: and there they spoke to him, saying: Save thy life: look not back, neither stay thou in all the country about: but save thy self in the mountain, lest thou be also consumed.



19:18. And Lot said to them: I beseech thee, my Lord,



19:19. Because thy servant hath found grace before thee, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, which thou hast shewn to me, in saving my life, and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest some evil seize me, and I die.



19:20. There is this city here at hand, to which I may flee, it is a little one, and I shall be saved in it: is it not a little one, and my soul shall live?



19:21. And he said to him: Behold also in this, I have heard thy prayers, not to destroy the city for which thou hast spoken.



19:22. Make haste, and be saved there: because I cannot do any thing till thou go in thither. Therefore the name of that city was called Segor.



Segor. . .That is, a little one.



19:23. The sun was risen upon the earth, and Lot entered into Segor.



19:24. And the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrha brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven.



19:25. And he destroyed these cities, and all the country about, all the inhabitants of the cities, and all things that spring from the earth.



19:26. And his wife looking behind her, was turned into a statue of salt.



And his wife. . .As a standing memorial to the servants of God to proceed in virtue, and not to look back to vice or its allurements.



19:27. And Abraham got up early in the morning, and in the place where he had stood before with the Lord:



19:28. He looked towards Sodom and Gomorrha, and the whole land of that country: and he saw the ashes rise up from the earth as the smoke of a furnace.



19:29. Now when God destroyed the cities of that country, remembering Abraham, he delivered Lot out of the destruction of the cities wherein he had dwelt.



19:30. And Lot went up out of Segor, and abode in the mountain, and his two daughters with him (for he was afraid to stay in Segor) and he dwelt in a cave, he and his two daughters with him.



19:31. And the elder said to the younger: Our father is old, and there is no man left on the earth, to come in unto us after the manner of the whole earth.



19:32. Come, let us make him drunk with wine, and let us lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father.



19:33. And they made their father drink wine that night: and the elder went in, and lay with her father: but he perceived not, neither when his daughter lay down, nor when she rose up.



19:34. And the next day the elder said to the younger: Behold I lay last night with my father, let us make him drink wine also to night, and thou shalt lie with him, that we may save seed of our father.



19:35. They made their father drink wine that night also, and the younger daughter went in, and lay with him: and neither then did he perceive when she lay down, nor when she rose up.



19:36. So the two daughters of Lot were with child by their father.



19:37. And the elder bore a son, and she called his name Moab: he is the father of the Moabites unto this day.



19:38. The younger also bore a son, and she called his name Ammon; that is, the son of my people: he is the father of the Ammonites unto this day.







Genesis Chapter 20



Abraham sojourned in Gerara: Sara is taken into king Abimelech's house, but by God's commandment is restored untouched.



20:1. Abraham removed from thence to the south country, and dwelt between Cades and Sur, and sojourned in Gerara.



20:2. And he said of Sara his wife: She is my sister. So Abimelech the king of Gerara sent, and took her.



20:3. And God came to Abimelech in a dream by night, and he said to him: Lo thou shalt die for the woman that thou hast taken: for she hath a husband.



20:4. Now Abimelech had not touched her, and he said: Lord, wilt thou slay a nation that is ignorant and just?



20:5. Did not he say to me: She is my sister: and she say, He is my brother? in the simplicity of my heart, and cleanness of my hands have I done this.



20:6. And God said to him: And I know that thou didst it with a sincere heart: and therefore I withheld thee from sinning against me, and I suffered thee not to touch her.



20:7. Now therefore restore the man his wife, for he is a prophet: and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live: but if thou wilt not restore her, know that thou shalt surely die, thou and all that are thine.



20:8. And Abimelech forthwith rising up in the night, called all his servants: and spoke all these words in their hearing, and all the men were exceedingly afraid.



20:9. And Abimelech called also for Abraham, and said to him: What hast thou done to us? what have we offended thee in, that thou hast brought upon me and upon my kingdom a great sin? thou hast done to us what thou oughtest not to do.



20:10. And again he expostulated with him, and said: What sawest thou, that thou hast done this?



20:11. Abraham answered: I thought with myself, saying: Perhaps there is not the fear of God in this place: and they will kill me for the sake of my wife:



20:12. Howbeit, otherwise also she is truly my sister, the daughter of my father, and not the daughter of my mother, and I took her to wife.



20:13. And after God brought me out of my father's house, I said to her: Thou shalt do me this kindness: In every place, to which we shall come, thou shalt say that I am thy brother.



20:14. And Abimelech took sheep and oxen, and servants and handmaids, and gave to Abraham: and restored to him Sara his wife,



20:15. And said: The land is before you, dwell wheresoever it shall please thee.



20:16. And to Sara he said: Behold I have given thy brother a thousand pieces of silver, this shall serve thee for a covering of thy eyes to all that are with thee, and whithersoever thou shalt go: and remember thou wast taken.



20:17. And when Abraham prayed, God healed Abimelech and his wife, and his handmaids, and they bore children:



20:18. For the Lord had closed up every womb of the house of Abimelech, on account of Sara, Abraham's wife.







Genesis Chapter 21



Isaac is born. Agar and Ismael are cast forth.



21:1. And the Lord visited Sara, as he had promised: and fulfilled what he had spoken.



21:2. And she conceived and bore a son in her old age, at the time that God had foretold her.



21:3. And Abraham called the name of his son, whom Sara bore him, Isaac.



Isaac. . .This word signifies laughter.



21:4. And he circumcised him the eighth day, as God had commanded him,



21:5. When he was a hundred years old: for at this age of his father, was Isaac born.



21:6. And Sara said: God hath made a laughter for me: whosoever shall hear of it will laugh with me.



21:7. And again she said: Who would believe that Abraham should hear that Sara gave suck to a son, whom she bore to him in his old age?



21:8. And the child grew, and was weaned: and Abraham made a great feast on the day of his weaning.



21:9. And when Sara had seen the son of Agar, the Egyptian, playing with Isaac, her son, she said to Abraham:



21:10. Cast out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with my son Isaac.



21:11. Abraham took this grievously for his son.



21:12. And God said to him: Let it not seem grievous to thee for the boy, and for thy bondwoman: in all that Sara hath said to thee, hearken to her voice: for in Isaac shall thy seed be called.



21:13. But I will make the son also of the bondwoman a great nation, because he is thy seed.



21:14. So Abraham rose up in the morning, and taking bread and a bottle of water, put it upon her shoulder, and delivered the boy, and sent her away. And she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Bersabee.



21:15. And when the water in the bottle was spent, she cast the boy under one of the trees that were there.



21:16. And she went her way, and sat over against him a great way off, as far as a bow can carry, for she said: I will not see the boy die: and sitting over against, she lifted up her voice and wept.



21:17. And God heard the voice of the boy: and an angel of God called to Agar from heaven, saying: What art thou doing, Agar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the boy, from the place wherein he is.



21:18. Arise, take up the boy, and hold him by the hand, for I will make him a great nation.



21:19. And God opened her eyes: and she saw a well of water, and went and filled the bottle, and gave the boy to drink.



21:20. And God was with him: and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became a young man, an archer.



21:21. And he dwelt in the wilderness of Pharan, and his mother took a wife for him out of the land of Egypt.



21:22. At the same time Abimelech, and Phicol the general of his army, said to Abraham: God is with thee in all that thou dost.



21:23. Swear therefore by God, that thou wilt not hurt me, nor my posterity, nor my stock: but according to the kindness that I have done to thee, thou shalt do to me, and to the land wherein thou hast lived a stranger.



21:24. And Abraham said: I will swear.



21:25. And he reproved Abimelech for a well of water, which his servants had taken away by force.



21:26. And Abimelech answered: I knew not who did this thing: and thou didst not tell me, and I heard not of it till today.



21:27. Then Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave them to Abimelech: and both of them made a league.



21:28. And Abraham set apart seven ewelambs of the flock.



21:29. And Abimelech said to him: What mean these seven ewelambs which thou hast set apart?



21:30. But he said: Thou shalt take seven ewelambs at my hand: that they may be a testimony for me, that I dug this well.



21:31. Therefore that place was called Bersabee; because there both of them did swear.



Bersabee. . .That is, the well of oath.



21:32. And they made a league for the well of oath.



21:33. And Abimelech and Phicol, the general of his army, arose and returned to the land of the Palestines. But Abraham planted a grove in Bersabee, and there called upon the name of the Lord God eternal.



21:34. And he was a sojourner in the land of the Palestines many days.







Genesis Chapter 22



The faith and obedience of Abraham is proved in his readiness to sacrifice his son Isaac. He is stayed from the act by an angel. Former promises are renewed to him. His brother Nachor's issue.



22:1. After these things, God tempted Abraham, and said to him: Abraham, Abraham. And he answered: Here I am.



God tempted, etc. . .God tempteth no man to evil, James 1.13; but by trial and experiment maketh known to the world, and to ourselves, what we are, as here by this trial the singular faith and obedience of Abraham was made manifest.



22:2. He said to him: Take thy only begotten son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and go into the land of vision; and there thou shalt offer him for an holocaust upon one of the mountains which I will shew thee.



22:3. So Abraham rising up in the night, saddled his ass, and took with him two young men, and Isaac his son: and when he had cut wood for the holocaust, he went his way to the place which God had commanded him.



22:4. And on the third day, lifting up his eyes, he saw the place afar off.



22:5. And he said to his young men: Stay you here with the ass; I and the boy will go with speed as far as yonder, and after we have worshipped, will return to you.



22:6. And he took the wood for the holocaust, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he himself carried in his hands fire and a sword. And as they two went on together,



22:7. Isaac said to his father: My father. And he answered: What wilt thou, son? Behold, saith he, fire and wood: where is the victim for the holocaust?



22:8. And Abraham said: God will provide himself a victim for an holocaust, my son. So they went on together.



22:9. And they came to the place which God had shewn him, where he built an altar, and laid the wood in order upon it; and when he had bound Isaac his son, he laid him on the altar upon the pile of wood.



22:10. And he put forth his hand, and took the sword, to sacrifice his son.



22:11. And behold, an angel of the Lord from heaven called to him, saying: Abraham, Abraham. And he answered: Here I am.



22:12. And he said to him: Lay not thy hand upon the boy, neither do thou any thing to him: now I know that thou fearest God, and hast not spared thy only begotten son for my sake.



22:13. Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw behind his back a ram, amongst the briers, sticking fast by the horns, which he took and offered for a holocaust instead of his son.



22:14. And he called the name of that place, The Lord seeth. Whereupon, even to this day, it is said: In the mountain the Lord will see.



22:15. And the angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven, saying:



22:16. By my own self have I sworn, saith the Lord: because thou hast done this thing, and hast not spared thy only begotten son for my sake:



22:17. I will bless thee, and I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand that is by the sea shore; thy seed shall possess the gates of their enemies.



22:18. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast obeyed my voice.



22:19. Abraham returned to his young men, and they went to Bersabee together, and he dwelt there.



22:20. After these things, it was told Abraham, that Melcha also had borne children to Nachor his brother.



22:21. Hus, the firstborn, and Buz, his brother, and Camuel the father of the Syrians,



22:22. And Cased, and Azau, and Pheldas, and Jedlaph,



22:23. And Bathuel, of whom was born Rebecca: these eight did Melcha bear to Nachor, Abraham's brother.



22:24. And his concubine, named Roma, bore Tabee, and Gaham, and Tahas, and Maacha.



Genesis Chapter 23



Sara's death and burial in the field bought of Ephron.



23:1. And Sara lived a hundred and twenty-seven years.



23:2. And she died in the city of Arbee which is Hebron, in the land of Chanaan: and Abraham came to mourn and weep for her.



23:3. And after he rose up from the funeral obsequies, he spoke to the children of Heth, saying:



23:4. I am a stranger and sojourner among you: give me the right of a burying place with you, that I may bury my dead.



23:5. The children of Heth answered, saying:



23:6. My lord, hear us, thou art a prince of God among us: bury thy dead in our principal sepulchres: and no man shall have power to hinder thee from burying thy dead in his sepulchre.



23:7. Abraham rose up, and bowed down to the people of the land, to wit, the children of Heth:



Bowed down to the people. . .Adoravit, literally adored. But this word here, as well as in many other places in the Latin scriptures, is used to signify only an inferior honour and reverence paid to men, expressed by a bowing down of the body.



23:8. And said to them: If it please your soul that I should bury my dead, hear me, and intercede for me to Ephron the son of Seor.



23:9. That he may give me the double cave, which he hath in the end of his field: For as much money as it is worth he shall give it me before you, for a possession of a burying place.



23:10. Now Ephron dwelt in the midst of the children of Heth. And Ephron made answer to Abraham in the hearing of all that went in at the gate of the city, saying:



23:11. Let it not be so, my lord, but do thou rather hearken to what I say: The field I deliver to thee, and the cave that is therein; in the presence of the children of my people, bury thy dead.



23:12. Abraham bowed down before the people of the land.



23:13. And he spoke to Ephron, in the presence of the people: I beseech thee to hear me: I will give money for the field; take it, and so will I bury my dead in it.



23:14. And Ephron answered:



23:15. My lord, hear me. The ground which thou desirest, is worth four hundred sicles of silver: this is the price between me and thee: but what is this? bury thy dead.



23:16. And when Abraham had heard this, he weighed out the money that Ephron had asked, in the hearing of the children of Heth, four hundred sicles of silver, of common current money.



23:17. And the field that before was Ephron's, wherein was the double cave, looking towards Mambre, both it and the cave, and all the trees thereof, in all its limits round about,



23:18. Was made sure to Abraham for a possession, in the sight of the children of Heth, and of all that went in at the gate of his city.



23:19. And so Abraham buried Sara, his wife, in the double cave of the field, that looked towards Mambre, this is Hebron in the land of Chanaan.



23:20. And the field was made sure to Abraham, and the cave that was in it, for a possession to bury in, by the children of Heth.



Genesis Chapter 24



Abraham's servant, sent by him into Mesopotamia, bringeth from thence Rebecca, who is married to Isaac.



24:1. Now Abraham was old, and advanced in age; and the Lord had blessed him in all things.



24:2. And he said to the elder servant of his house, who was ruler over all he had: Put thy hand under my thigh,



24:3. That I may make thee swear by the Lord, the God of heaven and earth, that thou take not a wife for my son, of the daughters of the Chanaanites, among whom I dwell:



24:4. But that thou go to my own country and kindred, and take a wife from thence for my son Isaac.



24:5. The servant answered: If the woman will not come with me into this land, must I bring thy son back again to the place from whence thou camest out?



24:6. And Abraham said: Beware thou never bring my son back again thither.



24:7. The Lord God of heaven, who took me out of my father's house, and out of my native country, who spoke to me, and swore to me, saying: To thy seed will I give this land: he will send his angel before thee, and thou shalt take from thence a wife for my son.



He will send his angel before thee. . .This shows that the Hebrews believed that God gave them guardian angels for their protection.



24:8. But if the woman will not follow thee, thou shalt not be bound by the oath: only bring not my son back thither again.



24:9. The servant, therefore, put his hand under the thigh of Abraham, his lord, and swore to him upon his word.



24:10. And he took ten camels of his master's herd, and departed, carrying something of all his goods with him, and he set forward and went on to Mesopotamia, to the city of Nachor.



24:11. And when he had made the camels lie down without the town, near a well of water, in the evening, at the time when women are wont to come out to draw water, he said:



24:12. O Lord, the God of my master, Abraham, meet me today, I beseech thee, and shew kindness to my master, Abraham.



24:13. Behold, I stand nigh the spring of water, and the daughters of the inhabitants of this city will come out to draw water:



24:14. Now, therefore, the maid to whom I shall say: Let down thy pitcher that I may drink: and she shall answer, Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also: let it be the same whom thou hast provided for thy servant Isaac: and by this, I shall understand that thou hast shewn kindness to my master.



24:15. He had not yet ended these words within himself, and behold Rebecca came out, the daughter of Bathuel, son of Melcha, wife to Nachor the brother of Abraham, having a pitcher on her shoulder:



24:16. An exceeding comely maid, and a most beautiful virgin, and not known to man: and she went down to the spring, and filled her pitcher, and was coming back.



24:17. And the servant ran to meet her, and said: Give me a little water to drink of thy pitcher.



24:18. And she answered: Drink, my lord. And quickly she let down the pitcher upon her arm, and gave him drink.



24:19. And when he had drunk, she said: I will draw water for thy camels also, till they all drink.



24:20. And pouring out the pitcher into the troughs, she ran back to the well to draw water; and having drawn, she gave to all the camels.



24:21. But he musing, beheld her with silence, desirous to know whether the Lord had made his journey prosperous or not.



24:22. And after that the camels had drunk, the man took out golden earrings, weighing two sicles; and as many bracelets, of ten sicles weight.



24:23. And he said to her: Whose daughter art thou? tell me: is there any place in thy father's house to lodge?



24:24. And she answered: I am the daughter of Bathuel, the son of Melcha, whom she bore to Nachor.



24:25. And she said, moreover, to him: We have good store of both straw and hay, and a large place to lodge in.



24:26. The man bowed himself down, and adored the Lord,



24:27. Saying: Blessed be the Lord God of my master Abraham, who hath not taken away his mercy and truth from my master, and hath brought me the straight way into the house of my master's brother.



24:28. Then the maid ran, and told in her mother's house all that she had heard.



24:29. And Rebecca had a brother, named Laban, who went out in haste to the man, to the well.



24:30. And when he had seen the earrings and bracelets in his sister's hands, and had heard all that she related, saying, Thus and thus the man spoke to me: he came to the man who stood by the camels, and near to the spring of water,



24:31. And said to him: Come in, thou blessed of the Lord; why standest thou without? I have prepared the house, and a place for the camels.



24:32. And he brought him into his lodging; and he unharnessed the camels, and gave straw and hay, and water to wash his feet, and the feet of the men that were come with him.



24:33. And bread was set before him. But he said: I will not eat, till I tell my message. He answered him: Speak.



24:34. And he said: I am the servant of Abraham:



24:35. And the Lord hath blessed my master wonderfully, and he is become great: and he hath given him sheep and oxen, silver and gold, men servants and women servants, camels and asses.



24:36. And Sara, my master's wife, hath borne my master a son in her old age, and he hath given him all that he had.



24:37. And my master made me swear, saying: Thou shalt not take a wife for my son of the Chanaanites, in whose land I dwell:



24:38. But thou shalt go to my father's house, and shalt take a wife of my own kindred for my son:



24:39. But I answered my master: What if the woman will not come with me?



24:40. The Lord, said he, in whose sight I walk, will send his angel with thee, and will direct thy way: and thou shalt take a wife for my son of my own kindred, and of my father's house.



24:41. But thou shalt be clear from my curse, when thou shalt come to my kindred, if they will not give thee one.



24:42. And I came today to the well of water, and said: O Lord God of my master, Abraham, if thou hast prospered my way, wherein I now walk,



24:43. Behold, I stand by the well of water, and the virgin, that shall come out to draw water, who shall hear me say: Give me a little water to drink of thy pitcher:



24:44. And shall say to me: Both drink thou, and I will also draw for thy camels: let the same be the woman, whom the Lord hath prepared for my master's son.



24:45. And whilst I pondered these things secretly with myself, Rebecca appeared, coming with a pitcher, which she carried on her shoulder: and she went down to the well and drew water. And I said to her: Give me a little to drink.



24:46. And she speedily let down the pitcher from her shoulder, and said to me: Both drink thou, and to thy camels I will give drink. I drank, and she watered the camels.



24:47. And I asked her, and said: Whose daughter art thou? And she answered: I am the daughter of Bathuel, the son of Nachor, whom Melcha bore to him. So I put earrings on her to adorn her face, and I put bracelets on her hands.



24:48. And falling down, I adored the Lord, blessing the Lord God of my master, Abraham, who hath brought me the straight way to take the daughter of my master's brother for his son.



24:49. Wherefore, if you do according to mercy and truth with my master, tell me: but if it please you otherwise, tell me that also, that I may go to the right hand, or to the left.



24:50. And Laban and Bathuel answered: The word hath proceeded from the Lord: we cannot speak any other thing to thee but his pleasure.



24:51. Behold, Rebecca is before thee, take her and go thy way, and let her be the wife of thy master's son, as the Lord hath spoken.



24:52. Which when Abraham's servant heard, falling down to the ground, he adored the Lord.



24:53. And bringing forth vessels of silver and gold, and garments, he gave them to Rebecca, for a present. He offered gifts also to her brothers, and to her mother.



24:54. And a banquet was made, and they ate and drank together, and lodged there. And in the morning, the servant arose, and said: Let me depart, that I may go to my master.



24:55. And her brother and mother answered: Let the maid stay, at least, ten days with us, and afterwards she shall depart.



24:56. Stay me not, said he, because the Lord hath prospered my way: send me away, that I may go to my master.



24:57. And they said: Let us call the maid, and ask her will.



Let us call the maid, and ask her will. . .Not as to her marriage, as she had already consented, but of her quitting her parents and going to her husband.



24:58. And they called her, and when she was come, they asked: Wilt thou go with this man? She said: I will go.



24:59. So they sent her away, and her nurse, and Abraham's servant, and his company.



24:60. Wishing prosperity to their sister, and saying: Thou art our sister, mayst thou increase to thousands of thousands; and may thy seed possess the gates of their enemies.



24:61. So Rebecca and her maids, being set upon camels, followed the man: who with speed returned to his master.



24:62. At the same time, Isaac was walking along the way to the well which is called Of the living and the seeing: for he dwelt in the south country:



24:63. And he was gone forth to meditate in the field, the day being now well spent: and when he had lifted up his eyes, he saw camels coming afar off.



24:64. Rebecca also, when she saw Isaac, lighted off the camel,



24:65. And said to the servant: Who is that man who cometh towards us along the field? And he said to her: That man is my master. But she quickly took her cloak, and covered herself.



24:66. And the servant told Isaac all that he had done.



24:67. Who brought her into the tent of Sara his mother, and took her to wife: and he loved her so much, that it moderated the sorrow which was occasioned by his mother's death.



Genesis Chapter 25



Abraham's children by Cetura; his death and that of Ismael. Isaac hath Esau and Jacob twins. Esau selleth his first birthright to Jacob.



25:1. And Abraham married another wife named Cetura:



25:2. Who bore him Zamram, and Jecsan, and Madan, and Madian, and Jesboc, and Sue.



25:3. Jecsan also begot Saba, and Dadan. The children of Dadan were Assurim, and Latusim, and Loomim.



25:4. But of Madian was born Epha, and Opher, and Henoch, and Abida, and Eldaa: all these were the children of Cetura.



25:5. And Abraham gave all his possessions to Isaac:



25:6. And to the children of the concubines he gave gifts, and separated them from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, to the east country.



Concubines. . .Agar and Cetura are here called concubines, (though they were lawful wives, and in other places are so called,) because they were of an inferior degree, and such in scripture are usually called concubines.



25:7. And the days of Abraham's life were a hundred and seventy- five years.



25:8. And decaying he died in a good old age, and having lived a long time, and being full of days: and was gathered to his people.



25:9. And Isaac and Ismael his sons buried him in the double cave, which was situated in the field of Ephron the son of Seor the Hethite, over against Mambre,



25:10. Which he had bought of the children of Heth: there was he buried, and Sara his wife.



25:11. And after his death, God blessed Isaac his son, who dwelt by the well named Of the living and seeing.



25:12. These are the generations of Ismael the son of Abraham, whom Agar the Egyptian, Sara's servant, bore unto him:



25:13. And these are the names of his children according to their calling and generations. The firstborn of Ismael was Nabajoth, then Cedar, and Adbeel, and Mabsam,



25:14. And Masma, and Duma, and Massa,



25:15. Hadar, and Thema, and Jethur, and Naphis, and Cedma.



25:16. These are the sons of Ismael: and these are their names by their castles and towns, twelve princes of their tribes.



25:17. And the years of Ismael's life were a hundred and thirty- seven, and decaying he died, and was gathered unto his people.



25:18. And he dwelt from Hevila as far as Sur, which looketh towards Egypt, to them that go towards the Assyrians. He died in the presence of all his brethren.



25:19. These also are the generations of Isaac the son of Abraham: Abraham begot Isaac:



25:20. Who when he was forty years old, took to wife Rebecca the daughter of Bathuel the Syrian of Mesopotamia, sister to Laban.



25:21. And Isaac besought the Lord for his wife, because she was barren: and he heard him, and made Rebecca to conceive.



25:22. But the children struggled in her womb, and she said: If it were to be so with me, what need was there to conceive? And she went to consult the Lord.



25:23. And he answering, said: Two nations are in thy womb, and two peoples shall be divided out of thy womb, and one people shall overcome the other, and the elder shall serve the younger.



25:24. And when her time was come to be delivered, behold twins were found in her womb.



25:25. He that came forth first was red, and hairy like a skin: and his name was called Esau. Immediately the other coming forth, held his brother's foot in his hand: and therefore he was called Jacob.



25:26. Isaac was threescore years old when the children were born unto him.



25:27. And when they were grown up, Esau became a skilful hunter, and a husbandman: but Jacob, a plain man, dwelt in tents.



25:28. Isaac loved Esau, because he ate of his hunting: and Rebecca loved Jacob.



25:29. And Jacob boiled pottage: to whom Esau, coming faint out of the field,



25:30. Said: Give me of this red pottage, for I am exceeding faint. For which reason his name was called Edom.



25:31. And Jacob said to him: Sell me thy first birthright.



25:32. He answered: Lo I die, what will the first birthright avail me?



25:33. Jacob said: Swear therefore to me. Esau swore to him, and sold his first birthright.



25:34. And so taking bread and the pottage of lentils, he ate, and drank, and went on his way; making little account of having sold his first birthright.



Genesis Chapter 26



Isaac sojourneth in Gerara, where God reneweth to him the promise made to Abraham. King Abimelech maketh league with him.



26:1. And when a famine came in the land, after that barrenness which had happened in the days of Abraham, Isaac went to Abimelech, king of the Palestines, to Gerara.



26:2. And the Lord appeared to him, and said: Go not down into Egypt, but stay in the land that I shall tell thee.



26:3. And sojourn in it, and I will be with thee, and will bless thee: for to thee and to thy seed I will give all these countries, to fulfil the oath which I swore to Abraham thy father.



26:4. And I will multiply thy seed like the stars of heaven: and I will give to thy posterity all these countries: and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.



26:5. Because Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my precepts and commandments, and observed my ceremonies and laws.



26:6. So Isaac abode in Gerara.



26:7. And when he was asked by the men of that place, concerning his wife, he answered: She is my sister: for he was afraid to confess that she was his wife, thinking lest perhaps they would kill him because of her beauty.



26:8. And when very many days were passed, and he abode there, Abimelech, king of the Palestines, looking out through a window, saw him playing with Rebecca, his wife.



26:9. And calling for him, he said: It is evident she is thy wife: why didst thou feign her to be thy sister? He answered: I feared lest I should die for her sake.



26:10. And Abimelech said: Why hast thou deceived us? Some man of the people might have lain with thy wife, and thou hadst brought upon us a great sin. And he commanded all the people, saying:



26:11. He that shall touch this man's wife, shall surely be put to death.



26:12. And Isaac sowed in that land, and he found that same year a hundredfold: and the Lord blessed him.



26:13. And the man was enriched, and he went on prospering and increasing, till he became exceeding great.



26:14. And he had possessions of sheep and of herds, and a very great family. Wherefore the Palestines envying him,



26:15. Stopped up at that time all the wells, that the servants of his father, Abraham, had digged, filling them up with earth:



26:16. Insomuch that Abimelech himself said to Isaac: Depart from us, for thou art become much mightier than we.



26:17. So he departed, and came to the torrent of Gerara, to dwell there:



26:18. And he digged again other wells, which the servants of his father, Abraham, had digged, and which, after his death, the Philistines had of old stopped up: and he called them by the same names, by which his father before had called them.



26:19. And they digged in the torrent, and found living water:



Torrent. . .That is, a channel where sometimes a torrent or violent stream had run.



26:20. But there also the herdsmen of Gerara strove against the herdsmen of Isaac, saying: It is our water. Wherefore he called the name of the well, on occasion of that which had happened, Calumny.



26:21. And they digged also another; and for that they quarrelled likewise, and he called the name of it, Enmity.



26:22. Going forward from thence, he digged another well, for which they contended not; therefore he called the name thereof, Latitude, saying: Now hath the Lord given us room, and made us to increase upon the earth.



Latitude. . .That is, wideness, or room.



26:23. And he went up from that place to Bersabee,



26:24. Where the Lord appeared to him that same night, saying: I am the God of Abraham thy father, do not fear, for I am with thee: I will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for my servant Abraham's sake.



26:25. And he built there an altar: and called upon the name of the Lord, and pitched his tent; and commanded his servants to dig a well.



26:26. To which place when Abimelech, and Ochozath his friend, and Phicol chief captain of his soldiers, came from Gerara,



26:27. Isaac said to them: Why are ye come to me, a man whom you hate, and have thrust out from you?



26:28. And they answered: We saw that the Lord is with thee, and therefore we said: Let there be an oath between us, and let us make a covenant,



26:29. That thou do us no harm, as we on our part have touched nothing of thine, nor have done any thing to hurt thee; but with peace have sent thee away, increased with the blessing of the Lord.



26:30. And he made them a feast, and after they had eaten and drunk:



26:31. Arising in the morning, they swore one to another: and Isaac sent them away peaceably to their own home.



26:32. And behold, the same day the servants of Isaac came, telling him of a well which they had digged, and saying: We have found water.



26:33. Whereupon he called it Abundance: and the name of the city was called Bersabee, even to this day.



26:34. And Esau being forty years old, married wives, Judith, the daughter of Beeri, the Hethite, and Basemath, the daughter of Elon, of the same place.



26:35. And they both offended the mind of Isaac and Rebecca.



Genesis Chapter 27



Jacob, by him mother's counsel, obtaineth his father's blessing instead of Esau. And by her is advised to fly to his uncle Laban.



27:1. Now Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim, and he could not see: and he called Esau, his elder son, and said to him: My son? And he answered: Here I am.



27:2. And his father said to him, Thou seest that I am old, and know not the day of my death.



27:3. Take thy arms, thy quiver, and bow, and go abroad; and when thou hast taken something by hunting,



27:4. Make me a savoury meat thereof, as thou knowest I like, and bring it that I may eat: and my soul may bless thee, before I die.



27:5. And when Rebecca had heard this, and he was gone into the field to fulfil his father's commandment,



27:6. She said to her son Jacob: I heard thy father talking with Esau, thy brother, and saying to him:



27:7. Bring me of thy hunting, and make me meats that I may eat, and bless thee in the sight of the Lord, before I die.



27:8. Now therefore, my son, follow my counsel:



27:9. And go thy way to the flock, bring me two kids of the best, that I may make of them meat for thy father, such as he gladly eateth.



27:10. Which when thou hast brought in, and he hath eaten, he may bless thee before he die.



27:11. And he answered her: Thou knowest that Esau, my brother, is a hairy man, and I am smooth:



27:12. If my father should feel me, and perceive it, I fear lest he will think I would have mocked him, and I shall bring upon me a curse instead of a blessing.



27:13. And his mother said to him: Upon me be this curse, my son: only hear thou my voice, and go, fetch me the things which I have said.



27:14. He went, and brought, and gave them to his mother. She dressed meats, such as she knew his father liked.



27:15. And she put on him very good garments of Esau, which she had at home with her:



27:16. And the little skins of the kids she put about his hands, and covered the bare of his neck.



27:17. And she gave him the savoury meat, and delivered him bread that she had baked.



27:18. Which when he had carried in, he said: My father? But he answered: I hear. Who art thou, my son?



27:19. And Jacob said: I am Esau, thy firstborn: I have done as thou didst command me: arise, sit and eat of my venison, that thy soul may bless me.



I am Esau thy firstborn. . .St. Augustine (L. Contra mendacium, c. 10), treating at large upon this place, excuseth Jacob from a lie, because this whole passage was mysterious, as relating to the preference which was afterwards to be given to the Gentiles before the carnal Jews, which Jacob by prophetic light might understand. So far is certain, that the first birthright, both by divine election and by Esau's free cession belonged to Jacob: so that if there were any lie in the case, it could be no more than an officious and venial one.



27:20. And Isaac said to his son: How couldst thou find it so quickly, my son? He answered: It was the will of God, that what I sought came quickly in my way:



27:21. And Isaac said: Come hither, that I may feel thee, my son, and may prove whether thou be my son Esau, or no.



27:22. He came near to his father, and when he had felt him, Isaac said: The voice indeed is the voice of Jacob; but the hands, are the hands of Esau.



27:23. And he knew him not, because his hairy hands made him like to the elder. Then blessing him,



27:24. He said: Art thou my son Esau? He answered: I am.



27:25. Then he said: Bring me the meats of thy hunting, my son, that my soul may bless thee. And when they were brought, and he had eaten, he offered him wine also, which after he had drunk,



27:26. He said to him: Come near me, and give me a kiss, my son.



27:27. He came near, and kissed him. And immediately as he smelled the fragrant smell of his garments, blessing him, he said: Behold, the smell of my son is as the smell of a plentiful field, which the Lord hath blessed.



27:28. God give thee of the dew of heaven, and of the fatness of the earth, abundance of corn and wine.



27:29. And let peoples serve thee, and tribes worship thee: be thou lord of thy brethren, and let thy mother's children bow down before thee. Cursed be he that curseth thee: and let him that blesseth thee be filled with blessings.



27:30. Isaac had scarce ended his words, when, Jacob being now gone out abroad, Esau came,



27:31. And brought in to his father meats, made of what he had taken in hunting, saying: Arise, my father, and eat of thy son's venison; that thy soul may bless me.



27:32. And Isaac said to him: Why! who art thou? He answered: I am thy firstborn son, Esau.



27:33. Isaac was struck with fear, and astonished exceedingly; and wondering beyond what can be believed, said: Who is he then that even now brought me venison that he had taken, and I ate of all before thou camest? and I have blessed him, and he shall be blessed.



27:34. Esau having heard his father's words, roared out with a great cry; and, being in a consternation, said: Bless me also, my father.



27:35. And he said: Thy brother came deceitfully and got thy blessing.



27:36. But he said again: Rightly is his name called Jacob; for he hath supplanted me lo this second time: My birthright he took away before, and now this second time he hath stolen away my blessing. And again he said to his father: Hast thou not reserved me also a blessing?



Jacob. . .That is, a supplanter.



27:37. Isaac answered: I have appointed him thy lord, and have made all his brethren his servants: I have established him with corn and wine, and after this, what shall I do more for thee, my son?



27:38. And Esau said to him: Hast thou only one blessing, father? I beseech thee bless me also. And when he wept with a loud cry,



27:39. Isaac being moved, said to him: In the fat of the earth, and in the dew of heaven from above,



27:40. Shall thy blessing be. Thou shalt live by the sword, and shalt serve thy brother: and the time shall come, when thou shalt shake off and loose his yoke from thy neck.



27:41. Esau therefore always hated Jacob, for the blessing wherewith his father had blessed him; and he said in his heart: The days will come of the mourning for my father, and I will kill my brother Jacob.



27:42. These things were told to Rebecca: and she sent and called Jacob, her son, and said to him: Behold Esau, thy brother, threateneth to kill thee.



27:43. Now therefore, my son, hear my voice, arise and flee to Laban, my brother, to Haran:



27:44. And thou shalt dwell with him a few days, till the wrath of thy brother be assuaged,



27:45. And his indignation cease, and he forget the things thou hast done to him: afterwards I will send, and bring thee from thence hither. Why shall I be deprived of both my sons in one day?



27:46. And Rebecca said to Isaac: I am weary of my life, because of the daughters of Heth: if Jacob take a wife of the stock of this land, I choose not to live.



Genesis Chapter 28



Jacob's journey to Mesopotamia: his vision and vow.



28:1. And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, saying: Take not a wife of the stock of Chanaan:



28:2. But go, and take a journey to Mesopotamia of Syria, to the house of Bathuel, thy mother's father, and take thee a wife thence of the daughters of Laban, thy uncle.



28:3. And God almighty bless thee, and make thee to increase and multiply thee: that thou mayst be a multitude of people.



28:4. And give the blessings of Araham to thee, and to thy seed after thee: that thou mayst possess the land of thy sojournment, which he promised to thy grandfather.



28:5. And when Isaac had sent him away, he took his journey and went to Mesopotamia of Syria, to Laban, the son of Bathuel, the Syrian, brother to Rebecca, his mother.



28:6. And Esau seeing that his father had blessed Jacob, and had sent him into Mesopotamia of Syria, to marry a wife thence; and that after the blessing he had charged him, saying: Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Chanaan:



28:7. And that Jacob obeying his parents, was gone into Syria:



28:8. Experiencing also, that his father was not well pleased with the daughters of Chanaan:



28:9. He went to Ismael, and took to wife, besides them he had before, Maheleth, the daughter of Ismael, Abraham's son, the sister of Nabajoth.



28:10. But Jacob being departed from Bersabee, went on to Haran.



28:11. And when he was come to a certain place, and would rest in it after sunset, he took of the stones that lay there, and putting under his head, slept in the same place.



28:12. And he saw in his sleep a ladder standing upon the earth, and the top thereof touching heaven: the angels also of God ascending and descending by it.



28:13. And the Lord leaning upon the ladder saying to him: I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: The land, wherein thou sleepest, I will give to thee and to thy seed.



28:14. And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth: thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and IN THEE and thy seed, all the tribes of the earth SHALL BE BLESSED.



28:15. And I will be thy keeper whithersoever thou goest, and will bring thee back into this land: neither will I leave thee, till I shall have accomplished all that I have said.



28:16. And when Jacob awaked out of sleep, he said: Indeed the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not.



28:17. And trembling, he said: How terrible is this place? this is no other but the house of God, and the gate of heaven.



28:18. And Jacob arising in the morning, took the stone which he had laid under his head, and set it up for a title, pouring oil upon the top of it.



28:19. And he called the name of the city Bethel, which before was called Luza.



Bethel. . .This name signifies the house of God.



28:20. And he made a vow, saying: If God shall be with me, and shall keep me in the way, by which I walk, and shall give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on,



28:21. And I shall return prosperously to my father's house: the Lord shall be my God:



28:22. And this stone, which I have set up for a title, shall be called the house of God: and of all things that thou shalt give to me, I will offer tithes to thee.



Genesis Chapter 29



Jacob serveth Laban seven years for Rachel: but is deceived with Lia: he afterwards marrieth Rachel. Lia bears him four sons.



29:1. Then Jacob went on in his journey, and came into the east country.



29:2. And he saw a well in the field, and three flocks of sheep lying by it: for the beasts were watered out of it, and the mouth thereof was closed with a great stone.



29:3. And the custom was, when all the sheep were gathered together, to roll away the stone, and after the sheep were watered, to put it on the mouth of the well again.



29:4. And he said to the shepherds: Brethren, whence are you? They answered: Of Haran.



29:5. And he asked them, saying: Know you Laban, the son of Nachor? They said: We know him.



29:6. He said: Is he in health? He is in health, say they: and behold, Rachel, his daughter, cometh with his flock.



29:7. And Jacob said: There is yet much day remaining, neither is it time to bring the flocks into the folds again: first give the sheep drink, and so lead them back to feed.



29:8. They answered: We cannot, till all the cattle be gathered together, and we remove the stone from the well's mouth, that we may water the flocks.



29:9. They were yet speaking, and behold Rachel came with her father's sheep; for she fed the flock.



29:10. And when Jacob saw her, and knew her to be his cousin german, and that they were the sheep of Laban, his uncle: he removed the stone wherewith the well was closed.



29:11. And having watered the flock, he kissed her: and lifting up his voice wept.



29:12. And he told her that he was her father's brother, and the son of Rebecca: but she went in haste and told her father.



29:13. Who, when he heard that Jacob his sister's son was come, ran forth to meet him: and embracing him, and heartily kissing him, brought him into his house. And when he had heard the causes of his journey,



29:14. He answered: Thou art my bone and my flesh. And after the days of one month were expired,



29:15. He said to him: Because thou art my brother, shalt thou serve me without wages? Tell me what wages thou wilt have.



29:16. Now he had two daughters, the name of the elder was Lia; and the younger was called Rachel.



29:17. But Lia was blear-eyed: Rachel was well favoured, and of a beautiful countenance.



29:18. And Jacob being in love with her, said: I will serve thee seven years for Rachel, thy younger daughter.



29:19. Laban answered: It is better that I give her to thee than to another man; stay with me.



29:20. So Jacob served seven years for Rachel: and they seemed but a few days, because of the greatness of his love.



29:21. And he said to Laban: Give me my wife; for now the time is fulfilled, that I may go in unto her.



29:22. And he, having invited a great number of his friends to the feast, made the marriage.



29:23. And at night he brought in Lia, his daughter, to him,



29:24. Giving his daughter a handmaid, named Zelpha. Now when Jacob had gone in to her according to custom, when morning was come he saw it was Lia.



29:25. And he said to his father-in-law: What is it that thou didst mean to do? did not I serve thee for Rachel? why hast thou deceived me?



29:26. Laban answered: It is not the custom in this place, to give the younger in marriage first.



29:27. Make up the week of days of this match: and I will give thee her also, for the service that thou shalt render me other seven years.



29:28. He yielded to his pleasure: and after the week was past, he married Rachel:



29:29. To whom her father gave Bala, for her servant.



29:30. And having at length obtained the marriage he wished for, he preferred the love of the latter before the former, and served with him other seven years.



29:31. And the Lord seeing that he despised Lia, opened her womb, but her sister remained barren.



29:32. And she conceived and bore a son, and called his name Ruben, saying: The Lord saw my affliction: now my husband will love me.



29:33. And again she conceived and bore a son, and said: Because the Lord heard that I was despised, he hath given this also to me: and she called his name Simeon.



29:34. And she conceived the third time, and bore another son, and said: Now also my husband will be joined to me, because I have borne him three sons: and therefore she called his name Levi.



29:35. The fourth time she conceived and bore a son, and said: Now will I praise the Lord: and for this she called him Juda. And she left bearing.







Genesis Chapter 30



Rachel, being barren, delivereth her handmaid to Jacob; she beareth two sons. Lia ceasing to bear, giveth also her handmaid, and she beareth two more. Then Lia beareth other two sons and one daughter. Rachel beareth Joseph. Jacob, desirous to return home, is hired to stay for a certain part of the flock's increase, whereby he becometh exceeding rich.



30:1. And Rachel seeing herself without children, envied her sister, and said to her husband: Give me children, otherwise I shall die.



30:2. And Jacob being angry with her, answered: Am I as God, who hath deprived thee of the fruit of thy womb?



30:3. But she said: I have here my servant Bala: go in unto her, that she may bear upon my knees, and I may have children by her.



30:4. And she gave him Bala in marriage: who,



30:5. When her husband had gone in unto her, conceived and bore a son.



30:6. And Rachel said: The Lord hath judged for me, and hath heard my voice, giving me a son; and therefore she called his name Dan.



30:7. And again Bala conceived, and bore another,



30:8. For whom Rachel said: God hath compared me with my sister, and I have prevailed: and she called him Nephthali.



30:9. Lia perceiving that she had left of bearing, gave Zelpha, her handmaid, to her husband.



30:10. And when she had conceived, and brought forth a son,



30:11. She said: Happily. And therefore called his name Gad.



30:12. Zelpha also bore another.



30:13. And Lia said: This is for my happiness: for women will call me blessed. Therefore she called him Aser.



30:14. And Ruben going out in the time of the wheat harvest into the field, found mandrakes: which he brought to his mother Lia. And Rachel said: Give me part of thy son's mandrakes.



30:15. She answered: Dost thou think it a small matter, that thou hast taken my husband from me, unless thou take also my son's mandrakes? Rachel said: He shall sleep with thee this night, for thy son's mandrakes.



30:16. And when Jacob returned at even from the field, Lia went out to meet him, and said: Thou shalt come in unto me, because I have hired thee for my son's mandrakes. And he slept with her that night.



30:17. And God heard her prayers; and she conceived: and bore a fifth son:



30:18. And said: God hath given me a reward, because I gave my handmaid to my husband. And she called his name Issachar.



30:19. And Lia conceived again, and bore the sixth son,



30:20. And said: God hath endowed me with a good dowry; this turn also my husband will be with me, because I have borne him six sons: and therefore she called his name Zabulon.



30:21. After whom she bore a daughter, named Dina.



30:22. The Lord also remembering Rachel, heard her, and opened her womb.



30:23. And she conceived, and bore a son, saying: God hath taken away my reproach.



30:24. And she called his name Joseph: saying: The Lord give me also another son.



30:25. And when Joseph was born, Jacob said to his father-in-law: Send me away, that I may return into my country, and to my land.



30:26. Give me my wives, and my children, for whom I have served thee, that I may depart: thou knowest the service that I have rendered thee.



30:27. Laban said to him: Let me find favour in thy sight: I have learned, by experience, that God hath blessed me for thy sake.



30:28. Appoint thy wages which I shall give thee.



30:29. But he answered: Thou knowest how I have served thee, and how great thy possession hath been in my hands.



30:30. Thou hadst but little before I came to thee, and now thou art become rich: and the Lord hath blessed thee at my coming. It is reasonable, therefore, that I should now provide also for my own house.



30:31. And Laban said: What shall I give thee? But he said: I require nothing; but if thou wilt do what I demand, I will feed and keep thy sheep again.



30:32. Go round through all thy flocks, and separate all the sheep of divers colours, and speckled; and all that is brown and spotted, and of divers colours, as well among the sheep as among the goats, shall be my wages.



30:33. And my justice shall answer for me tomorrow before thee, when the time of the bargain shall come; and all that is not of divers colours, and spotted, and brown, as well among the sheep as among the goats, shall accuse me of theft.



30:34. And Laban said: I like well what thou demandest.



30:35. And he separated the same day the she-goats, and the sheep, and the he-goats, and the rams of divers colours, and spotted; and all the flock of one colour, that is, of white and black fleece, he delivered into the hands of his sons.



30:36. And he set the space of three days journey betwixt himself and his son-in-law, who fed the rest of his flock.



30:37. And Jacob took green rods of poplar, and of almond, and of plane-trees, and pilled them in part: so when the bark was taken off, in the parts that were pilled, there appeared whiteness: but the parts that were whole, remained green: and by this means the colour was divers.



30:38. And he put them in the troughs, where the water was poured out; that when the flocks should come to drink, they might have the rods before their eyes, and in the sight of them might conceive.



30:39. And it came to pass, that in the very heat of coition, the sheep beheld the rods, and brought forth spotted, and of divers colours, and speckled.



30:40. And Jacob separated the flock, and put the rods in the troughs before the eyes of the rams; and all the white and the black were Laban's, and the rest were Jacob's, when the flocks were separated one from the other.



30:41. So when the ewes went first to ram, Jacob put the rods in the troughs of water before the eyes of the rams, and of the ewes, that they might conceive while they were looking upon them.



30:42. But when the later coming was, and the last conceiving, he did not put them. And those that were lateward, became Laban's; and they of the first time, Jacob's.



30:43. And the man was enriched exceedingly, and he had many flocks, maid-servants and men-servants, camels and asses.



Genesis Chapter 31



Jacob's departure: he is pursued and overtaken by Laban. They make a covenant.



31:1. But after that he had heard the words of the sons of Laban, saying: Jacob hath taken away all that was our father's, and being enriched by his substance is become great.



31:2. And perceiving also, that Laban's countenance was not towards him as yesterday and the other day.



31:3. Especially the Lord saying to him: Return into the land of thy fathers and to thy kindred, and I will be with thee.



31:4. He sent, and called Rachel and Lia into the field, where he fed the flocks,



31:5. And said to them: I see your father's countenance is not towards me as yesterday and the other day: but the God of my father hath been with me.



31:6. And you know that I have served your father to the uttermost of my power.



31:7. Yea your father hath also overreached me, and hath changed my wages ten times: and yet God hath not suffered him to hurt me.



31:8. If at any time, he said: The speckled shall be thy wages: all the sheep brought forth speckled: but when he said on the contrary: Thou shalt take all the white one for thy wages: all the flocks brought forth white ones.



31:9. And God hath taken your father's substance, and given it to me.



31:10. For after the time came of the ewes conceiving, I lifted up my eyes, and saw in my sleep, that the males which leaped upon the females were of divers colours, and spotted, and speckled.



31:11. And the angel of God said to me in my sleep: Jacob. And I answered: Here I am.



31:12. And he said: Lift up thy eyes, and see that all the males leaping upon the females, are of divers colours, spotted and speckled. For I have seen all that Laban hath done to thee.



31:13. I am the God of Bethel, where thou didst anoint the stone, and make a vow to me. Now therefore arise, and go out of this land, and return into thy native country.



31:14. And Rachel and Lia answered: Have we any thing left among the goods and inheritance of our father's house?



31:15. Hath he not counted us as strangers, and sold us, and eaten up the price of us?



31:16. But God hath taken our father's riches, and delivered them to us, and to our children: wherefore, do all that God hath commanded thee.



31:17. Then Jacob rose up, and having set his children and wives upon camels, went his way.



31:18. And he took all his substance, and flocks, and whatsoever he had gotten in Mesopotamia, and went forward to Isaac, his father, to the land of Chanaan.



31:19. At that time Laban was gone to shear his sheep, and Rachel stole away her father's idols.



Her father's idols. . .By this it appears that Laban was an idolater; and some of the fathers are of opinion that Rachel stole away these idols to withdraw him from idolatry, removing the occasion of his sin.



31:20. And Jacob would not confess to his father-in-law that he was flying away.



31:21. And when he was gone, together with all that belonged to him, and having passed the river, was going on towards mount Galaad,



31:22. It was told Laban on the third day, that Jacob fled.



31:23. And he took his brethren with him, and pursued after him seven days; and overtook him in the mount of Galaad.



31:24. And he saw in a dream God, saying to him: Take heed thou speak not any thing harshly against Jacob.



31:25. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the mountain: and when he, with his brethren, had overtaken him, he pitched his tent in the same mount of Galaad.



31:26. And he said to Jacob: Why hast thou done thus, to carry away, without my knowledge, my daughters as captives taken with the sword?



31:27. Why wouldst thou run away privately, and not acquaint me, that I might have brought thee on the way with joy, and with songs, and with timbrels, and with harps?



31:28. Thou hast not suffered me to kiss my sons and daughters; thou hast done foolishly; and now indeed,



31:29. It is in my power to return thee evil; but the God of your father said to me yesterday: Take heed thou speak not any thing harshly against Jacob.



31:30. Suppose thou didst desire to go to thy friends, and hadst a longing after thy father's house: why hast thou stolen away my gods?



31:31. Jacob answered: That I departed unknown to thee, it was for fear lest thou wouldst take away thy daughters by force.



31:32. But, whereas, thou chargest me with theft: with whomsoever thou shalt find thy gods, let him be slain before our brethren. Search, and if thou find any of thy things with me, take them away. Now when he said this, he knew not that Rachel had stolen the idols.



31:33. So Laban went into the tent of Jacob, and of Lia, and of both the handmaids, and found them not. And when he was entered into Rachel's tent,



31:34. She, in haste, hid the idols under the camel's furniture, and sat upon them: and when he had searched all the tent, and found nothing,



31:35. She said: Let not my lord be angry that I cannot rise up before thee, because it has now happened to me according to the custom of women. So his careful search was in vain.



31:36. And Jacob being angry, said in a chiding manner: For what fault of mine, and for what offence on my part hast thou so hotly pursued me,



31:37. And searched all my household stuff? What hast thou found of all the substance of thy house? lay it here before my brethren, and thy brethren, and let them judge between me and thee.



31:38. Have I, therefore, been with thee twenty years? thy ewes and goats were not barren, the rams of thy flocks I did not eat:



31:39. Neither did I shew thee that which the beast had torn; I made good all the damage: whatsoever was lost by theft, thou didst exact it of me:



31:40. Day and night was I parched with heat, and with frost, and sleep departed from my eyes.



31:41. And in this manner have I served thee in thy house twenty years, fourteen for thy daughters, and six for thy flocks: thou hast changed also my wages ten times.



31:42. Unless the God of my father, Abraham, and the fear of Isaac, had stood by me, peradventure now thou hadst sent me away naked: God beheld my affliction and the labour of my hands, and rebuked thee yesterday.



31:43. Laban answered him: The daughters are mine, and the children, and thy flocks, and all things that thou seest are mine: what can I do to my children, and grandchildren?



31:44. Come, therefore, let us enter into a league; that it may be for a testimony between me and thee.



31:45. And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a title.



31:46. And he said to his brethren: Bring hither stones. And they, gathering stones together, made a heap, and they ate upon it.



31:47. And Laban called it, The witness heap; and Jacob, The hillock of testimony: each of them according to the propriety of his language.



31:48. And Laban said: This heap shall be a witness between me and thee this day, and therefore the name thereof was called Galaad, that is, The witness heap.



31:49. The Lord behold and judge between us, when we shall be gone one from the other.



31:50. If thou afflict my daughters, and if thou bring in other wives over them: none is witness of our speech but God, who is present and beholdeth.



31:51. And he said again to Jacob: Behold this heap, and the stone which I have set up between me and thee,



31:52. Shall be a witness: this heap, I say, and the stone, be they for a testimony, if either I shall pass beyond it going towards thee, or thou shalt pass beyond it thinking harm to me.



31:53. The God of Abraham, and the God of Nachor, the God of their father, judge between us. And Jacob swore by the fear of his father Isaac:



31:54. And after he had offered sacrifices in the mountain, he called his brethren to eat bread. And when they had eaten, they lodged there:



31:55. But Laban arose in the night, and kissed his sons and daughters, and blessed them: and returned to his place.



Genesis Chapter 32



Jacob's vision of angels; his message and presents to Esau; his wrestling with an angel.



32:1. Jacob also went on the journey he had begun: and the angels of God met him.



32:2. And when he saw them, he said: These are the camps of God, and he called the name of that place Mahanaim, that is, Camps.



32:3. And he sent messengers before him to Esau, his brother, to the land of Seir, to the country of Edom:



32:4. And he commanded them, saying: Thus shall ye speak to my lord Esau: Thus saith thy brother Jacob: I have sojourned with Laban, and have been with him until this day:



32:5. I have oxen, and asses, and sheep, and menservants, and womenservants: and now I send a message to my lord, that I may find favour in thy sight.



32:6. And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying: We came to Esau, thy brother, and behold he cometh with speed to meet thee with four hundred men.



32:7. Then Jacob was greatly afraid; and in his fear divided the people that was with him, and the flocks, and the sheep, and the oxen, and the camels, into two companies,



32:8. Saying: If Esau come to one company, and destroy it, the other company that is left, shall escape.



32:9. And Jacob said: O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac: O Lord who saidst to me, Return to thy land, and to the place of thy birth, and I will do well for thee.



32:10. I am not worthy of the least of all thy mercies, and of thy truth which thou hast fulfilled to thy servant. With my staff I passed over this Jordan; and now I return with two companies.



32:11. Deliver me from the hand of my brother Esau, for I am greatly afraid of him; lest perhaps he come, and kill the mother with the children.



32:12. Thou didst say, that thou wouldst do well by me, and multiply my seed like the sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for multitude.



32:13. And when he had slept there that night, he set apart, of the things which he had, presents for his brother Esau,



32:14. Two hundred she-goats, twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes, and twenty rams,



32:15. Thirty milch camels with their colts, forty kine, and twenty bulls, twenty she-asses, and ten of their foals.



32:16. And he sent them by the hands of his servants, every drove by itself, and he said to his servants: Go before me, and let there be a space between drove and drove.



32:17. And he commanded the first, saying: If thou meet my brother Esau, and he ask thee: Whose art thou? or whither goest thou? or whose are these before thee?



32:18. Thou shalt answer: Thy servant Jacob's: he hath sent them as a present to my lord Esau; and he cometh after us.



32:19. In like manner he commanded the second, and the third, and all that followed the droves, saying: Speak ye the same words to Esau, when ye find him.



32:20. And ye shall add: Thy servant Jacob himself also followeth after us; for he said: I will appease him with the presents that go before, and afterwards I will see him, perhaps he will be gracious to me.



32:21. So the presents went before him, but himself lodged that night in the camp.



32:22. And rising early, he took his two wives and his two handmaids, with his eleven sons, and passed over the ford of Jaboc.



32:23. And when all things were brought over that belonged to him,



32:24. He remained alone; and behold, a man wrestled with him till morning.



A man, etc. . .This was an angel in human shape, as we learn from Osee 12.4. He is called God, ver. 28 and 30, because he represented the person of the Son of God. This wrestling, in which Jacob, assisted by God, was a match for an angel, was so ordered (ver. 28,) that he might learn by this experiment of the divine assistance, that neither Esau, nor any other man, should have power to hurt him.--It was also spiritual, as appeareth by his earnest prayer, urging and at last obtaining the angel's blessing.



32:25. And when he saw that he could not overcome him, he touched the sinew of his thigh, and forthwith it shrank.



32:26. And he said to him: Let me go, for it is break of day. He answered: I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.



32:27. And he said: What is thy name? He answered: Jacob.



32:28. But he said: Thy name shall not be called Jacob, but Israel; for if thou hast been strong against God, how much more shalt thou prevail against men?



32:29. Jacob asked him: Tell me by what name art thou called? He answered: Why dost thou ask my name? And he blessed him in the same place.



32:30. And Jacob called the name of the place Phanuel, saying: I have seen God face to face, and my soul has been saved.



Phanuel. . .This word signifies the face of God, or the sight, or seeing of God.



32:31. And immediately the sun rose upon him, after he was past Phanuel; but he halted on his foot.



32:32. Therefore the children of Israel, unto this day, eat not the sinew, that shrank in Jacob's thigh: because he touched the sinew of his thigh and it shrank.



Genesis Chapter 33



Jacob and Esau meet: Jacob goeth to Salem, where he raiseth an altar.



33:1. And Jacob lifting up his eyes, saw Esau coming, and with him four hundred men: and he divided the children of Lia and of Rachel, and of the two handmaids.



33:2. And he put both the handmaids and their children foremost: and Lia and her children in the second place: and Rachel and Joseph last.



33:3. And he went forward and bowed down with his face to the ground seven times, until his brother came near.



33:4. Then Esau ran to meet his brother, and embraced him: and clasping him fast about the neck, and kissing him, wept.



33:5. And lifting up his eyes, he saw the women and their children, and said: What mean these? And do they belong to thee? He answered: They are the children which God hath given to me, thy servant.



33:6. Then the handmaids and their children came near and bowed themselves.



33:7. Lia also, with her children, came near and bowed down in like manner; and last of all, Joseph and Rachel bowed down.



33:8. And Esau said: What are the droves that I met? He answered: That I might find favour before my lord.



33:9. But he said: I have plenty, my brother, keep what is thine for thyself.



33:10. And Jacob said: Do not so I beseech thee, but if I have found favour in thy eyes, receive a little present at my hands: for I have seen thy face, as if I should have seen the countenance of God: be gracious to me,



33:11. And take the blessing which I have brought thee, and which God hath given me, who giveth all things. He took it with much ado at his brother's earnest pressing him,



33:12. And said: Let us go on together, and I will accompany thee in thy journey.



33:13. And Jacob said: My lord, thou knowest that I have with me tender children, and sheep, and kine with young: which if I should cause to be overdriven, in one day all the flocks will die.



33:14. May it please my lord to go before his servant: and I will follow softly after him, as I shall see my children to be able, until I come to my lord in Seir.



33:15. Esau answered: I beseech thee, that some of the people, at least, who are with me, may stay to accompany thee in the way. And he said: There is no necessity: I want nothing else but only to find favour, my lord, in thy sight.



33:16. So Esau returned that day, the way that he came, to Seir.



33:17. And Jacob came to Socoth: where having built a house, and pitched tents, he called the name of the place Socoth, that is, Tents.



33:18. And he passed over to Salem, a city of the Sichemites, which is in the land of Chanaan, after he returned from Mesopotamia of Syria: and he dwelt by the town.



33:19. And he bought that part of the field, in which he pitched his tents, of the children of Hemor, the father of Sichem, for a hundred lambs.



33:20. And raising an altar there, he invoked upon it the most mighty God of Israel.



Genesis Chapter 34



Dina is ravished, for which the Sichemites are destroyed.



34:1. And Dina the daughter of Lia went out to see the women of that country.



34:2. And when Sichem the son of Hemor the Hevite, the prince of that land, saw her, he was in love with her: and took her away, and lay with her, ravishing the virgin.



34:3. And his soul was fast knit unto her; and whereas she was sad, he comforted her with sweet words.



34:4. And going to Hemor his father, he said: Get me this damsel to wife.



34:5. But when Jacob had heard this, his sons being absent, and employed in feeding the cattle, he held his peace till they came back.



34:6. And when Hemor the father of Sichem was come out to speak to Jacob,



34:7. Behold his sons came from the field: and hearing what had passed, they were exceeding angry, because he had done a foul thing in Israel, and committed an unlawful act, in ravishing Jacob's daughter.



34:8. And Hemor spoke to them: The soul of my son Sichem has a longing for your daughter: give her him to wife:



34:9. And let us contract marriages one with another: give us your daughters, and take you our daughters.



34:10. And dwell with us: the land is at your command, till, trade, and possess it.



34:11. Sichem also said to her father and to her brethren: Let me find favour in your sight, and whatsoever you shall appoint I will give:



34:12. Raise the dowry, and ask gifts, and I will gladly give what you shall demand: only give me this damsel to wife.



34:13. The sons of Jacob answered Sichem and his father deceitfully, being enraged at the deflowering of their sister:



Deceitfully. . .The sons of Jacob, on this occasion, were guilty of a grievous sin, as well by falsely pretending religion, as by excess of revenge: though otherwise their zeal against so foul a crime was commendable.



34:14. We cannot do what you demand, nor give our sister to one that is uncircumcised; which with us is unlawful and abominable.



34:15. But in this we may be allied with you, if you will be like us, and all the male sex among you be circumcised:



34:16. Then will we mutually give and take your daughters, and ours; and we will dwell with you, and will be one people:



34:17. But if you will not be circumcised, we will take our daughter and depart.



34:18. Their offer pleased Hemor, and Sichem, his son:



34:19. And the young man made no delay, but forthwith fulfilled what was required: for he loved the damsel exceedingly, and he was the greatest man in all his father's house.



34:20. And going into the gate of the city, they spoke to the people:



34:21. These men are peaceable, and are willing to dwell with us: let them trade in the land, and till it, which being large and wide wanteth men to till it: we shall take their daughters for wives, and we will give them ours.



34:22. One thing there is for which so great a good is deferred: We must circumcise every male among us, following the manner of the nation.



34:23. And their substance, and cattle, and all that they possess, shall be ours; only in this let us condescend, and by dwelling together, we shall make one people.



34:24. And they all agreed, and circumcised all the males.



34:25. And behold the third day, when the pain of the wound was greatest: two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, the brothers of Dina, taking their swords, entered boldly into the city and slew all the men.



34:26. And they killed also Hemor and Sichem, and took away their sister Dina out of Sichem's house.



34:27. And when they were gone out, the other sons of Jacob came upon the slain; and plundered the city in revenge of the rape.



34:28. And they took their sheep, and their herds, and their asses, wasting all they had in their houses and in their fields.



34:29. And their children and wives they took captive.



34:30. And when they had boldly perpetrated these things, Jacob said to Simeon and Levi: You have troubled me, and made me hateful to the Chanaanites and Pherezites, the inhabitants of this land. We are few: they will gather themselves together and kill me; and both I, and my house shall be destroyed.



34:31. They answered: Should they abuse our sister as a strumpet?



Genesis Chapter 35



Jacob purgeth his family from idols: goeth by God's commandment to Bethel, and there buildeth an altar. God appearing again to Jacob blesseth him, and changeth his name into Israel. Rachel dieth in childbirth. Isaac also dieth.



35:1. In the mean time God said to Jacob: Arise and go up to Bethel, and dwell there, and make there an altar to God, who appeared to thee when thou didst flee from Esau, thy brother.



35:2. And Jacob having called together all his household, said: Cast away the strange gods that are among you, and be cleansed, and change your garments.



35:3. Arise, and let us go up to Bethel, that we may make there an altar to God; who heard me in the day of my affliction, and accompained me in my journey.



35:4. So they gave him all the strange gods they had, and the earrings which were in their ears: and he buried them under the turpentine tree, that is behind the city of Sichem.



35:5. And when they were departed, the terror of God fell upon all the cities round about, and they durst not pursue after them as they went away.



35:6. And Jacob came to Luza, which is in the land of Chanaan, surnamed Bethel: he and all the people that were with him.



35:7. And he built there an altar, and called the name of that place, The house of God: for there God appeared to him when he fled from his brother.



35:8. At the same time Debora, the nurse of Rebecca, died, and was buried at the foot of Bethel, under an oak, and the name of that place was called, The oak of weeping.



35:9. And God appeared again to Jacob, after he returned from Mesopotamia of Syria, and he blessed him,



35:10. Saying: Thou shalt not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name. And he called him Israel.



Israel. . .This name signifieth one that prevaileth with God.



35:11. And said to him: I am God almighty, increase thou and be multiplied. Nations and peoples of nations shall be from thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins.



35:12. And the land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac, I will give to thee, and to thy seed after thee.



35:13. And he departed from him.



35:14. But he set up a monument of stone, in the place where God had spoken to him: pouring drink-offerings upon it, and pouring oil thereon:



35:15. And calling the name of that place Bethel.



35:16. And going forth from thence, he came in the spring time to the land which leadeth to Ephrata: wherein when Rachel was in travail,



35:17. By reason of her hard labour, she began to be in danger, and the midwife said to her: Fear not, for thou shalt have this son also.



35:18. And when her soul was departing for pain, and death was now at hand, she called the name of her son Benoni, that is, the son of my pain: but his father called him Benjamin, that is, the son of the right hand.



35:19. So Rachel died, and was buried in the highway that leadeth to Ephrata, this is Bethlehem.



35:20. And Jacob erected a pillar over her sepulchre: this is the pillar of Rachel's monument, to this day.



35:21. Departing thence, he pitched his tent beyond the Flock tower.



35:22. And when he dwelt in that country, Ruben went, and slept with Bala the concubine of his father: which he was not ignorant of. Now the sons of Jacob were twelve.



The concubine. . .She was his lawful wife; but, according to the style of the Hebrews, is called concubine, because of her servile extraction.



35:23. The sons of Lia: Ruben the first born, and Simeon, and Levi, and Juda, and Issachar, and Zabulon.



35:24. The sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin.



35:25. The sons of Bala, Rachel's handmaid: Dan and Nephthali.



35:26. The sons of Zelpha, Lia's handmaid: Gad and Aser: these are the sons of Jacob, that were born to him in Mesopotamia of Syria.



35:27. And he came to Isaac his father in Mambre, the city of Arbee, this is Hebron: wherein Abraham and Isaac sojourned.



35:28. And the days of Isaac were a hundred and eighty years.



35:29. And being spent with age he died, and was gathered to his people, being old and full of days: and his sons Esau and Jacob buried him.



Genesis Chapter 36



Esau with his wives and children parteth from Jacob. An account of his descendants, and of the first kings of Edom.



36:1. And these are the generations of Esau, the same is Edom.



36:2. Esau took wives of the daughters of Chanaan: Ada the daughter of Elon the Hethite, and Oolibama the daughter of Ana, the daughter of Sebeon the Hevite:



Ada. . .These wives of Esau are called by other names, Gen. 26. But it was very common amongst the ancients for the same persons to have two names, as Esau himself was also called Edom.



36:3. And Basemath, the daughter of Ismael, sister of Nabajoth.



36:4. And Ada bore Eliphaz: Basemath bore Rahuel.



36:5. Oolibama bore Jehus, and Ihelon, and Core. These are the sons of Esau, that were born to him in the land of Chanaan.



36:6. And Esau took his wives, and his sons and daughters, and every soul of his house, and his substance, and cattle, and all that he was able to acquire in the land of Chanaan: and went into another country, and departed from his brother Jacob.



36:7. For they were exceeding rich, and could not dwell together: neither was the land in which they sojourned able to bear them, for the multitude of their flocks.



36:8. And Esau dwelt in mount Seir: he is Edom.



36:9. And these are the generations of Esau, the father of Edom, in mount Seir.



36:10. And these the names of his sons: Eliphaz the son of Ada, the wife of Esau: and Rahuel, the son of Basemath, his wife.



36:11. And Eliphaz had sons: Theman, Omar, Sepho, and Gatham and Cenez.



36:12. And Thamna was the concubine of Eliphaz, the son of Esau: and she bore him Amalech. These are the sons of Ada, the wife of Esau.



36:13. And the sons of Rahuel were Nahath and Zara, Samma and Meza. These were the sons of Basemath, the wife of Esau.



36:14. And these were the sons of Oolibama, the daughter of Ana, the daughter of Sebeon, the wife of Esau, whom she bore to him, Jehus, and Ihelon, and Core.



36:15. These were dukes of the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz, the firstborn of Esau: duke Theman, duke Omar, duke Sepho, duke Cenez,



36:16. Duke Core, duke Gatham, duke Amalech: these are the sons of Eliphaz, in the land of Edom, and these the sons of Ada.



36:17. And these were the sons of Rahuel, the son of Esau: duke Nahath, duke Zara, duke Samma, duke Meza. And these are the dukes of Rahuel, in the land of Edom: these the sons of Basemath, the wife of Esau.



36:18. And these the sons of Oolibama, the wife of Esau: duke Jehus, duke Ihelon, duke Core. These are the dukes of Oolibama, the daughter of Ana, and wife of Esau.



36:19. These are the sons of Esau, and these the dukes of them: the same is Edom.



36:20. These are the sons of Seir, the Horrite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, and Sobal, and Sebeon, and Ana,



36:21. And Dison, and Eser, and Disan. These are dukes of the Horrites, the sons of Seir, in the land of Edom.



36:22. And Lotan had sons: Hori and Heman. And the sister of Lotan was Thamna.



36:23. And these the sons of Sobal: Alvan, and Manahat, and Ebal, and Sepho, and Onam.



36:24. And these the sons of Sebeon: Aia and Ana. This is Ana that found the hot waters in the wilderness, when he fed the asses of Sebeon, his father:



36:25. And he had a son Dison, and a daughter Oolibama.



36:26. And these were the sons of Dison: Hamdan, and Eseban, and Jethram, and Charan.



36:27. These also were the sons of Eser: Balaan, and Zavan, and Acan.



36:28. And Dison had sons: Hus and Aram.



36:29. These were dukes of the Horrites: duke Lotan, duke Sobal, duke Sebeon, duke Ana,



36:30. Duke Dison, duke Eser, duke Disan: these were dukes of the Horrites that ruled in the land of Seir.



36:31. And the kings that ruled in the land of Edom, before the children of Israel had a king, were these:



36:32. Bela the son of Beor, and the name of his city Denaba.



36:33. And Bela died, and Jobab, the son of Zara, of Bosra, reigned in his stead.



36:34. And when Jobab was dead, Husam, of the land of the Themanites, reigned in his stead.



36:35. And after his death, Adad, the son of Badad, reigned in his stead, who defeated the Madianites in the country of Boab; and the name of his city was Avith.



36:36. And when Adad was dead, there reigned in his stead, Semla, of Masreca.



36:37. And he being dead, Saul, of the river Rohoboth, reigned in his stead.



36:38. And when he also was dead, Balanan, the son of Achobor, succeeded to the kingdom.



36:39. This man also being dead, Adar reigned in his place; and the name of his city was Phau: and his wife was called Meetabel, the daughter of Matred, daughter of Mezaab.



36:40. And these are the names of the dukes of Esau in their kindreds, and places, and callings: duke Thamna, duke Alva, duke Jetheth,



36:41. Duke Oolibama, duke Ela, duke Phinon,



36:42. Duke Cenez, duke Theman, duke Mabsar,



36:43. Duke Magdiel, duke Hiram: these are the dukes of Edom dwelling in the land of their government; the same is Esau, the father of the Edomites.



Genesis Chapter 37



Joseph's dreams: he is sold by his brethren, and carried into Egypt.



37:1. And Jacob dwelt in the land of Chanaan, wherein his father sojourned.



37:2. And these are his generations: Joseph, when he was sixteen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren, being but a boy: and he was with the sons of Bala and of Zelpha his father's wives: and he accused his brethren to his father of a most wicked crime.



37:3. Now Israel loved Joseph above all his sons, because he had him in his old age: and he made him a coat of divers colours.



37:4. And his brethren seeing that he was loved by his father, more than all his sons, hated hem, and could not speak peaceably to him.



37:5. Now it fell out also that he told his brethren a dream, that he had dreamed: which occasioned them to hate him the more.



A dream. . .These dreams of Joseph were prophetical, and sent from God; as were also those which he interpreted, Gen. 40. and 41.; otherwise generally speaking, the observing of dreams is condemned in the Scripture, as superstitious and sinful. See Deut. 18.10; Eccli. 34.2,3.



37:6. And he said to them: Hear my dream which I dreamed.



37:7. I thought we were binding sheaves in the field: and my sheaf arose as it were, and stood, and your sheaves standing about bowed down before my sheaf.



37:8. His brethren answered: Shalt thou be our king? or shall we be subject to thy dominion? Therefore this matter of his dreams and words ministered nourishment to their envy and hatred.



37:9. He dreamed also another dream, which he told his brethren, saying: I saw in a dream, as it were the sun, and the moon, and eleven stars worshipping me.



37:10. And when he had told this to his father, and brethren, his father rebuked him and said: What meaneth this dream that thou hast dreamed? shall I and thy mother, and thy brethren worship thee upon the earth?



Worship. . .This word is not used here to signify divine worship, but an inferior veneration, expressed by the bowing of the body, and that, according to the manner of the eastern nations, down to the ground.



37:11. His brethren therefore envied him: but his father considered the thing with himself.



37:12. And when his brethren abode in Sechem, feeding their father's flocks,



37:13. Israel said to him: Thy brethren feed the sheep in Sichem: come, I will send thee to them. And when he answered:



37:14. I am ready: he said to him: Go, and see if all things be well with thy brethren, and the cattle: and bring me word again what is doing. So being sent from the vale of Hebron, he came to Sichem:



37:15. And a man found him there wandering in the field, and asked what he sought.



37:16. But he answered: I seek my brethren, tell me where they feed the flocks.



37:17. And the man said to him: They are departed from this place: for I heard them say: Let us go to Dothain. And Joseph went forward after his brethren, and found them in Dothain.



37:18. And when they saw him afar off, before he came nigh them, they thought to kill him:



37:19. And said one to another: Behold the dreamer cometh.



37:20. Come, let us kill him, and cast him into some old pit: and we will say: Some evil beast hath devoured him: and then it shall appear what his dreams avail him:



37:21. And Ruben hearing this, endeavoured to deliver him out of their hands, and said:



37:22. Do not take away his life, nor shed his blood: but cast him into this pit, that is in the wilderness, and keep your hands harmless: now he said this, being desirous to deliver him out of their hands and to restore him to his father.



37:23. And as soon as he came to his brethren, they forthwith stript him of his outside coat, that was of divers colours:



37:24. And cast him into an old pit where there was not water.



37:25. And sitting down to eat bread, they saw some Ismaelites on their way coming from Galaad, with their camels, carrying spices, and balm, and myrrh to Egypt.



37:26. And Juda said to his brethren: What will it profit us to kill our brother, and conceal his blood?



37:27. It is better that he be sold to the Ismaelites, and that our hands be not defiled: for he is our brother and our flesh. His brethren agreed to his words.



37:28. And when the Madianite merchants passed by, they drew him out of the pit, and sold him to the Ismaelites, for twenty pieces of silver: and they led him into Egypt.



37:29. And Ruben returning to the pit, found not the boy:



37:30. And rending his garments he went to his brethren, and said: The boy doth not appear, and whither shall I go?



37:31. And they took his coat, and dipped it in the blood of a kid, which they had killed:



37:32. Sending some to carry it to their father, and to say: This we have found: see whether it be thy son's coat, or not.



37:33. And the father acknowledging it, said: It is my son's coat, an evil wild beast hath eaten him, a beast hath devoured Joseph.



37:34. And tearing his garments, he put on sackcloth, mourning for his son a long time.



37:35. And all his children being gathered together to comfort their father in his sorrow, he would not receive comfort, but said: I will go down to my son into hell, mourning. And whilst he continued weeping,



Into hell. . .That is, into limbo, the place where the souls of the just were received before the death of our Redeemer. For allowing that the word hell sometimes is taken for the grave, it cannot be so taken in this place; since Jacob did not believe his son to be in the grave, (whom he supposed to be devoured by a wild beast,) and therefore could not mean to go down to him thither: but certainly meant the place of rest where he believed his soul to be.



37:36. The Madianites sold Joseph in Egypt to Putiphar, an eunuch of Pharao, captain of the soldiers.



An eunuch. . .This word sometimes signifies a chamberlain, courtier, or officer of the king: and so it is taken in this place.



Genesis Chapter 38



The sons of Juda: the death of Her and Onan: the birth of Phares and Zara.



38:1. At that time Juda went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Odollamite, named Hiras.



38:2. And he saw there the daughter of a man of Chanaan, called Sue: and taking her to wife, he went in unto her.



38:3. And she conceived, and bore a son, and called his name Her.



38:4. And conceiving again, she bore a son, and called him Onan.



38:5. She bore also a third: whom she called Sela. After whose birth, she ceased to bear any more.



38:6. And Juda took a wife for Her, his first born, whose name was Thamar.



38:7. And Her, the first born of Juda, was wicked in the sight of the Lord: and was slain by him.



38:8. Juda, therefore, said to Onan his son: Go in to thy brother's wife and marry her, that thou mayst raise seed to thy brother.



38:9. He knowing that the children should not be his, when he went in to his brother's wife, he spilled his seed upon the ground, lest children should be born in his brother's name.



38:10. And therefore the Lord slew him, because he did a detestable thing:



38:11. Wherefore Juda said to Thamar his daughter-in-law: Remain a widow in thy father's house, till Sela my son grow up: for he was afraid lest he also might die, as his brethren did. She went her way, and dwelt in her father's house.



38:12. And after many days were past: the daughter of Sue the wife of Juda died: and when he had taken comfort after his mourning, he went up to Thamnas, to the shearers of his sheep, he and Hiras the Odollamite, the shepherd of his flock.



38:13. And it was told Thamar that her father-in-law was come up to Thamnas to shear his sheep.



38:14. And she put off the garments of her widowhood, and took a veil: and changing her dress, sat in the cross way, that leadeth to Thamnas: because Sela was grown up, and she had not been married to him.



38:15. When Juda saw her, he thought she was a harlot: for she had covered her face, lest she should be known.



38:16. And going to her, he said: Suffer me to lie with thee: for he knew her not to be his daughter-in-law. And she answered: What wilt thou give me to enjoy my company?



38:17. He said: I will send thee a kid out of the flock. And when she said again: I will suffer what thou wilt, if thou give me a pledge, till thou send what thou promisest.



38:18. Juda said: What wilt thou have for a pledge? She answered: Thy ring and bracelet, and the staff which thou holdest in thy hand. The woman therefore at one copulation conceived.



38:19. And she arose and went her way: and putting off the apparel which she had taken, put on the garments of her widowhood.



38:20. And Juda sent a kid by his shepherd, the Odollamite, that he might receive the pledge again, which he had given to the woman: but he, not finding her,



38:21. Asked the men of that place: Where is the woman that sat in the cross way? And when they all made answer: There was no harlot in this place,



38:22. He returned to Juda, and said to him: I have not found her; moreover, the men of that place said to me, that there never sat a harlot there.



38:23. Juda said: Let her take it to herself, surely she cannot charge us with a lie, I sent the kid which I promised: and thou didst not find her.



38:24. And behold, after three months, they told Juda, saying: Thamar, thy daughter-in-law, hath played the harlot, and she appeareth to have a big belly. And Juda said: Bring her out that she may be burnt.



38:25. But when she was led to execution, she sent to her father in law, saying: By the man, to whom these things belong, I am with child. See whose ring, and bracelet, and staff this is.



38:26. But he acknowledging the gifts, said: She is juster than I: because I did not give her to Sela, my son. However he knew her no more.



38:27. And when she was ready to be brought to bed, there appeared twins in her womb: and in the very delivery of the infants, one put forth a hand, whereon the midwife tied a scarlet thread, saying:



38:28. This shall come forth the first.



38:29. But he drawing back his hand, the other came forth: and the woman said: Why is the partition divided for thee? and therefore called his name Phares.



Phares. . .That is, a breach or division.



38:30. Afterwards his brother came out, on whose hand was the scarlet thread: and she called his name Zara.



Genesis Chapter 39



Joseph hath charge of his master's house: rejecteth his mistress's solicitations: is falsely accused by her, and cast into prison, where he hath the charge of all the prisoners.



39:1. And Joseph was brought into Egypt, and Putiphar, an eunuch of Pharao, chief captain of the army, an Egyptian, bought him of the Ismaelites, by whom he was brought.



39:2. And the Lord was with him, and he was a prosperous man in all things: and he dwelt in his master's house:



39:3. Who knew very well that the Lord was with him, and made all that he did to prosper in his hand.



39:4. And Joseph found favour in the sight of his master, and ministered to him: and being set over all by him, he governed the house committed to him, and all things that were delivered to him:



39:5. And the Lord blessed the house of the Egyptian for Joseph's sake, and multiplied all his substance, both at home and in the fields.



39:6. Neither knew he any other thing, but the bread which he ate. And Joseph was of a beautiful countenance, and comely to behold.



39:7. And after many days, his mistress cast her eyes on Joseph, and said: Lie with me.



39:8. But he in no wise consenting to that wicked act said to her: Behold, my master hath delivered all things to me, and knoweth not what he hath in his own house:



39:9. Neither is there any thing which is not in my power, or that he hath not delivered to me, but thee, who art his wife; how then can I do this wicked thing, and sin against my God?



39:10. With such words as these day by day, both the woman was importunate with the young man, and he refused the adultery.



39:11. Now it happened on a certain day, that Joseph went into the house, and was doing some business, without any man with him:



39:12. And she catching the skirt of his garment, said: Lie with me. But he leaving the garment in her hand, fled, and went out.



39:13. And when the woman saw the garment in her hands, and herself disregarded,



39:14. She called to her the men of her house, and said to them: See, he hath brought in a Hebrew, to abuse us: he came in to me, to lie with me; and when I cried out,



39:15. And he heard my voice, he left the garment that I held, and got him out.



39:16. For a proof therefore of her fidelity, she kept the garment, and shewed it to her husband when he returned home:



A proof of her fidelity. . .or an argument to gain credit, argumentum fidei.



39:17. And said: The Hebrew servant, whom thou hast brought, came to me to abuse me.



39:18. And when he heard me cry, he left the garment which I held, and fled out.



39:19. His master hearing these things, and giving too much credit to his wife's words, was very angry,



39:20. And cast Joseph into the prison, where the king's prisoners were kept, and he was there shut up.



39:21. But the Lord was with Joseph, and having mercy upon him gave him favour in the sight of the chief keeper of the prison:



39:22. Who delivered into his hand all the prisoners that were kept in custody: and whatsoever was done, was under him.



39:23. Neither did he himself know any thing, having committed all things to him: for the Lord was with him, and made all that he did to prosper.







Genesis Chapter 40



Joseph interpreteth the dreams of two of Pharao's servants in prison: the event declareth the interpretations to be true, but Joseph is forgotten.



40:1. After this, it came to pass, that two eunuchs, the butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, offended their lord.



40:2. And Pharao being angry with them, (now the one was chief butler, the other chief baker,)



40:3. He sent them to the prison of the commander of the soldiers, in which Joseph also was prisoner.



40:4. But the keeper of the prison delivered them to Joseph, and he served them. Some little time passed, and they were kept in custody.



40:5. And they both dreamed a dream the same night, according to the interpretation agreeing to themselves:



40:6. And when Joseph was come into them in the morning, and saw them sad,



40:7. He asked them, saying: Why is your countenance sadder today than usual?



40:8. They answered: We have dreamed a dream, and there is nobody to interpret it to us. And Joseph said to them: Doth not interpretation belong to God? Tell me what you have dreamed:



Doth not interpretation belong to God?. . .When dreams are from God, as these were, the interpretation of them is a gift of God. But the generality of dreams are not of this sort; but either proceed from the natural complexions and dispositions of persons, or the roving of their imaginations in the day on such objects as they are much affected with, or from their mind being disturbed with cares and troubles, and oppressed with bodily infirmities: or they are suggested by evil spirits, to flatter, or to terrify weak minds, in order to gain belief, and so draw them into error or superstition; or at least to trouble them in their sleep, whom they cannot move when they are awake: so that the general rule, with regard to dreams, is not to observe them, nor to give any credit to them.



40:9. The chief butler first told his dream: I saw before me a vine,



40:10. On which were three branches, which by little and little sent out buds, and after the blossoms brought forth ripe grapes:



40:11. And the cup of Pharao was in my hand: and I took the grapes, and pressed them into the cup which I held, and I gave the cup to Pharao.



40:12. Joseph answered: This is the interpretation of the dream: The three branches, are yet three days:



40:13. After which Pharao will remember thy service, and will restore thee to thy former place: and thou shalt present him the cup according to thy office, as before thou was wont to do.



40:14. Only remember me when it shall be well with thee, and do me this kindness: to put Pharao in mind to take me out of this prison:



40:15. For I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews, and here without any fault was cast into the dungeon.



40:16. The chief baker seeing that he had wisely interpreted the dream, said: I also dreamed a dream, That I had three baskets of meal upon my head:



40:17. And that in one basket which was uppermost, I carried all meats that are made by the art of baking, and that the birds ate out of it.



40:18. Joseph answered: This is the interpretation of the dream: The three baskets, are yet three days:



40:19. After which Pharao will take thy head from thee, and hang thee on a cross, and the birds shall tear thy flesh.



40:20. The third day after this was the birthday of Pharao: and he made a great feast for his servants, and at the banquet remembered the chief butler, and the chief baker.



40:21. And he restored the one to his place, to present him the cup:



40:22. The other he hanged on a gibbet, that the truth of the interpreter might be shewn.



40:23. But the chief butler, when things prospered with him, forgot his interpreter.



Genesis Chapter 41



Joseph interpreteth the two dreams of Pharao: he is made ruler over all Egypt.



41:1. After two years Pharao had a dream. He thought he stood by the river,



41:2. Out of which came up seven kine, very beautiful and fat: and they fed in marshy places.



41:3. Other seven also came up out of the river, ill-favoured, and lean fleshed: and they fed on the very bank of the river, in green places:



41:4. And they devoured them, whose bodies were very beautiful and well conditioned. So Pharao awoke.



41:5. He slept again, and dreamed another dream: Seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk full and fair:



41:6. Then seven other ears sprung up thin and blasted,



41:7. And devoured all the beauty of the former. Pharao awaked after his rest:



41:8. And when morning was come, being struck with fear, he sent to all the interpreters of Egypt, and to all the wise men: and they being called for, he told them his dream, and there was not any one that could interpret it.



41:9. Then at length the chief butler remembering, said: I confess my sin:



41:10. The king being angry with his servants, commanded me and the chief baker to be cast into the prison of the captain of the soldiers.



41:11. Where in one night both of us dreamed a dream foreboding things to come.



41:12. There was there a young man a Hebrew, servant to the same captain of the soldiers: to whom we told our dreams,



41:13. And we heard what afterwards the event of the thing proved to be so. For I was restored to my office: and he was hanged upon a gibbet.



41:14. Forthwith at the king's command Joseph was brought out of the prison, and they shaved him: and changing his apparel brought him in to him.



41:15. And he said to him: I have dreamed dreams, and there is no one that can expound them: Now I have heard that thou art very wise at interpreting them:



41:16. Joseph answered: Without me, God shall give Pharao a prosperous answer.



41:17. So Pharao told what he had dreamed: Methought I stood upon the bank of the river,



41:18. And seven kine came up out of the river, exceeding beautiful and full of flesh: and they grazed on green places in a marshy pasture.



41:19. And behold, there followed these, other seven kine, so very ill-favoured and lean, that I never saw the like in the land of Egypt:



41:20. And they devoured and consumed the former,



41:21. And yet gave no mark of their being full: but were as lean and ill-favoured as before. I awoke, and then fell asleep again,



41:22. And dreamed a dream: Seven ears of corn grew up upon one stalk, full and very fair.



41:23. Other seven also thin and blasted, sprung of the stalk:



41:24. And they devoured the beauty of the former: I told this dream to the conjecturers, and there is no man that can expound it.



41:25. Joseph answered: The king's dream is one: God hath shewn to Pharao what he is about to do.



41:26. The seven beautiful kine, and the seven full ears, are seven years of plenty: and both contain the same meaning of the dream.



41:27. And the seven lean and thin kine that came up after them, and the seven thin ears that were blasted with the burning wind, are seven years of famine to come:



41:28. Which shall be fulfilled in this order.



41:29. Behold, there shall come seven years of great plenty in the whole land of Egypt:



41:30. After which shall follow other seven years of so great scarcity, that all the abundance before shall be forgotten: for the famine shall consume all the land,



41:31. And the greatness of the scarcity shall destroy the greatness of the plenty.



41:32. And for that thou didst see the second time a dream pertaining to the same thing: it is a token of the certainty, and that the word of God cometh to pass, and is fulfilled speedily.



41:33. Now therefore let the king provide a wise and industrious man, and make him ruler over the land of Egypt:



41:34. That he may appoint overseers over all the countries: and gather into barns the fifth part of the fruits, during the seven fruitful years,



41:35. That shall now presently ensue: and let all the corn be laid up, under Pharao's hands, and be reserved in the cities.



41:36. And let it be in readiness, against the famine of seven years to come, which shall oppress Egypt, and the land shall not be consumed with scarcity.



41:37. The counsel pleased Pharao, and all his servants.



41:38. And he said to them: Can we find such another man, that is full of the spirit of God?



41:39. He said therefore to Joseph: Seeing God hath shewn thee all that thou hast said, can I find one wiser and one like unto thee?



41:40. Thou shalt be over my house, and at the commandment of thy mouth all the people shall obey: only in the kingly throne will I be above thee.



41:41. And again Pharao said to Joseph: Behold, I have appointed thee over the whole land of Egypt.



41:42. And he took his ring from his own hand, and gave it into his hand: and he put upon him a robe of silk, and put a chain of gold about his neck.



41:43. And he made him go up into his second chariot, the crier proclaiming that all should bow their knee before him, and that they should know he was made governor over the whole land of Egypt.



41:44. And the king said to Joseph: I am Pharao: without thy commandment no man shall move hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.



41:45. And he turned his name, and called him in the Egyptian tongue the saviour of the world. And he gave him to wife Aseneth, the daughter of Putiphare, priest of Heliopolis. Then Joseph went out to the land of Egypt.



The saviour of the world. . .Zaphnah paaneah.



41:46. (Now he was thirty years old when he stood before king Pharao), and he went round all the countries of Egypt.



41:47. And the fruitfulness of the seven years came: and the corn being bound up into sheaves, was gathered together into the barns of Egypt.



41:48. And all the abundance of grain was laid up in every city.



41:49. And there was so great abundance of wheat, that it was equal to the sand of the sea, and the plenty exceeded measure.



41:50. And before the famine came, Joseph had two sons born: whom Aseneth, the daughter of Putiphare, priest of Heliopolis, bore unto him.



41:51. And he called the name of the firstborn Manasses, saying: God hath made me to forget all my labours, and my father's house.



Manasses. . .That is, oblivion, or forgetting.



41:52. And he named the second Ephraim, saying: God hath made me to grow in the land of my poverty.



Ephraim. . .That is, fruitful, or growing.



41:53. Now when the seven years of plenty that had been in Egypt were passed:



41:54. The seven years of scarcity, which Joseph had foretold, began to come: and the famine prevailed in the whole world, but there was bread in all the land of Egypt.



41:55. And when there also they began to be famished, the people cried to Pharao, for food. And he said to them: Go to Joseph: and do all that he shall say to you.



41:56. And the famine increased daily in all the land: and Joseph opened all the barns, and sold to the Egyptians: for the famine had oppressed them also.



41:57. And all provinces came into Egypt, to buy food, and to seek some relief of their want.



Genesis Chapter 42



Jacob sendeth his ten sons to buy corn in Egypt. Their treatment by Joseph.



42:1. And Jacob hearing that food was sold in Egypt, said to his sons: Why are ye careless?



42:2. I have heard that wheat is sold in Egypt: Go ye down, and buy us necessaries, that we may live, and not be consumed with want.



42:3. So the ten brethren of Joseph went down, to buy corn in Egypt:



42:4. Whilst Benjamin was kept at home by Jacob, who said to his brethren: Lest perhaps he take any harm in the journey.



42:5. And they entered into the land of Egypt with others that went to buy. For the famine was in the land of Chanaan.



42:6. And Joseph was governor in the land of Egypt, and corn was sold by his direction to the people. And when his brethren had bowed down to him,



42:7. And he knew them, he spoke as it were to strangers, somewhat roughly, asking them: Whence came you? They answered: From the land of Chanaan, to buy necessaries of life.



42:8. And though he knew his brethren, he was not known by them.



42:9. And remembering the dreams, which formerly he had dreamed, he said to them: You are spies. You are come to view the weaker parts of the land.



You are spies. . .This he said by way of examining them, to see what they would answer.



42:10. But they said: It is not so, my lord; but thy servants are come to buy food.



42:11. We are all the sons of one man: we are come as peaceable men, neither do thy servants go about any evil.



42:12. And he answered them: It is otherwise: you are come to consider the unfenced parts of this land.



42:13. But they said: We thy servants are twelve brethren, the sons of one man in the land of Chanaan: the youngest is with our father, the other is not living.



42:14. He saith, This is it that I said: You are spies.



42:15. I shall now presently try what you are: by the health of Pharao, you shall not depart hence, until your youngest brother come.



42:16. Send one of you to fetch him: and you shall be in prison, till what you have said be proved, whether it be true or false: or else by the health of Pharao you are spies.



Or else by the health of Pharao you are spies. . .That is, if these things you say be proved false, you are to be held for spies for your lying, and shall be treated as such. Joseph dealt in this manner with his brethren, to bring them by the means of affliction to a sense of their former sin, and a sincere repentance for it.



42:17. So he put them in prison three days.



42:18. And the third day he brought them out of prison, and said: Do as I have said, and you shall live: for I fear God.



42:19. If you be peaceable men, let one of your brethren be bound in prison: and go ye your ways, and carry the corn that you have bought, unto your houses.



42:20. And bring your youngest brother to me, that I may find your words to be true, and you may not die. They did as he had said.



42:21. And they talked one to another: We deserve to suffer these things, because we have sinned against our brother, seeing the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear: therefore is this affliction come upon us.



42:22. And Ruben, one of them, said: Did not I say to you: Do not sin against the boy; and you would not hear me? Behold his blood is required.



42:23. And they knew not that Joseph understood, because he spoke to them by an interpreter.



42:24. And he turned himself away a little while, and wept: and returning, he spoke to them.



42:25. And taking Simeon, and binding him in their presence, he commanded his servants to fill their sacks with wheat, and to put every man's money again in their sacks, and to give them besides provisions for the way: and they did so.



42:26. But they having loaded their asses with the corn went their way.



42:27. And one of them opening his sack, to give his beast provender in the inn, saw the money in the sack's mouth,



42:28. And said to his brethren: My money is given me again; behold it is in the sack. And they were astonished, and troubled, and said to one another: What is this that God hath done unto us?



42:29. And they came to Jacob their father in the land of Chanaan, and they told him all things that had befallen them, saying:



42:30. The lord of the land spoke roughly to us, and took us to be spies of the country.



42:31. And we answered him: We are peaceable men, and we mean no plot.



42:32. We are twelve brethren born of one father: one is not living, the youngest is with our father in the land of Chanaan.



42:33. And he said to us: Hereby shall I know that you are peaceable men: Leave one of your brethren with me, and take ye necessary provision for your houses, and go your ways,



42:34. And bring your youngest brother to me, that I may know you are not spies: and you may receive this man again, that is kept in prison: and afterwards may have leave to buy what you will.



42:35. When they had told this, they poured out their corn, and every man found his money tied in the mouth of his sack: and all being astonished together,



42:36. Their father Jacob said: You have made me to be without children: Joseph is not living, Simeon is kept in bonds, and Benjamin you will take away: all these evils are fallen upon me.



42:37. And Ruben answered him: Kill my two sons, if I bring him not again to thee: deliver him into my hand, and I will restore him to thee.



42:38. But he said: My son shall not go down with you: his brother is dead, and he is left alone: if any mischief befall him in the land to which you go, you will bring down my grey hairs with sorrow to hell.



To hell. . .That is, to that place, where the souls then remained, as above, chapter 37. ver. 35.



Genesis Chapter 43



The sons of Jacob go again into Egypt with Benjamin. They are entertained by Joseph.



43:1. In the mean time the famine was heavy upon all the land.



43:2. And when they had eaten up all the corn, which they had brought out of Egypt, Jacob said to his sons: Go again, and buy us a little food.



43:3. Juda answered: The man declared unto us with the attestation of an oath, saying: You shall not see my face, unless you bring your youngest brother with you.



43:4. If therefore thou wilt send him with us, we will set out together, and will buy necessaries for thee.



43:5. But if thou wilt not, we will not go: for the man, as we have often said, declared unto us, saying: You shall not see my face without your youngest brother.



43:6. Israel said to them: You have done this for my misery, in that you told him you had also another brother.



43:7. But they answered: The man asked us in order concerning our kindred: if our father lived: if we had a brother: and we answered him regularly, according to what he demanded: could we know that he would say: Bring hither your brother with you?



43:8. And Juda said to his father: Send the boy with me, that we may set forward, and may live: lest both we and our children perish.



43:9. I take the boy upon me, require him at my hand: unless I bring him again, and restore him to thee, I will be guilty of sin against thee for ever.



43:10. If delay had not been made, we had been here again the second time.



43:11. Then Israel said to them: If it must needs be so, do what you will: take of the best fruits of the land in your vessels, and carry down presents to the man, a little balm, and honey, and storax, myrrh, turpentine, and almonds.



Balm. . .Literally rosin, resinae; but here by that name is meant balm.



43:12. And take with you double money, and carry back what you found in your sacks, lest perhaps it was done by mistake.



43:13. And take also your brother, and go to the man.



43:14. And may my almighty God make him favourable to you: and send back with you your brother, whom he keepeth, and this Benjamin: and as for me I shall be desolate without children.



43:15. So the men took the presents, and double money, and Benjamin: and went down into Egypt, and stood before Joseph.



43:16. And when he had seen them, and Benjamin with them, he commanded the steward of his house, saying: Bring in the men into the house, and kill victims, and prepare a feast: because they shall eat with me at noon.



43:17. He did as he was commanded, and brought the men into the house.



43:18. And they being much afraid, said there one to another: Because of the money, which we carried back the first time in our sacks, we are brought in: that he may bring upon us a false accusation, and by violence make slaves of us and our asses.



43:19. Wherefore, going up to the steward of the house, at the door,



43:20. They said: Sir, we desire thee to hear us. We came down once before to buy food:



43:21. And when we had bought, and were come to the inn, we opened our sacks, and found our money in the mouths of the sacks: which we have now brought again in the same weight.



43:22. And we have brought other money besides, to buy what we want: we cannot tell who put it in our bags.



43:23. But he answered: Peace be with you, fear not: your God, and the God of your father, hath given you treasure in your sacks. For the money, which you gave me, I have for good. And he brought Simeon out to them.



43:24. And having brought them into the house, he fetched water, and they washed their feet, and he gave provender to their asses.



43:25. But they made ready the presents, against Joseph came at noon: for they had heard that they should eat bread there.



43:26. Then Joseph came in to his house, and they offered him the presents, holding them in their hands; and they bowed down with their face to the ground.



43:27. But he courteously saluting them again, asked them, saying: Is the old man your father in health, of whom you told me? Is he yet living?



43:28. And they answered: Thy servant our father, is in health; he is yet living. And bowing themselves, they made obeisance to him.



43:29. And Joseph lifting up his eyes, saw Benjamin, his brother by the same mother, and said: Is this your young brother, of whom you told me? And he said: God be gracious to thee, my son.



43:30. And he made haste, because his heart was moved upon his brother, and tears gushed out: and going into his chamber, he wept.



43:31. And when he had washed his face, coming out again, he refrained himself, and said: Set bread on the table.



43:32. And when it was set on, for Joseph apart, and for his brethren apart, for the Egyptians also that ate with him apart, (for it is unlawful for the Egyptians to eat with the Hebrews, and they think such a feast profane):



43:33. They sat before him, the firstborn according to his birthright, and the youngest according to his age. And they wondered very much;



43:34. Taking the messes which they received of him: and the greater mess came to Benjamin, so that it exceeded by five parts. And they drank, and were merry with him.



Genesis Chapter 44



Joseph's contrivance to stop his brethren. The humble supplication of Juda.



44:1. And Joseph commanded the steward of his house, saying: Fill their sacks with corn, as much as they can hold: and put the money of every one in the top of his sack.



44:2. And in the mouth of the younger's sack put my silver cup, and the price which he gave for the wheat. And it was so done.



44:3. And when the morning arose, they were sent away with their asses.



44:4. And when they were now departed out of the city, and had gone forward a little way: Joseph sending for the steward of his house, said: Arise, and pursue after the men: and when thou hast overtaken them, say to them: Why have you returned evil for good?



44:5. The cup which you have stolen, is that in which my lord drinketh, and in which he is wont to divine: you have done a very evil thing.



44:6. He did as he had commanded him. And having overtaken them, he spoke to them the same words.



44:7. And they answered: Why doth our lord speak so, as though thy servants had committed so heinous a fact?



44:8. The money, that we found in the top of our sacks, we brought back to thee from the land of Chanaan: how then should it be that we should steal out of thy lord's house, gold or silver?



44:9. With whomsoever of thy servants shall be found that which thou seekest, let him die, and we will be the bondmen of my lord.



44:10. And he said to them: Let it be according to your sentence: with whomsoever it shall be found, let him be my servant, and you shall be blameless.



44:11. Then they speedily took down their sacks to the ground, and every man opened his sack.



44:12. Which when he had searched, beginning at the eldest, and ending at the youngest, he found the cup in Benjamin's sack.



44:13. Then they rent their garments, and loading their asses again, returned into the town.



44:14. And Juda at the head of his brethren went in to Joseph (for he was not yet gone out of the place) and they all together fell down before him on the ground.



44:15. And he said to them: Why would you do so? know you not that there is no one like me in the science of divining.



The science of divining. . .He speaks of himself according to what he was esteemed in that kingdom. And indeed, he being truly a prophet, knew more without comparison than any of the Egyptian sorcerers.



44:16. And Juda said to him: What shall we answer my lord? or what shall we say, or be able justly to allege? God hath found out the iniquity of thy servants: behold, we are all bondmen to my lord, both we, and he with whom the cup was found.



44:17. Joseph answered: God forbid that I should do so: he that stole the cup, he shall be my bondman: and go you away free to your father.



44:18. Then Juda coming nearer, said boldly: I beseech thee, my lord, let thy servant speak a word in thy ears, and be not angry with thy servant: for after Pharao thou art.



44:19. My lord. Thou didst ask thy servants the first time: Have you a father or a brother.



44:20. And we answered thee, my lord: We have a father an old man, and a young boy, that was born in his old age; whose brother by the mother is dead; and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loveth him tenderly.



44:21. And thou saidst to thy servants: Bring him hither to me, and I will set my eyes on him.



44:22. We suggested to my lord: The boy cannot leave his father: for if he leave him, he will die.



44:23. And thou saidst to thy servants: Except your youngest brother come with you, you shall see my face no more.



44:24. Therefore when we were gone up to thy servant our father, we told him all that my lord had said.



44:25. And our father said: Go again, and buy us a little wheat.



44:26. And we said to him: We cannot go: if our youngest brother go down with us, we will set out together: otherwise, without him we dare not see the man's face.



44:27. Whereunto he answered: You know that my wife bore me two.



44:28. One went out, and you said: A beast devoured him; and hitherto he appeareth not.



44:29. If you take this also, and any thing befall him in the way, you will bring down my grey hairs with sorrow unto hell.



44:30. Therefore, if I shall go to thy servant, our father, and the boy be wanting, (whereas his life dependeth upon the life of him,)



44:31. And he shall see that he is not with us, he will die, and thy servants shall bring down his grey hairs with sorrow unto hell.



His gray hairs. . .That is, his person, now far advanced in years.--With sorrow unto hell. . .The Hebrew word for hell is here sheol, the Greek hades: it is not taken for the hell of the damned; but for that place of souls below where the servants of God were kept before the coming of Christ. Which place, both in the Scripture and in the creed, is named hell.



44:32. Let me be thy proper servant, who took him into my trust, and promised, saying: If I bring him not again, I will be guilty of sin against my father for ever.



44:33. Therefore I, thy servant, will stay instead of the boy in the service of my lord, and let the boy go up with his brethren.



44:34. For I cannot return to my father without the boy, lest I be a witness of the calamity that will oppress my father.



Genesis Chapter 45



Joseph maketh himself known to his brethren: and sendeth for his father.



45:1. Joseph could no longer refrain himself before many that stood by: whereupon he commanded that all should go out, and no stranger be present at their knowing one another.



45:2. And he lifted up his voice with weeping, which the Egyptians, and all the house of Pharao heard.



45:3. And he said to his brethren: I am Joseph: Is my father yet living? His brethren could not answer him, being struck with exceeding great fear.



45:4. And he said mildly to them: Come nearer to me. And when they were come near him, he said: I am Joseph, your brother, whom you sold into Egypt.



45:5. Be not afraid, and let it not seem to you a hard case that you sold me into these countries: for God sent me before you into Egypt for your preservation.



45:6. For it is two years since the famine began to be upon the land, and five years more remain, wherein there can be neither ploughing nor reaping.



45:7. And God sent me before, that you may be preserved upon the earth, and may have food to live.



45:8. Not by your counsel was I sent hither, but by the will of God: who hath made me as it were a father to Pharao, and lord of his whole house, and governor in all the land of Egypt.



45:9. Make haste, and go ye up to my father, and say to him: Thus saith thy son Joseph: God hath made me lord of the whole land of Egypt; come down to me, linger not.



45:10. And thou shalt dwell in the land of Gessen: and thou shalt be near me, thou and thy sons, and thy sons' sons, thy sheep, and thy herds, and all things that thou hast.



45:11. And there I will feed thee, (for there are yet five years of famine remaining) lest both thou perish, and thy house, and all things that thou hast.



45:12. Behold, your eyes, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, see that it is my mouth that speaketh to you.



45:13. You shall tell my father of all my glory, and all things that you have seen in Egypt: make haste and bring him to me.



45:14. And falling upon the neck of his brother Benjamin, he embraced him and wept: and Benjamin in like manner wept also on his neck.



45:15. And Joseph kissed all his brethren, and wept upon every one of them: after which they were emboldened to speak to him.



45:16. And it was heard, and the fame was spread abroad in the king's court: The brethren of Joseph are come; and Pharao with all his family was glad.



45:17. And he spoke to Joseph that he should give orders to his brethren, saying: Load your beasts, and go into the land of Chanaan,



45:18. And bring away from thence your father and kindred, and come to me; and I will give you all the good things of Egypt, that you may eat the marrow of the land.



45:19. Give orders also that they take wagons out of the land of Egypt, for the carriage of their children and their wives; and say: Take up your father, and make haste to come with all speed:



45:20. And leave nothing of your household stuff; for all the riches of Egypt shall be yours.



45:21. And the sons of Israel did as they were bid. And Joseph gave them wagons according to Pharao's commandment: and provisions for the way.



45:22. He ordered also to be brought out for every one of them two robes: but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver, with five robes of the best:



45:23. Sending to his father as much money and raiment; adding besides, ten he-asses, to carry off all the riches of Egypt, and as many she-asses, carrying wheat and bread for the journey.



45:24. So he sent away his brethren, and at their departing said to them: Be not angry in the way.



45:25. And they went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Chanaan, to their father Jacob.



45:26. And they told him, saying: Joseph, thy son, is living; and he is ruler in all the land of Egypt. Which when Jacob heard, he awaked as it were out of a deep sleep, yet did not believe them.



45:27. They, on the other side, told the whole order of the thing. And when he saw the wagons, and all that he had sent, his spirit revived,



45:28. And he said: It is enough for me if Joseph, my son, be yet living: I will go and see him before I die.



Genesis Chapter 46



Israel, warranted by a vision from God, goeth down into Egypt with all his family.



46:1. And Israel taking his journey, with all that he had, came to the well of the oath, and killing victims there to the God of his father Isaac,



The well of the oath. . .Bersabee.



46:2. He heard him, by a vision in the night, calling him, and saying to him: Jacob, Jacob. And he answered him: Lo, here I am.



46:3. God said to him: I am the most mighty God of thy father; fear not, go down into Egypt, for I will make a great nation of thee there.



46:4. I will go down with thee thither, and will bring thee back again from thence: Joseph also shall put his hands upon thy eyes.



46:5. And Jacob rose up from the well of the oath: and his sons took him up, with their children and wives in the wagons, which Pharao had sent to carry the old man,



46:6. And all that he had in the land of Chanaan: and he came into Egypt with all his seed;



46:7. His sons, and grandsons, daughters, and all his offspring together.



46:8. And these are the names of the children of Israel, that entered into Egypt, he and his children. His firstborn Ruben,



46:9. The sons of Ruben: Henoch and Phallu, and Hesron and Charmi.



46:10. The sons of Simeon: Jamuel and Jamin and Ahod, and Jachin and Sohar, and Saul, the son of a woman of Chanaan.



46:11. The sons of Levi: Gerson and Caath, and Merari.



46:12. The sons of Juda: Her and Onan, and Sela, and Phares and Zara. And Her and Onan died in the land of Chanaan. And sons were born to Phares: Hesron and Hamul.



46:13. The sons of Issachar: Thola and Phua, and Job and Semron.



46:14. The sons of Zabulon: Sared, and Elon, and Jahelel.



46:15. These are the sons of Lia, whom she bore in Mesopotamia of Syria, with Dina, his daughter. All the souls of her sons and daughters, thirty-three.



46:16. The sons of Gad: Sephion and Haggi, and Suni and Esebon, and Heri and Arodi, and Areli.



46:17. The sons of Aser: Jamne and Jesua, and Jessuri and Beria, and Sara their sister. The sons of Beria: Heber and Melchiel.



46:18. These are the sons of Zelpha, whom Laban gave to Lia, his daughter. And these she bore to Jacob, sixteen souls.



46:19. The sons of Rachel, Jacob's wife: Joseph and Benjamin.



46:20. And sons were born to Joseph, in the land of Egypt, whom Aseneth, the daughter of Putiphare, priest of Heliopolis, bore him: Manasses and Ephraim.



46:21. The sons of Benjamin: Bela and Bechor, and Asbel and Gera, and Naaman and Echi, and Ross and Mophim, and Ophim and Ared.



46:22. These are the sons of Rachel, whom she bore to Jacob: all the souls, fourteen.



46:23. The sons of Dan: Husim.



46:24. The sons of Nephthali: Jaziel and Guni, and Jeser and Sallem.



46:25. These are the sons of Bala, whom Laban gave to Rachel, his daughter: and these she bore to Jacob: all the souls, seven.



46:26. All the souls that went with Jacob into Egypt, and that came out of his thigh, besides his sons' wives, sixty-six.



46:27. And the sons of Joseph, that were born to him in the land of Egypt, two souls. All the souls of the house of Jacob, that entered into Egypt, were seventy.



46:28. And he sent Juda before him to Joseph, to tell him; and that he should meet him in Gessen.



46:29. And when he was come thither, Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up to meet his father in the same place: and seeing him, he fell upon his neck, and embracing him, wept.



46:30. And the father said to Joseph: Now shall I die with joy, because I have seen thy face, and leave thee alive.



46:31. And Joseph said to his brethren, and to all his father's house: I will go up, and will tell Pharao, and will say to him: My brethren, and my father's house, that were in the land of Chanaan, are come to me:



46:32. And the men are shepherds, and their occupation is to feed cattle; their flocks, and herds, and all they have, they have brought with them.



46:33. And when he shall call you, and shall say: What is your occupation?



46:34. You shall answer: We, thy servants, are shepherds, from our infancy until now, both we and our fathers. And this you shall say, that you may dwell in the land of Gessen, because the Egyptians have all shepherds in abomination.



Genesis Chapter 47



Jacob and his sons are presented before Pharao: he giveth them the land of Gessen. The famine forceth the Egyptians to sell all their possessions to the king.



47:1. Then Joseph went in and told Pharao, saying: My father and brethren, their sheep and their herds, and all that they possess, are come out of the land of Chanaan: and behold they stay in the land of Gessen.



47:2. Five men also, the last of his brethren, he presented before the king:



The last. . .xtremos. Some interpret this word of the chiefest, and most rightly: but Joseph seems rather to have chosen out such as had the meanest appearance, that Pharao might not think of employing them at court, with danger of their morals and religion.



47:3. And he asked them: What is your occupation? They answered: We, thy servants, are shepherds, both we and our fathers.



47:4. We are come to sojourn in thy land, because there is no grass for the flocks of thy servants, the famine being very grievous in the land of Chanaan: and we pray thee to give orders that we thy servants may be in the land of Gessen.



47:5. The king therefore said to Joseph: Thy father and thy brethren are come to thee.



47:6. The land of Egypt is before thee: and make them dwell in the best place, and give them the land of Gessen. And if thou knowest that there are industrious men among them, make them rulers over my cattle.



47:7. After this Joseph brought in his father to the king, and presented him before him: and he blessed him.



47:8. And being asked by him: How many are the days of the years of thy life?



47:9. He answered: The days of my pilgrimage are a hundred and thirty years, few, and evil, and they are not come up to the days of the pilgrimage of my fathers.



47:10. And blessing the king, he went out.



47:11. But Joseph gave a possession to his father and his brethren in Egypt, in the best place of the land, in Ramesses, as Pharao had commanded.



47:12. And he nourished them, and all his father's house, allowing food to every one.



47:13. For in the whole world there was want of bread, and a famine had oppressed the land, more especially of Egypt and Chanaan;



47:14. Out of which he gathered up all the money for the corn which they bought, and brought it in to the king's treasure.



47:15. And when the buyers wanted money, all Egypt came to Joseph, saying: Give us bread: why should we die in thy presence, having now no money?



47:16. And he answered them: Bring me your cattle, and for them I will give you food, if you have no money.



47:17. And when they had brought them, he gave them food in exchange for their horses, and sheep, and oxen, and asses: and he maintained them that year for the exchange of their cattle.



47:18. And they came the second year, and said to him: We will not hide from our lord, how that our money is spent, and our cattle also are gone: neither art thou ignorant that we have nothing now left but our bodies and our lands.



47:19. Why therefore shall we die before thy eyes? we will be thine, both we and our lands: buy us to be the king's servants, and give us seed, lest for want of tillers the land be turned into a wilderness.



47:20. So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt, every man selling his possessions, because of the greatness of the famine. And he brought it into Pharao's hands:



47:21. And all its people from one end of the borders of Egypt, even to the other end thereof,



47:22. Except the land of the priests, which had been given them by the king: to whom also a certain allowance of food was given out of the public stores, and therefore they were not forced to sell their possessions.



47:23. Then Joseph said to the people: Behold, as you see, both you and your lands belong to Pharao; take seed and sow the fields,



47:24. That you may have corn. The fifth part you shall give to the king; the other four you shall have for seed, and for food for your families and children.



47:25. And they answered: our life is in thy hand; only let my lord look favourably upon us, and we will gladly serve the king.



47:26. From that time unto this day, in the whole land of Egypt, the fifth part is paid to the kings, and it is become as a law, except the land of the priests, which was free from this covenant.



47:27. So Israel dwelt in Egypt, that is, in the land of Gessen, and possessed it; and grew, and was multiplied exceedingly.



47:28. And he lived in it seventeen years: and all the days of his life came to a hundred and forty-seven years.



47:29. And when he saw that the day of his death drew nigh, he called his son Joseph, and said to him: If I have found favour in thy sight, put thy hand under my thigh; and thou shalt shew me this kindness and truth, not to bury me in Egypt.



47:30. But I will sleep with my fathers, and thou shalt take me away out of this land, and bury me in the burying place of my ancestors. And Joseph answered him: I will do what thou hast commanded.



47:31. And he said: Swear then to me. And as he was swearing, Israel adored God, turning to the bed's head.



To the bed's head. . .St. Paul, Heb. 11.21, following the Greek translation of the Septuagint, reads adored the top of his rod. Where note, that the same word in the Hebrew, according to the different pointing of it, signifies both a bed and a rod. And to verify both these sentences, we must understand that Jacob leaning on Joseph's rod adored, turning towards the head of his bed: which adoration, inasmuch as it was referred to God, was an absolute and sovereign worship: but inasmuch as it was referred to the rod of Joseph, as a figure of the sceptre, that is, of the royal dignity of Christ, was only an inferior and relative honour.



Genesis Chapter 48



Joseph visiteth his father in his sickness, who adopteth his two sons Manasses and Ephraim, and blesseth them, preferring the younger before the elder.



48:1. After these things, it was told Joseph that his father was sick; and he set out to go to him, taking his two sons Manasses and Ephraim.



48:2. And it was told the old man: Behold thy son Joseph cometh to thee. And being strengthened, he sat on his bed.



48:3. And when Joseph was come in to him, he said: God almighty appeared to me at Luza, which is in the land of Chanaan, and he blessed me,



48:4. And said: I will cause thee to increase and multiply, and I will make of thee a multitude of people: and I will give this land to thee, and to thy seed after thee for an everlasting possession.



48:5. So thy two sons, who were born to thee in the land of Egypt before I came hither to thee, shall be mine: Ephraim and Manasses shall be reputed to me as Ruben and Simeon.



48:6. But the rest whom thou shalt have after them, shall be thine, and shall be called by the name of their brethren in their possessions.



48:7. For, when I came out of Mesopotamia, Rachel died from me in the land of Chanaan in the very journey, and it was spring time: and I was going to Ephrata, and I buried her near the way of Ephrata, which by another name is called Bethlehem.



48:8. Then seeing his sons, he said to him: Who are these?



48:9. He answered: They are my sons, whom God hath given me in this place. And he said: Bring them to me, that I may bless them.



48:10. For Israel's eyes were dim by reason of his great age, and he could not see clearly. And when they were brought to him, he kissed and embraced them,



48:11. And said to his son: I am not deprived of seeing thee; moreover God hath shewn me thy seed.



48:12. And when Joseph had taken them from his father's lap, he bowed down with his face to the ground.



48:13. And he set Ephraim on his right hand, that is, towards the left hand of Israel; but Manasses on his left hand, to wit, towards his father's right hand, and brought them near to him.



48:14. But he, stretching forth his right hand, put it upon the head of Ephraim, the younger brother; and the left upon the head of Manasses, who was the elder, changing his hands.



48:15. And Jacob blessed the sons of Joseph, and said: God, in whose sight my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, God that feedeth me from my youth until this day:



48:16. The angel that delivereth me from all evils, bless these boys: and let my name be called upon them, and the names of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and may they grow into a multitude upon the earth.



48:17. And Joseph seeing that his father had put his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, was much displeased: and taking his father's hand, he tried to lift it from Ephraim's head, and to remove it to the head of Manasses.



48:18. And he said to his father: It should not be so, my father; for this is the firstborn, put thy right hand upon his head.



48:19. But he refusing, said: I know, my son, I know: and this also shall become a people, and shall be multiplied; but his younger brother shall be greater than he; and his seed shall grow into nations.



48:20. And he blessed them at that time, saying: In thee shall Israel be blessed, and it shall be said: God do to thee as to Ephraim, and as to Manasses. And he set Ephraim before Manasses.



48:21. And he said to Joseph, his son: Behold I die, and God will be with you, and will bring you back into the land of your fathers.



48:22. I give thee a portion above thy brethren, which I took out of the hand of the Amorrhite with my sword and bow.



Genesis Chapter 49



Jacob's prophetical blessings of his twelve sons: his death.



49:1. And Jacob called his sons, and said to them: Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you the things that shall befall you in the last days.



49:2. Gather yourselves together, and hear, O ye sons of Jacob, hearken to Israel, your father:



49:3. Ruben, my firstborn, thou art my strength, and the beginning of my sorrow; excelling in gifts, greater in command.



My strength, etc. . .He calls him his strength, as being born whilst his father was in his full strength and vigour: he calls him the beginning of his sorrow, because cares and sorrows usually come on with the birth of children. Excelling in gifts, etc., because the firstborn had a title to a double portion, and to have the command over his brethren, which Ruben forfeited by his sin; being poured out as water, that is, spilt and lost.



49:4. Thou art poured out as water, grow thou not; because thou wentest up to thy father's bed, and didst defile his couch.



Grow thou not. . .This was not meant by way of a curse or imprecation; but by way of a prophecy foretelling that the tribe of Ruben should not inherit the pre-eminences usually annexed to the first birthright, viz., the double portion, the being prince or lord over the other brethren, and the priesthood: of which the double portion was given to Joseph, the princely office to Juda, and the priesthood to Levi.



49:5. Simeon and Levi brethren: vessels of iniquity waging war.



49:6. Let not my soul go into their counsel, nor my glory be in their assembly: because in their fury they slew a man, and in their self-will they undermined a wall.



Slew a man,. . .viz., Sichem the son of Hemor, with all his people, Gen. 34.; mystically and prophetically it alludes to Christ, whom their posterity, viz., the priests and the scribes, put to death.



49:7. Cursed be their fury, because it was stubborn: and their wrath, because it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and will scatter them in Israel.



49:8. Juda, thee shall thy brethren praise: thy hand shall be on the necks of thy enemies; the sons of thy father shall bow down to thee.



49:9. Juda is a lion's whelp: to the prey, my son, thou art gone up: resting thou hast couched as a lion, and as a lioness, who shall rouse him?



A lion's whelp, etc. . .This blessing of Juda foretelleth the strength of his tribe, the fertility of his inheritance; and principally that the sceptre and legislative power should not be utterly taken away from his race till about the time of the coming of Christ: as in effect it never was: which is a demonstration against the modern Jews, that the Messiah is long since come; for the sceptre has long since been utterly taken away from Juda.



49:10. The sceptre shall not be taken away from Juda, nor a ruler from his thigh, till he come that is to be sent, and he shall be the expectation of nations.



49:11. Tying his foal to the vineyard, and his ass, O my son, to the vine. He shall wash his robe in wine, and his garment in the blood of the grape.



49:12. His eyes are more beautiful than wine, and his teeth whiter than milk.



49:13. Zabulon shall dwell on the seashore, and in the road of ships, reaching as far as Sidon.



49:14. Issachar shall be a strong ass, lying down between the borders.



49:15. He saw rest that it was good: and the land that it was excellent: and he bowed his shoulder to carry, and became a servant under tribute.



49:16. Dan shall judge his people like another tribe in Israel.



Dan shall judge, etc. . .This was verified in Samson, who was of the tribe of Dan, and began to deliver Israel. Judges 13.5. But as this deliverance was but temporal and very imperfect, the holy patriarch (ver. 18) aspires after another kind of deliverer, saying: I will look for thy salvation, O Lord.



49:17. Let Dan be a snake in the way, a serpent in the path, that biteth the horse's heels, that his rider may fall backward.



49:18. I will look for thy salvation, O Lord.



49:19. Gad, being girded, shall fight before him: and he himself shall be girded backward.



Gad being girded, etc. . .It seems to allude to the tribe of Gad; when after they had received for their lot the land of Galaad, they marched in arms before the rest of the Israelites, to the conquest of the land of Chanaan: from whence they afterwards returned loaded with spoils. See Jos. 4. and 12.



49:20. Aser, his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield dainties to kings.



49:21. Nephthali, a hart let loose, and giving words of beauty.



49:22. Joseph is a growing son, a growing son and comely to behold: the daughters run to and fro upon the wall;



Run to and fro, etc. . .To behold his beauty; whilst his envious brethren turned their darts against him, etc.



49:23. But they that held darts, provoked him, and quarrelled with him, and envied him.



49:24. His bow rested upon the strong, and the bands of his arms and his hands were loosed, by the hands of the mighty one of Jacob: thence he came forth a pastor, the stone of Israel.



His bow rested upon the strong, etc. . .That is, upon God, who was his strength: who also loosed his bands, and brought him out of prison to be the pastor, that is, the feeder and ruler of Egypt, and the stone, that is, the rock and support of Israel.



49:25. The God of thy father shall be thy helper, and the Almighty shall bless thee with the blessings of heaven above, with the blessings of the deep that lieth beneath, with the blessings of the breasts and of the womb.



49:26. The blessings of thy father are strengthened with the blessings of his fathers: until the desire of the everlasting hills should come: may they be upon the head of Joseph, and upon the crown of the Nazarite among his brethren.



The blessings of thy father, etc. . .That is, thy father's blessings are made more prevalent and effectual in thy regard, by the additional strength they receive from his inheriting the blessings of his progenitors Abraham and Isaac. The desire of the everlasting hills, etc. . .These blessings all looked forward towards Christ, called the desire of the everlasting hills, as being longed for, as it were, by the whole creation. Mystically, the patriarchs and prophets are called the everlasting hills, by reason of the eminence of their wisdom and holiness. The Nazarite. . .This word signifies one separated; and agrees to Joseph, as being separated from, and more eminent than, his brethren. As the ancient Nazarites were so called from their being set aside for God, and vowed to him.



49:27. Benjamin a ravenous wolf, in the morning shall eat the prey, and in the evening shall divide the spoil.



49:28. All these are the twelve tribes of Israel: these things their father spoke to them, and he blessed every one with their proper blessings.



49:29. And he charged them, saying: I am now going to be gathered to my people: bury me with my fathers in the double cave, which is in the field of Ephron the Hethite,



To be gathered to my people. . .That is, I am going to die, and so to follow my ancestors that are gone before me, and to join their company in another world.



49:30. Over against Mambre, in the land of Chanaan, which Abraham bought together with the field, of Ephron the Hethite, for a possession to bury in.



49:31. There they buried him, and Sara his wife: there was Isaac buried with Rebecca, his wife: there also Lia doth lie buried.



49:32. And when he had ended the commandments, wherewith he instructed his sons, he drew up his feet upon the bed, and died: and he was gathered to his people.



Genesis Chapter 50



The mourning for Jacob, and his interment. Joseph's kindness towards his brethren. His death.



50:1. And when Joseph saw this, he fell upon his father's face, weeping and kissing him.



50:2. And he commanded his servants, the physicians, to embalm his father.



50:3. And while they were fulfilling his commands, there passed forty days: for this was the manner with bodies that were embalmed, and Egypt mourned for him seventy days.



50:4. And the time of the mourning being expired, Joseph spoke to the family of Pharao: If I have found favour in your sight, speak in the ears of Pharao:



50:5. For my father made me swear to him, saying: Behold I die; thou shalt bury me in my sepulchre which I have digged for myself in the land of Chanaan. So I will go up and bury my father, and return.



50:6. And Pharao said to him: Go up and bury thy father according as he made thee swear.



50:7. So he went up, and there went with him all the ancients of Pharao's house, and all the elders of the land of Egypt.



50:8. And the house of Joseph with his brethren, except their children, and their flocks and herds, which they left in the land of Gessen.



50:9. He had also in his train chariots and horsemen: and it was a great company.



50:10. And they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is situated beyond the Jordan: where celebrating the exequies with a great and vehement lamentation, they spent full seven days.



50:11. And when the inhabitants of Chanaan saw this, they said: This is a great mourning to the Egyptians. And therefore the name of that place was called, The mourning of Egypt.



50:12. So the sons of Jacob did as he had commanded them.



50:13. And carrying him into the land of Chanaan, they buried him in the double cave, which Abraham had bought together with the field for a possession of a burying place, of Ehpron, the Hethite, over against Mambre.



50:14. And Joseph returned into Egypt with his brethren, and all that were in his company, after he had buried his father.



50:15. Now he being dead, his brethren were afraid, and talked one with another: Lest perhaps he should remember the wrong he suffered, and requite us all the evil that we did to him.



50:16. And they sent a message to him, saying: Thy father commanded us before he died,



50:17. That we should say thus much to thee from him: I beseech thee to forget the wickedness of thy brethren, and the sin and malice they practised against thee: we also pray thee, to forgive the servants of the God of thy father this wickedness. And when Joseph heard this, he wept.



50:18. And his brethren came to him; and worshipping prostrate on the ground, they said: We are thy servants.



50:19. And he answered them: Fear not: can we resist the will of God?



50:20. You thought evil against me: but God turned it into good, that he might exalt me, as at present you see, and might save many people.



50:21. Fear not: I will feed you and your children. And he comforted them, and spoke gently and mildly.



50:22. And he dwelt in Egypt with all his father's house; and lived a hundred and ten years. And he saw the children of Ephraim to the third generation. The children also of Machir, the sons of Manasses, were born on Joseph's knees.



50:23. After which he told his brethren: God will visit you after my death, and will make you go up out of this land, to the land which he swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.



50:24. And he made them swear to him, saying: God will visit you, carry my bones with you out of this place:



50:25. And he died, being a hundred and ten years old. And being embalmed, he was laid in a coffin in Egypt.



*** THE BOOK OF EXODUS



The Second Book of Moses is called EXODUS, from the Greek word EXODOS, which signifies going out: because it contains the history of the going out of the children of Israel out of Egypt. The Hebrews, from the words with which it begins, call it VEELLE SEMOTH: These are the names. It contains transactions for 145 years; that is, from the death of Joseph to the erecting of the tabernacle.



Exodus Chapter 1



The Israelites are multiplied in Egypt. They are oppressed by a new king, who commandeth all their male children to be killed.



1:1. These are the names of the children of Israel, that went into Egypt with Jacob: they went in every man with his household:



1:2. Ruben, Simeon, Levi, Juda,



1:3. Issachar, Zabulon, and Benjamin,



1:4. Dan, and Nephthali, Gad and Aser.



1:5. And all the souls that came out of Jacob's thigh, were seventy: but Joseph was in Egypt.



1:6. After he was dead, and all his brethren, and all that generation,



1:7. The children of Israel increased, and sprung up into multitudes, and growing exceedingly strong they filled the land.



1:8. In the mean time there arose a new king over Egypt, that knew not Joseph:



1:9. And he said to his people: Behold the people of the children of Israel are numerous and stronger than we.



1:10. Come let us wisely oppress them, lest they multiply: and if any war shall rise against us, join with our enemies, and having overcome us, depart out of the land.



1:11. Therefore he set over them masters of the works, to afflict them with burdens: and they built for Pharao cities of tabernacles, Phithom, and Ramesses.



Of tabernacles. . .Or, of storehouses.



1:12. But the more they oppressed them, the more they were multiplied and increased.



1:13. And the Egyptians hated the children of Israel, and afflicted them and mocked them:



1:14. And they made their life bitter with hard works in clay and brick, and with all manner of service, wherewith they were overcharged in the works of the earth.



1:15. And the king of Egypt spoke to the midwives of the Hebrews: of whom one was called Sephora, the other Phua,



1:16. Commanding them: When you shall do the office of midwives to the Hebrew women, and the time of delivery is come: if it be a man child, kill it: if a woman, keep it alive.



1:17. But the midwives feared God, and did not do as the king of Egypt had commanded, but saved the men children.



1:18: And the king called for them and said: What is it that you meant to do, that you would save the men children?



1:19. They answered: The Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women: for they themselves are skilful in the office of a midwife; and they are delivered before we come to them.



1:20. Therefore God dealt well with the midwives: and the people multiplied and grew exceedingly strong.



1:21. And because the midwives feared God, he built them houses.



Because the midwives feared God, etc. . .The midwives were rewarded, not for their lie, which was a venial sin; but for their fear of God, and their humanity: but this reward was only temporal, in building them houses, that is, in establishing and enriching their families.



1:22. Pharao therefore charged all his people, saying: Whatsoever shall be born of the male sex, ye shall cast into the river: whatsoever of the female, ye shall save alive.



Exodus Chapter 2



Moses is born and exposed on the bank of the river; where he is taken up by the daughter of Pharao, and adopted for her son. He killeth an Egyptian, and fleeth into Madian; where he marrieth a wife.



2:1. After this there went a man of the house of Levi; and took a wife of his own kindred.



2:2. And she conceived, and bore a son: and seeing him a goodly child, hid him three months.



2:3. And when she could hide him no longer, she took a basket made of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and pitch: and put the little babe therein, and laid him in the sedges by the river's brink,



2:4. His sister standing afar off, and taking notice what would be done.



2:5. And behold the daughter of Pharao came down to wash herself in the river: and her maids walked by the river's brink. And when she saw the basket in the sedges she sent one of her maids for it: and when it was brought,



2:6. She opened it, and seeing within it an infant crying, having compassion on it, she said: This is one of the babes of the Hebrews.



2:7. And the child's sister said to her: Shall I go, and call to thee a Hebrew woman, to nurse the babe?



2:8. She answered: Go. The maid went and called her mother.



2:9. And Pharao's daughter said to her: Take this child, and nurse him for me: I will give thee thy wages. The woman took and nursed the child: and when he was grown up, she delivered him to Pharao's daughter.



2:10. And she adopted him for a son, and called him Moses, saying: Because I took him out of the water.



Moses. . .Or Moyses, in the Egyptian tongue, signifies one taken or saved out of the water.



2:11. In those days, after Moses was grown up, he went out to his brethren: and saw their affliction, and an Egyptian striking one of the Hebrews, his brethren.



2:12. And when he had looked about this way and that way, and saw no one there, he slew the Egyptian and hid him in the sand.



He slew the Egyptian. . .This he did by a particular inspiration of God; as a prelude to his delivering the people from their oppression and bondage. He thought, says St. Stephen, Acts 7.25, that his brethren understood that God by his hand would save them. But such particular and extraordinary examples are not to be imitated.



2:13. And going out the next day, he saw two Hebrews quarrelling: and he said to him that did the wrong: Why strikest thou thy neighbour?



2:14. But he answered: Who hath appointed thee prince and judge over us? wilt thou kill me, as thou didst yesterday kill the Egyptian? Moses feared, and said: How is this come to be known?



2:15. And Pharao heard of this word, and sought to kill Moses: but he fled from his sight, and abode in the land of Madian, and he sat down by a well.



Madian. . .A city and country of Arabia, which took its name from Madian the son of Abraham, by Cetura, and was peopled by his posterity.



2:16. And the priest of Madian had seven daughters, who came to draw water: and when the troughs were filled, desired to water their father's flocks.



2:17. And the shepherds came and drove them away: and Moses arose, and defending the maids, watered their sheep.



2:18: And when they returned to Raguel their father, he said to them: Why are ye come sooner than usual?



Raguel. . .He had two names, being also called Jethro, as appears from the first verse of the following chapter.



2:19. They answered: A man of Egypt delivered us from the hands of the shepherds: and he drew water also with us, and gave the sheep to drink.



2:20. But he said: Where is he? why have you let the man go? call him that he may eat bread.



2:21. And Moses swore that he would dwell with him. And he took Sephora his daughter to wife:



2:22. And she bore him a son, whom he called Gersam, saying: I have been a stranger in a foreign country. And she bore another, whom he called Eliezer, saying: For the God of my father, my helper, hath delivered me out of the hand of Pharao.



Gersam. . .Or Gershom. This name signifies a stranger there: as Eliezer signifies the help of God.



2:23. Now after a long time the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel groaning, cried out because of the works: and their cry went up unto God from the works.



2:24. And he heard their groaning, and remembered the covenant which he made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.



2:25. And the Lord looked upon the children of Israel, and he knew them.



Knew them. . .That is, he had respect to them, he cast a merciful eye upon them.



Exodus Chapter 3



God appeareth to Moses in a bush, and sendeth him to deliver Israel.



3:1. Now Moses fed the sheep of Jethro, his father in law, the priest of Madian: and he drove the flock to the inner parts of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, Horeb.



3:2. And the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he saw that the bush was on fire, and was not burnt.



The Lord appeared. . .That is, an angel representing God, and speaking in his name.



3:3. And Moses said: I will go, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.



3:4. And when the Lord saw that he went forward to see, he called to him out of the midst of the bush. and said: Moses, Moses. And he answered: Here I am.



3:5. And he said: Come not nigh hither, put off the shoes from thy feet; for the place, whereon thou standest, is holy ground.



3:6. And he said: I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Moses hid his face: for he durst not look at God.



3:7. And the Lord said to him: I have seen the affliction of my people in Egypt, and I have heard their cry because of the rigour of them that are over the works;



3:8. And knowing their sorrow, I am come down to deliver them out of the hands of the Egyptians, and to bring them out of that land into a good and spacious land, into a land that floweth with milk and honey, to the places of the Chanaanite, and Hethite, and Amorrhite, and Pherezite, and Hevite, and Jebusite.



3:9. For the cry of the children of Israel is come unto me: and I have seen their affliction, wherewith they are oppressed by the Egyptians.



3:10. But come, and I will send thee to Pharao, that thou mayst bring forth my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.



3:11. And Moses said to God: Who am I that I should go to Pharao, and should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt?



3:12. And he said to him: I will be with thee; and this thou shalt have for a sign that I have sent thee: When thou shalt have brought my people out of Egypt, thou shalt offer sacrifice to God upon this mountain.



3:13. Moses said to God: Lo, I shall go to the children of Israel, and say to them: The God of your fathers hath sent me to you. If they shall say to me: What is his name? What shall I say to them?



3:14. God said to Moses: I AM WHO AM. He said: Thus shalt thou say to the children of Israel: HE WHO IS, hath sent me to you.



I am who am. . .That is, I am being itself, eternal, self- existent, independent, infinite; without beginning, end, or change; and the source of all other beings.



3:15. And God said again to Moses: Thus shalt thou say to the children of Israel: The Lord God of your fathers the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob hath sent me to you; this is my name for ever, and this is my memorial unto all generations.



3:16. Go and gather together the ancients of Israel, and thou shalt say to them: The Lord God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared to me, saying: Visiting I have visited you; and I have seen all that hath befallen you in Egypt.



3:17. And I have said the word to bring you forth out of the affliction of Egypt, into the land of the Chanaanite, and Hethite, and Amorrhite, and Pherezite, and Hevite, and Jebusite, to a land that floweth with milk and honey.



3:18: And they shall hear thy voice; and thou shalt go in, thou and the ancients of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and thou shalt say to him: The Lord God of the Hebrews hath called us; we will go three days' journey into the wilderness, to sacrifice unto the Lord our God.



3:19. But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go, but by a mighty hand.



3:20. For I will stretch forth my hand, and will strike Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst of them: after these he will let you go.



3:21. And I will give favour to this people, in the sight of the Egyptians: and when you go forth, you shall not depart empty:



3:22. But every woman shall ask of her neighbour, and of her that is in her house, vessels of silver and of gold, and raiment: and you shall put them on your sons and daughters, and shall spoil Egypt.



Shall spoil, etc. . .That is, you shall strip, and take away the goods of the Egyptians. This was not authorizing theft or injustice; but was a just disposal made by Him, who is the great lord and master of all things, in order to pay the children of Israel some part of what was due to them from the Egyptians for their labours.



Exodus Chapter 4



Moses is empowered to confirm his mission with miracles: his brother Aaron is appointed to assist him.



4:1. Moses answered, and said: They will not believe me, nor hear my voice, but they will say: The Lord hath not appeared to thee.



4:2. Then he said to him: What is that thou holdest in thy hand? He answered: A rod.



4:3. And the Lord said: Cast it down upon the ground. He cast it down, and it was turned into a serpent, so that Moses fled from it.



4:4. And the Lord said: Put out thy hand, and take it by the tail. He put forth his hand, and took hold of it, and it was turned into a rod.



4:5. That they may believe, saith he, that the Lord God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath appeared to thee.



4:6. And the Lord said again: Put thy hand into thy bosom. And when he had put it into his bosom, he brought it forth leprous as snow.



4:7. And he said: Put back thy hand into thy bosom. He put it back, and brought it out again, and it was like the other flesh.



4:8. If they will not believe thee, saith he, nor hear the voice of the former sign, they will believe the word of the latter sign.



4:9. But if they will not even believe these two signs, nor hear thy voice: take of the river water, and pour it out upon the dry land, and whatsoever thou drawest out of the river, shall be turned into blood.



4:10. Moses said: I beseech thee, Lord, I am not eloquent from yesterday and the day before; and since thou hast spoken to thy servant, I have more impediment and slowness of tongue.



4:11. The Lord said to him: Who made man's mouth? or who made the dumb and the deaf, the seeing and the blind? did not I?



4:12. Go therefore, and I will be in thy mouth; and I will teach thee what thou shalt speak.



4:13. But he said: I beseech thee, Lord, send whom thou wilt send.



4:14. The Lord being angry at Moses, said: Aaron the Levite is thy brother, I know that he is eloquent: behold he cometh forth to meet thee, and seeing thee, shall be glad at heart.



4:15. Speak to him, and put my words in his mouth: and I will be in thy mouth, and in his month, and will shew you what you must do.



4:16. He shall speak in thy stead to the people, and shall be thy mouth: but thou shalt be to him in those things that pertain to God.



4:17. And take this rod in thy hand. wherewith thou shalt do the signs.



4:18: Moses went his way, and returned to Jethro his father in law, and said to him; I will go and return to my brethren into Egypt, that I may see if they be yet alive. And Jethro said to him: Go in peace.



4:19. And the Lord said to Moses, in Madian: Go, and return into Egypt; for they are all dead that sought thy life.



4:20. Moses therefore took his wife, and his sons, and set them upon an ass; and returned into Egypt, carrying the rod of God in his hand.



4:21. And the Lord said to him as he was returning into Egypt: See that thou do all the wonders before Pharao, which I have put in thy hand: I shall harden his heart, and he will not let the people go.



I shall harden, etc. . .Not by being the efficient cause of his sin; but by withdrawing from him, for his just punishment, the dew of grace that might have softened his heart; and so suffering him to grow harder and harder.



4:22. And thou shalt say to him: Thus saith the Lord: Israel is my son, my firstborn.



4:23. I have said to thee: Let my son go, that he may serve me, and thou wouldst not let him go: behold I will kill thy son, thy firstborn.



4:24. And when he was in his journey, in the inn, the Lord met him, and would have killed him.



The Lord met him, and would have killed him. . .This was an angel representing the Lord, who treated Moses in this manner, for having neglected the circumcision of his younger son; which his wife understanding, circumcised her child upon the spot, upon which the angel let Moses go.



4:25. Immediately Sephora took a very sharp stone, and circumcised the foreskin of her son, and touched his feet, and said: A bloody spouse art thou to me.



4:26. And he let him go after she had said: A bloody spouse art thou to me, because of the circumcision.



4:27. And the Lord said to Aaron: Go into the desert to meet Moses. And he went forth to meet him in the mountain of God, and kissed him.



4:28. And Moses told Aaron all the words of the Lord, by which he had sent him, and the signs that he had commanded.



4:29. And they came together, and they assembled all the ancients of the children of Israel.



4:30. And Aaron spoke all the words which the Lord had said to Moses: and he wrought the signs before the people.



4:31. And the people believed. And they heard that the Lord had visited the children of Israel, and that he had looked upon their affliction: and falling down they adored.



Exodus Chapter 5



Pharao refuseth to let the people go. They are more oppressed.



5:1. After these things, Moses and Aaron went in, and said to Pharao: Thus saith the Lord God of Israel: Let my people go, that they may sacrifice to me in the desert.



5:2. But he answered: Who is the Lord, that I should hear his voice, and let Israel go? I know not the Lord, neither will I let Israel go.



5:3. And they said: The God of the Hebrews hath called us, to go three days' journey into the wilderness, and to sacrifice to the Lord our God; lest a pestilence or the sword fall upon us.



5:4. The king of Egypt said to them: Why do you Moses and Aaron draw off the people from their works? Get you gone to your burdens.



5:5. And Pharao said: The people of the land are numerous; you see that the multitude is increased; how much more if you give them rest from their works?



5:6. Therefore he commanded the same day the overseers of the works, and the task-masters of the people, saying:



5:7. You shall give straw no more to the people to make brick, as before; but let them go and gather straw.



5:8. And you shall lay upon them the task of bricks, which they did before; neither shall you diminish any thing thereof, for they are idle, and therefore they cry. saying: Let us go and sacrifice to our God.



5:9. Let them be oppressed with works, and let them fulfil them; that they may not regard lying words.



5:10. And the overseers of the works, and the taskmasters, went out and said to the people: Thus saith Pharao: I allow you no straw;



5:11. Go, and gather it where you can find it; neither shall any thing of your work be diminished.



5:12. And the people was scattered through all the land of Egypt to gather straw.



5:13. And the overseers of the works pressed them, saying: Fulfil your work every day, as before ye were wont to do, when straw was given you.



5:14. And they that were over the works of the children of Israel, were scourged by Pharao's taskmasters, saying: Why have you not made up the task of bricks, both yesterday and to day, as before?



5:15. And the officers of the children of Israel came, and cried out to Pharao, saying: Why dealest thou so with thy servants?



5:16. Straw is not given us, and bricks are required of us as before; behold we, thy servants, are beaten with whips, and thy people is unjustly dealt withal.



5:17. And he said: You are idle, and therefore you say: Let us go and sacrifice to the Lord.



5:18: Go therefore and work: straw shall not be given you, and you shall deliver the accustomed number of bricks.



5:19. And the officers of the children of Israel saw that they were in evil case, because it was said to them: There shall not a whit be diminished of the bricks for every day.



5:20. And they met Moses and Aaron, who stood over against them as they came out from Pharao:



5:21. And they said to them: The Lord see and judge, because you have, made our savour to stink before Pharao and his servants, and you have given him a sword, to kill us.



5:22. And Moses returned to the Lord, and said: Lord, why hast thou afflicted this people? wherefore hast thou sent me?



5:23. For since the time that I went in to Pharao to speak in thy name, he hath afflicted thy people: and thou hast not delivered them.



Exodus Chapter 6



God reneweth his promise. The genealogies of Ruben, Simon and Levi, down to Moses and Aaron.



6;1. And the Lord said to Moses: Now thou shalt see what I will do to Pharao: for by a mighty hand shall he let them go, and with a strong hand shall he cast them out of his land.



6:2. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: I am the Lord



6:3. That appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, by the name of God Almighty: and my name ADONAI I did not shew them.



My name Adonai. . .The name, which is in the Hebrew text, is that most proper name of God, which signifieth his eternal, self- existent being, Ex. 3.14, which the Jews out of reverence never pronounce; but, instead of it, whenever it occurs in the Bible, they read Adonai, which signifies the Lord; and, therefore, they put the points or vowels, which belong to the name Adonai, to the four letters of that other ineffable name Jod, He, Vau, He. Hence some moderns have framed the name Jehovah, unknown to all the ancients, whether Jews or Christians; for the true pronunciation of the name, which is in the Hebrew text, by long disuse, is now quite lost.



6:4. And I made a covenant with them, to give them the land of Chanaan, the land of their pilgrimage wherein they were strangers.



6:5. I have heard the groaning of the children of Israel, wherewith the Egyptians have oppressed them: and I have remembered my covenant.



6:6. Therefore say to the children of Israel: I am the Lord who will bring you out from the work-prison of the Egyptians, and will deliver you from bondage: and redeem you with a high arm, and great judgments.



6:7. And I will take you to myself for my people, I will be your God: and you shall know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from the work-prison of the Egyptians:



6:8. And brought you into the land, concerning which I lifted up my hand to give it to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: and I will give it you to possess: I am the Lord.



6:9. And Moses told all this to the children of Israel: but they did not hearken to him, for anguish of spirit, and most painful work.



6:10. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



6:11. Go in, and speak to Pharao king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.



6:12. Moses answered before the Lord: Behold the children of Israel do not hearken to me: and how will Pharao hear me, especially as I am of uncircumcised lips?



Uncircumcised lips. . .So he calls the defect he had in his words, or utterance.



6:13. And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, and he gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharao the king of Egypt, that they should bring forth the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.



6:14. These are the heads of their houses by their families. The sons of Ruben the firstborn of Israel: Henoch and Phallu, Hesron and Charmi.



6:15. These are the kindreds of Ruben. The sons of Simeon, Jamuel and Jamin, and Ahod, and Jachin, and Soar, and Saul the son of a Chanaanitess: these are the families of Simeon.



6:16. And these are the names of the sons of Levi by their kindreds: Gerson, and Caath, and Merari. And the years of the life of Levi were a hundred and thirty-seven.



6:17. The sons of Gerson: Lobni and Semei, by their kindreds.



6:18: The sons of Caath: Amram, and Isaar, and Hebron and Oziel. And the years of Caath's life, were a hundred and thirty- three.



6:19. The sons of Merari: Moholi and Musi. These are the kindreds of Levi by their families.



6:20. And Amram took to wife Jochabed his aunt by the father's side: and she bore him Aaron and Moses. And the years of Amram's life, were a hundred and thirty-seven.



6:21. The sons also of Isaar: Core, and Nepheg, and Zechri.



6:22. The sons also of Oziel: Mizael, and Elizaphan, and Sethri.



6:23. And Aaron took to wife Elizabeth the daughter of Aminadab, sister of Nahason, who bore him Nadab, and Abiu, and Eleazar, and Ithamar.



6:24. The sons also of Core: Aser, and Elcana, and Abiasaph. These are the kindreds of the Corites.



6:25. But Eleazar the son of Aaron took a wife of the daughters of Phutiel: and she bore him Phinees. These are the heads of the Levitical families by their kindreds.



6:26. These are Aaron and Moses, whom the Lord commanded to bring forth the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their companies.



6:27. These are they that speak to Pharao, king of Egypt, in order to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses and Aaron,



6:28. In the day when the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt.



6:29. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: I am the Lord; speak thou to Pharao, king of Egypt, all that I say to thee.



6:30. And Moses said before the Lord: Lo I am of uncircumcised lips, how will Pharao hear me?



Exodus Chapter 7



Moses and Aaron go into Pharao: they turn the rod into a serpent; and the waters of Egypt into blood, which was the first plague. The magicians do the like, and Pharao's heart is hardened.



7:1. And the Lord said to Moses: Behold, I have appointed thee the god of Pharao; and Aaron, thy brother, shall be thy prophet.



The god of Pharao. . .Viz., to be his judge; and to exercise a divine power, as God's instrument, over him and his people.



7:2. Thou shalt speak to him all that I command thee; and he shall speak to Pharao, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.



7:3. But I shall harden his heart, and shall multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt.



I shall harden, etc. . .not by being the efficient cause of his hardness of heart, but by permitting it; and by withdrawing grace from him, in punishment of his malice; which alone was the proper cause of his being hardened.



7:4. And he will not hear you: and I will lay my hand upon Egypt, and will bring forth my army and my people, the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt, by very great judgments.



7:5. And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, who have stretched forth my hand upon Egypt, and have brought forth the children of Israel out of the midst of them.



7:6. And Moses and Aaron did as the Lord had commanded; so did they.



7:7. And Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three, when they spoke to Pharao.



7:8. And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron:



7:9. When Pharao shall say to you, Shew signs; thou shalt say to Aaron: Take thy rod, and cast it down before Pharao, and it shall be turned into a serpent.



7:10. So Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharao, and did as the Lord had commanded. And Aaron took the rod before Pharao and his servants, and it was turned into a serpent.



7:11. And Pharao called the wise men and the magicians; and they also by Egyptian enchantments and certain secrets, did in like manner.



Magicians. . .Jannes, and Mambres, or Jambres, 2 Tim. 3.8.



7:12. And they every one cast down their rods, and they were turned into serpents: but Aaron's rod devoured their rods.



7:13. And Pharao's heart was hardened, and he did not hearken to them, as the Lord had commanded.



7:14. And the Lord said to Moses: Pharao's heart is hardened, he will not let the people go.



7:15. Go to him in the morning, behold he will go out to the waters: and thou shalt stand to meet him on the ' bank of the river: and thou shalt take in thy hand the rod that was turned into a serpent.



7:16. And thou shalt say to him: The Lord God of the Hebrews sent me to thee, saying: Let my people go to sacrifice to me in the desert: and hitherto thou wouldst not hear.



7:17. Thus therefore saith the Lord: In this thou shalt know that I am the Lord: behold I will strike with the rod, that is in my hand, the water of the river, and it shall be turned into blood.



7:18: And the fishes that are in the river, shall die, and the waters shall be corrupted, and the Egyptians shall be afflicted when they drink the water of the river.



7:19. The Lord also said to Moses: Say to Aaron, Take thy rod; and stretch forth thy hand upon the waters of Egypt, and upon their rivers, and streams and pools, and all the ponds of waters, that they may be turned into blood: and let blood be in all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood and of stone.



7:20. And Moses and Aaron did as the Lord had commanded: and lifting up the rod, he struck the water of the river before Pharao and his servants: and it was turned into blood.



7:21. And the fishes that were in the river died; and the river corrupted, and the Egyptians could not drink the water of the river, and there was blood in all the land of Egypt.



7:22. And the magicians of the Egyptians with their enchantments did in like manner; and Pharao's heart was hardened, neither did he hear them, as the Lord had commanded.



7:23. And he turned himself away, and went into his house, neither did he set his heart to it this time also.



7:24. And all the Egyptians dug round about the river for water to drink; for they could not drink of the water of the river.



7:25. And seven days were fully ended, after that the Lord struck the river.



Exodus Chapter 8



The second plague is of frogs: Pharao promiseth to let the Israelites go, but breaketh his promise. The third plague is of sciniphs. The fourth is of flies. Pharao again promiseth to dismiss the people, but doth it not.



8:1. And the Lord said to Moses: Go in to Pharao, and thou shalt say to him: Thus saith the Lord: Let my people go to sacrifice to me.



8:2. But if thou wilt not let them go, behold I will strike all thy coasts with frogs.



8:3. And the river shall bring forth an abundance of frogs; which shall come up and enter into thy house, and thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the houses of thy servants, and to thy people, and into thy ovens, and into the remains of thy meats:



8:4. And the frogs shall come in to thee, and to thy people, and to all thy servants.



8:5. And the Lord said to Moses: Say to Aaron: Stretch forth thy hand upon the streams, and upon the rivers and the pools, and bring forth frogs upon the land of Egypt.



8:6. And Aaron stretched forth his hand upon the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt.



8:7. And the magicians also, by their enchantments, did in like manner, and they brought forth frogs upon the land of Egypt.



8:8. But Pharao called Moses and Aaron, and said to them: Pray ye to the Lord to take away the frogs from me and from my people; and I will let the people go to sacrifice to the Lord.



Pray ye to the Lord, etc. . .By this it appears, that though the magicians, by the help of the devil, could bring frogs, yet they could not take them away: God being pleased to abridge in this the power of Satan. So we see they could not afterwards produce the lesser insects; and in this restraint of the power of the devil, were forced to acknowledge the finger of God.



8:9. And Moses said to Pharao: Set me a time when I shall pray for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people, that the frogs may be driven away from thee and from thy house, and from thy servants, and from thy people; and may remain only in the river.



8:10. And he answered: To morrow. But he said: I will do according to thy word; that thou mayest know that there is none like to the Lord our God.



8:11. And the frogs shall depart from thee, and from thy house, and from thy servants, and from thy people; and shall remain only in the river.



8:12. And Moses and Aaron went forth from Pharao: and Moses cried to the Lord for the promise, which he had made to Pharao concerning the frogs.



8:13. And the Lord did according to the word of Moses: and the frogs died out of the houses, and out of the villages, and out of the fields:



8:14. And they gathered them together into immense heaps, and the land was corrupted.



8:15. And Pharao seeing that rest was given, hardened his own heart, and did not hear them, as the Lord had commanded.



Pharao hardened his own heart. . .By this we see that Pharao was himself the efficient cause of his heart being hardened, and not God.--See the same repeated in ver. 32. Pharao hardened his heart at this time also: likewise chap. 9.7, 35, and chap. 13.15.



8:16. And the Lord said to Moses: Say to Aaron: Stretch forth thy rod, and strike the dust of the earth; and may there be sciniphs in all the land of Egypt.



Sciniphs. . .Or Cinifs, Hebrew Chinnim, small flying insects, very troublesome both to men and beast.



8:17. And they did so. And Aaron stretched forth his hand, holding the rod; and he struck the dust of the earth, and there came sciniphs on men and on beasts: all the dust of the earth was turned into sciniphs through all the land of Egypt.



8:18: And the magicians with their enchantments practised in like manner, to bring forth sciniphs, and they could not: and there were sciniphs as well on men as on beasts.



8:19. And the magicians said to Pharao: This is the finger of God. And Pharao's heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them, as the Lord had commanded.



8:20. The Lord also said to Moses: Arise early, and stand before Pharao; for he will go forth to the waters: and thou shalt say to him: Thus saith the Lord: Let my people go to sacrifice to me.



8:21. But if thou wilt not let them go, behold I will send in upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy houses, all kind of flies: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be filled with flies of divers kinds, and the whole land wherein they shall be.



8:22. And I will make the land of Gessen wonderful in that day, so that flies shall not be there: and thou shalt know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth.



8:23. And I will put a division between my people and thy people: to morrow shall this sign be.



8:24. And the Lord did so. And there came a very grievous swarm of flies into the houses of Pharao and of his servants, and into all the land of Egypt: and the land was corrupted by this kind of flies.



8:25. And Pharao called Moses and Aaron, and said to them: Go and sacrifice to your God in this land.



8:26. And Moses said: It cannot be so: for we shall sacrifice the abominations of the Egyptians to the Lord our God: now if we kill those things which the Egyptians worship, in their presence, they will stone us.



The abominations, etc. . .That is, the things they worship for Gods: oxen, rams, etc. It is the usual style of the scriptures to call all idols and false gods, abominations, to signify how much the people of God ought to detest and abhor them.



8:27. We will go three days' journey into the wilderness; and we will sacrifice to the Lord our God, as he hath commanded us.



8:28. And Pharao said: I will let you go to sacrifice to the Lord your God in the wilderness, but go no farther: pray for me.



8:29. And Moses said: I will go out from thee, and will pray to the Lord: and the flies shall depart from Pharao, and from his servants, and from his people to morrow: but do not deceive any more, in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the Lord.



8:30. So Moses went out from Pharao, and prayed to the Lord.



8:31. And he did according to his word: and he took away the flies from Pharao, and from his servants, and from his people: there was not left so much as one.



8:32. And Pharao's heart was hardened, so that neither this time would he let the people go.



Exodus Chapter 9



The fifth plague is a murrain among the cattle. The sixth, of boils in men and beasts. The seventh, of hail. Pharao promiseth again to let the people go, and breaketh his word.



9:1. And the Lord said to Moses: Go in to Pharao, and speak to him: Thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews: Let my people go to sacrifice to me.



9:2. But if thou refuse, and withhold them still:



9:3. Behold my hand shall be upon thy fields; and a very grievous murrain upon thy horses, and asses, and camels, and oxen, and sheep.



9:4. And the Lord will make a wonderful difference between the possessions of Israel and the possessions of the Egyptians, that nothing at all shall die of those things that belong to the children of Israel.



9:5. And the Lord appointed a time, saying: To morrow will the Lord do this thing in the land.



9:6. The Lord therefore did this thing the next day: and all the beasts of the Egyptians died, but of the beasts of the children of Israel there died not one.



All the beasts. . .That is, many of all kinds.



9:7. And Pharao sent to see; and there was not any thing dead of that which Israel possessed. And Pharao's heart was hardened, and he did not let the people go.



9:8. And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron: Take to you handfuls of ashes out of the chimney, and let Moses sprinkle it in the air in the presence of Pharao.



9:9. And be there dust upon all the land of Egypt: for there shall be boils and swelling blains both in men and beasts, in the whole land of Egypt.



9:10. And they took ashes out of the chimney, and stood before Pharao, and Moses sprinkled it in the air; and there came boils with swelling blains in men and beasts.



9:11. Neither could the magicians stand before Moses, for the boils that were upon them, and in all the land of Egypt.



9:12. And the Lord hardened Pharao's heart, and he hearkened not unto them, as the Lord had spoken to Moses.



Hardened, etc. . .See the annotations above, chap. 4.21, chap. 7.3, and chap. 8.15.



9:13. And the Lord said to Moses: Arise in the morning, and stand before Pharao, and thou shalt say to him: Thus saith the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: Let my people go to sacrifice to me.



9:14. For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thy heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; that thou mayst know that there is none like me in all the earth.



9:15. For now I will stretch out my hand to strike thee, and thy people, with pestilence, and thou shalt perish from the earth.



9:16. And therefore have I raised thee, that I may shew my power in thee, and my name may be spoken of throughout all the earth.



9:17. Dost thou yet hold back my people; and wilt thou not let them go?



9:18: Behold I will cause it to rain to morrow at this same hour, an exceeding great hail; such as hath not been in Egypt from the day that it was founded, until this present time.



9:19. Send therefore now presently, and gather together thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field; for men and beasts, and all things that shall be found abroad, and not gathered together out of the fields which the hail shall fall upon, shall die.



9:20. He that feared the word of the Lord among Pharao's servants, made his servants and his cattle flee into houses:



9:21. But he that regarded not the word of the Lord, left his servants, and his cattle in the fields.



9:22. And the Lord said to Moses: Stretch forth thy hand towards heaven, that there may be hail in the whole land of Egypt upon men, and upon beasts, and upon every herb of the field in the land of Egypt.



9:23. And Moses stretched forth his rod towards heaven, and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and lightnings running along the ground: and the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt.



9:24. And the hail and fire mixt with it drove on together: and it was of so great bigness, as never before was seen in the whole land of Egypt since that nation was founded.



9:25. And the hail destroyed through all the land of Egypt all things that were in the fields, both man and beast: and the hail smote every herb of the field, and it broke every tree of the country.



9:26. Only in the land of Gessen, where the children of Israel were, the hail fell not.



9:27. And Pharao sent and called Moses and Aaron, saying to them: I have sinned this time also, the Lord is just: I and my people, are wicked.



9:28. Pray ye to the Lord that the thunderings of God and the hail may cease: that I may let you go, and that ye may stay here no longer.



9:29. Moses said: As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will stretch forth my hands to the Lord, and the thunders shall cease, and the hail shall be no more: that thou mayst know that the earth is the Lord's:



9:30. But I know that neither thou, nor thy servants do yet fear the Lord God.



9:31. The flax therefore, and the barley were hurt, because the barley was green, and the flax was now bolled;



9:32. But the wheat, and other winter corn were not hurt, because they were lateward.



9:33. And when Moses was gone from Pharao out of the city, he stretched forth his hands to the Lord: and the thunders and the hail ceased, neither did there drop any more rain upon the earth.



9:34. And Pharao seeing that the rain, and the hail, and the thunders were ceased, increased his sin:



9:35. And his heart was hardened, and the heart of his servants, and it was made exceeding hard: neither did he let the children of Israel go, as the Lord had commanded by the hand of Moses.







Exodus Chapter 10



The eighth plague of the locusts. The ninth, of darkness: Pharao is still hardened.



10:1. And the Lord said to Moses: Go in to Pharao; for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants: that I may work these my signs in him,



10:2. And thou mayst tell in the ears of thy sons, and of thy grandsons, how often I have plagued the Egyptians, and wrought my signs amongst them: and you may know that I am the Lord.



10:3. Therefore Moses and Aaron went in to Pharao, and said to him: Thus saith the Lord God of the Hebrews: How long refusest thou to submit to me? let my people go, to sacrifice to me.



10:4. But if thou resist, and wilt not let them go, behold I will bring in to-morrow the locusts into thy coasts;



10:5. To cover the face of the earth, that nothing thereof may appear, but that which the hail hath left may be eaten: for they shall feed upon all the trees that spring in the fields.



10:6. And they shall fill thy houses, and the houses of thy servants, and of all the Egyptians: such a number as thy fathers have not seen, nor thy grandfathers, from the time they were first upon the earth, until this present day. And he turned himself away, and went forth from Pharao.



10:7. And Pharao's servants said to him: How long shall we endure this scandal? Iet the men go to sacrifice to the Lord their God. Dost thou not see that Egypt is undone?



10:8. And they called back Moses, and Aaron, to Pharao; and he said to them: Go, sacrifice to the Lord your God: who are they that shall go?



10:9. Moses said: We will go with our young and old, with our sons and daughters, with our sheep and herds: for it is the solemnity of the Lord our God.



10:10. And Pharao answered: So be the Lord with you, as I shall let you and your children go: who can doubt but that you intend some great evil?



10:11. It shall not be so. but go ye men only, and sacrifice to the Lord: for this yourselves also desired. And immediately they were cast out from Pharao's presence.



10:12. And the Lord said to Moses: Stretch forth thy hand upon the land of Egypt unto the locust, that it come upon it, and devour every herb that is left after the hail.



10:13. And Moses stretched forth his rod upon the land of Egypt: and the Lord brought a burning wind all that day, and night; and when it was morning, the burning wind raised the locusts.



10:14. And they came up over the whole land of Egypt; and rested in all the coasts of the Egyptians, innumerable, the like as had not been before that time, nor shall be hereafter.



10:15. And they covered the whole face of the earth, wasting all things. And the grass of the earth was devoured, and what fruits soever were on the trees, which the hail had left; and there remained not any thing that was green on the trees, or in the herbs of the earth, in all Egypt.



10:16. Wherefore Pharao in haste called Moses and Aaron, and said to them: I have sinned against the Lord your God, and against you.



10:17. But now forgive me my sin this time also, and pray to the Lord your God, that he take away from me this death.



10:18: And Moses going forth from the presence of Pharao, prayed to the Lord:



10:19. And he made a very strong wind to blow from the west, and it took the locusts and cast them into the Red Sea: there remained not so much as one in all the coasts of Egypt.



10:20. And the Lord hardened Pharao's heart, neither did he let the children of Israel go.



10:21. And the Lord said to Moses: Stretch out thy hand towards heaven: and may there be darkness upon the land of Egypt so thick that it may be felt.



Darkness upon the land of Egypt, so thick that it may be felt. . .By means of the gross exhalations, which were to cause and accompany the darkness.



10:22. And Moses stretched forth his hand towards heaven: and there came horrible darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days.



10:23. No man saw his brother, nor moved himself out of the place where he was: but wheresoever the children of Israel dwelt, there was light.



10:24. And Pharao called Moses and Aaron, and said to them: Go, sacrifice to the Lord: let your sheep only, and herds remain, let your children go with you.



10:25. Moses said: Thou shalt give us also sacrifices and burnt- offerings, to the Lord our God.



10:26. All the flocks shall go with us; there shall not a hoof remain of them: for they are necessary for the service of the Lord our God: especially as we know not what must be offered, till we come to the very place.



10:27. And the Lord hardened Pharao's heart, and he would not let them go.



10:28. And Pharao said to Moses: Get thee from me, and beware thou see not my face any more: in what day soever thou shalt come in my sight, thou shalt die.



10:29. Moses answered: So shall it be as thou hast spoken, I will not see thy face anymore.



Exodus Chapter 11



Pharao and his people are threatened with the death of their firstborn.



11:1. And the Lord said to Moses: Yet one plague more will I bring upon Pharao and Egypt, and after that he shall let you go, and thrust you out.



11:2. Therefore thou shalt tell all the people, that every man ask of his friend, and every woman of her neighbour, vessels of silver and of gold.



11:3. And the Lord will give favour to his people in the sight of the Egyptians. And Moses was a very great man in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharao's servants, and of all the people.



11:4. And he said: Thus saith the Lord: At midnight I will enter into Egypt:



11:5. And every firstborn in the land of the Egyptians shall die, from the firstborn of Pharao who sitteth on his throne, even to the firstborn of the handmaid that is at the mill, and all the firstborn of beasts.



11:6. And there shall be a great cry in all the land of Egypt, such as neither hath been before, nor shall be hereafter.



11:7. But with all the children of Israel there shall not a dog make the least noise, from man even to beast; that you may know how wonderful a difference the Lord maketh between the Egyptians and Israel.



11:8. And all these thy servants shall come down to me, and shall worship me, saying: Go forth thou, and all the people that is under thee: after that we will go out.



11:9. And he went out from Pharao exceeding angry. But the Lord said to Moses: Pharao will not hear you, that many signs may be done in the land of Egypt.



11:10. And Moses and Aaron did all the wonders that are written, before Pharao. And the Lord hardened Pharao's heart, neither did he let the children of Israel go out of his land.



The Lord hardened, etc. . .See the annotations above, chap. 4.21, and chap. 7.3.



Exodus Chapter 12



The manner of preparing, and eating the paschal lamb: the firstborn of Egypt are all slain: the Israelites depart.



12:1. And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt:



12:2. This month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first in the months of the year.



12:3. Speak ye to the whole assembly of the children of Israel, and say to them: On the tenth day of this month let every man take a lamb by their families and houses.



12:4. But if the number be less than may suffice to eat the lamb, he shall take unto him his neighbour that joineth to his house, according to the number of souls which may be enough to eat the lamb.



12:5. And it shall be a lamb without blemish, a male, of one year; according to which rite also you shall take a kid.



A kid. . .The phase might be performed, either with a lamb or with a kid: and all the same rites and ceremonies were to be used with the one as with the other.



12:6. And you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month; and the whole multitude of the children of Israel shall sacrifice it in the evening.



12:7. And they shall take of the blood thereof, and put it upon both the side posts, and on the upper door posts of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.



12:8. And they shall eat the flesh that night roasted at the fire, and unleavened bread with wild lettuce.



12:9. You shall not eat thereof any thing raw, nor boiled in water, but only roasted at the fire; you shall eat the head with the feet and entrails thereof.



12:10. Neither shall there remain any thing of it until morning. If there be any thing left, you shall burn it with fire.



12:11. And thus you shall eat it: you shall gird your reins, and you shall have shoes on your feet, holding staves in your hands, and you shall eat in haste; for it is the Phase (that is the Passage) of the Lord.



12:12. And I will pass through the land of Egypt that night, and will kill every firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast: and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments; I am the Lord.



12:13. And the blood shall be unto you for a sign in the houses where you shall be; and I shall see the blood, and shall pass over you; and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I shall strike the land of Egypt.



12:14. And this day shall be for a memorial to you; and you shall keep it a feast to the Lord in your generations, with an everlasting observance.



12:15. Seven days shall you eat unleavened bread: in the first day there shall be no leaven in your houses; whosoever shall eat any thing leavened, from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall perish out of Israel.



12:16. The first day shall be holy and solemn, and the seventh day shall be kept with the like solemnity: you shall do no work in them, except those things that belong to eating.



12:17. And you shall observe the feast of the unleavened bread: for in this same day I will bring forth your army out of the land of Egypt, and you shall keep this day in your generations by a perpetual observance.



12:18: The first month, the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the same month, in the evening.



Unleavened bread. . .By this it appears, that our Saviour made use of unleavened bread, in the institution of the blessed sacrament, which was on the evening of the paschal solemnity, at which time there was no leavened bread to be found in Israel.



12:19. Seven days there shall not be found any leaven in your houses: he that shall eat leavened bread, his soul shall perish out of the assembly of Israel, whether he be a stranger or born in the land.



12:20. You shall not eat any thing leavened: in all your habitations you shall eat unleavened bread.



12:21. And Moses called all the ancients of the children of Israel, and said to them: Go take a lamb by your families, and sacrifice the Phase.



12:22. And dip a bunch of hyssop in the blood that is at the door, and sprinkle the transom of the door therewith, and both the door cheeks: let none of you go out of the door of his house till morning.



Sprinkle, etc. . .This sprinkling the doors of the Israelites with the blood of the paschal lamb, in order to their being delivered from the sword of the destroying angel, was a lively figure of our redemption by the blood of Christ.



12:23. For the Lord will pass through striking the Egyptians: and when he shall see the blood on the transom, and on both the posts, he will pass over the door of the house, and not suffer the destroyer to come into your houses and to hurt you.



12:24. Thou shalt keep this thing as a law for thee and thy children for ever.



12:25. And when you have entered into the land which the Lord will give you, as he hath promised, you shall observe these ceremonies.



12:26. And when your children shall say to you: What is the meaning of this service?



12:27. You shall say to them: It is the victim of the passage of the Lord, when he passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, striking the Egyptians, and saving our houses. And the people bowing themselves, adored.



12:28. And the children of Israel going forth, did as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron.



12:29. And it came to pass at midnight, the Lord slew every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharao, who sat on his throne, unto the firstborn of the captive woman that was in the prison, and all the firstborn of cattle.



12:30. And Pharao arose in the night, and all his servants, and all Egypt: and there arose a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house wherein there lay not one dead.



12:31. And Pharao calling Moses and Aaron, in the night, said: Arise and go forth from among my people, you and the children of Israel: go, sacrifice to the Lord as you say.



12:32. Your sheep and herds take along with you, as you demanded, and departing bless me.



12:33. And the Egyptians pressed the people to go forth out of the land speedily, saying: We shall all die.



12:34. The people therefore took dough before it was leavened; and tying it in their cloaks, put it on their shoulders.



12:35. And the children of Israel did as Moses had commanded: and they asked of the Egyptians vessels of silver and gold, and very much raiment.



12:36. And the Lord gave favour to the people in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them: and they stripped the Egyptians.



12:37. And the children of Israel set forward from Ramesse to Socoth, being about six hundred thousand men on foot, beside children.



12:38. And a mixed multitude, without number, went up also with them, sheep and herds, and beasts of divers kinds, exceeding many.



12:39. And they baked the meal, which a little before they had brought out of Egypt in dough: and they made hearth cakes unleavened: for it could not be leavened, the Egyptians pressing them to depart, and not suffering them to make any stay; neither did they think of preparing any meat.



12:40. And the abode of the children of Israel that they made in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.



12:41. Which being expired, the same day all the army of the Lord went forth out of the land of Egypt.



12:42. This is the observable night of the Lord, when he brought them forth out of the land of Egypt: this night all the children of Israel must observe in their generations.



12:43. And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron: This is the service of the Phase; no foreigner shall eat of it.



12:44. But every bought servant shall be circumcised, and so shall eat.



12:45. The stranger and the hireling shall not eat thereof.



12:46. In one house shall it be eaten, neither shall you carry forth of the flesh thereof out of the house, neither shall you break a bone thereof.



12:47. All the assembly of the children of Israel shall keep it.



12:48. And if any stranger be willing to dwell among you, and to keep the Phase of the Lord, all his males shall first be circumcised, and then shall he celebrate it according to the manner: and he shall be as he that is born in the land: but if any man be uncircumcised, he shall not eat thereof.



12:49. The same law shall be to him that is born in the land, and to the proselyte that sojourneth with you.



12:50. And all the children of Israel did as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron.



12:51. And the same day the Lord brought forth the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their companies.



Exodus Chapter 13



The paschal solemnity is to be observed; and the firstborn are to be consecrated to God. The people are conducted through the desert by a pillar of fire in the night, and a cloud in the day.



13:1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



13:2. Sanctify unto me every firstborn that openeth the womb among the children of Israel, as well of men as of beasts: for they are all mine.



Sanctify unto me every firstborn. . .Sanctification in this place means that the firstborn males of the Hebrews should be deputed to the ministry in the divine worship; and the firstborn of beasts to be given for a sacrifice.



13:3. And Moses said to the people: Remember this day in which you came forth out of Egypt, and out of the house of bondage, for with a strong hand hath the Lord brought you forth out of this place: that you eat no leavened bread.



13:4. This day you go forth in the month of new corn.



13:5. And when the Lord shall have brought thee into the land of the Chanaanite, and the Hethite, and the Amorrhite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite, which he swore to thy fathers that he would give thee, a land that floweth with milk and honey, thou shalt celebrate this manner of sacred rites in this month.



13:6. Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread: and on the seventh day shall be the solemnity of the Lord.



13:7. Unleavened bread shall you eat seven days: there shall not be seen any thing leavened with thee, nor in all thy coasts.



13:8. And thou shalt tell thy son in that day, saying: This is what the Lord did to me when I came forth out of Egypt.



13:9. And it shall be as a sign in thy hand, and as a memorial before thy eyes; and that the law of the Lord be always in thy mouth, for with a strong hand the Lord hath brought thee out of the land of Egypt.



13:10. Thou shalt keep this observance at the set time from days to days.



13:11. And when the Lord shall have brought thee into the land of the Chanaanite, as he swore to thee and thy fathers, and shall give it thee:



13:12. Thou shalt set apart all that openeth the womb for the Lord, and all that is first brought forth of thy cattle: whatsoever thou shalt have of the male sex, thou shalt consecrate to the Lord.



13:13. The firstborn of an ass thou shalt change for a sheep: and if thou do not redeem it, thou shalt kill it. And every firstborn of men thou shalt redeem with a price.



13:14. And when thy son shall ask thee to morrow, saying: What is this? thou shalt answer him: With a strong hand did the Lord bring us forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.



13:15. For when Pharao was hardened, and would not let us go, the Lord slew every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of man to the firstborn of beasts: therefore I sacrifice to the Lord all that openeth the womb of the male sex, and all the firstborn of my sons I redeem.



13:16. And it shall be as a sign in thy hand, and as a thing hung between thy eyes, for a remembrance: because the Lord hath brought us forth out of Egypt by a strong hand.



13:17. And when Pharao had sent out the people, the Lord led them not by the way of the land of the Philistines, which is near; thinking lest perhaps they would repent, if they should see wars arise against them, and would return into Egypt.



13:18: But he led them about by the way of the desert, which is by the Red Sea: and the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of Egypt.



13:19. And Moses took Joseph's bones with him: because he had adjured the children of Israel, saying: God shall visit you, carry out my bones from hence with you.



13:20. And marching from Socoth, they encamped in Etham, in the utmost coasts of the wilderness.



13:21. And the Lord went before them to shew the way, by day in a pillar of a cloud, and by night in a pillar of fire; that he might be the guide of their journey at both times.



13:22. There never failed the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, before the people.



Exodus Chapter 14



Pharao pursueth the children of Israel. They murmur against Moses, but are encouraged by him, and pass through the Red Sea. Pharao and his army following them are drowned.



14:1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



14:2. Speak to the children of Israel: Let them turn and encamp over against Phihahiroth, which is between Magdal and the sea over against Beelsephon: you shall encamp before it upon the sea.



14:3. And Pharao will say of the children of Israel: They are straitened in the land, the desert hath shut them in.



14:4. And I shall harden his heart and he will pursue you: and I shall be glorified in Pharao, and in all his army: and the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord. And they did so.



14:5. And it was told the king of the Egyptians that the people was fled: and the heart of Pharao and of his servants was changed with regard to the people, and they said: What meant we to do, that we let Israel go from serving us?



14:6. So he made ready his chariot, and took all his people with him.



14:7. And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots that were in Egypt: and the captains of the whole army.



14:8. And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharao, king of Egypt, and he pursued the children of Israel; but they were gone forth in a mighty hand.



14:9. And when the Egyptians followed the steps of them who were gone before, they found them encamped at the sea side: all Pharao's horse and chariots and the whole army were in Phihahiroth, before Beelsephon.



14:10. And when Pharao drew near, the children of Israel lifting up their eyes, saw the Egyptians behind them: and they feared exceedingly, and cried to the Lord.



14:11. And they said to Moses: Perhaps there were no graves in Egypt, therefore thou hast brought us to die in the wilderness: why wouldst thou do this, to lead us out of Egypt?



14:12. Is not this the word that we spoke to thee in Egypt, saying: Depart from us, that we may serve the Egyptians? for it was much better to serve them, than to die in the wilderness.



14:13. And Moses said to the people: Fear not: stand, and see the great wonders of the Lord, which he will do this day; for the Egyptians, whom you see now, you shall see no more for ever.



14:14. The Lord will fight for you, and you shall hold your peace.



14:15. And the Lord said to Moses: Why criest thou to me? Speak to the children of Israel to go forward.



14:16. But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch forth thy hand over the sea, and divide it: that the children of Israel may go through the midst of the sea on dry ground.



14:17. And I will harden the heart of the Egyptians to pursue you: and I will be glorified in Pharao, and in all his host, and in his chariots and in his horsemen.



14:18: And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I shall be glorified in Pharao, and in his chariots, and in his horsemen.



14:19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removing, went behind them: and together with him the pillar of the cloud, leaving the forepart,



14:20. Stood behind, between the Egyptians' camp and the camp of Israel: and it was a dark cloud, and enlightening the night, so that they could not come at one another all the night.



A dark cloud, and enlightening the night. . .It was a dark cloud to the Egyptians; but enlightened the night to the Israelites by giving them a great light.



14:21. And when Moses had stretched forth his hand over the sea, the Lord took it away by a strong and burning wind blowing all the night, and turned it into dry ground: and the water was divided.



14:22. And the children of Israel went in through the midst of the sea dried up; for the water was as a wall on their right hand and on their left.



14:23. And the Egyptians pursuing went in after them, and all Pharao's horses, his chariots and horsemen, through the midst of the sea.



14:24. And now the morning watch was come, and behold the Lord looking upon the Egyptian army through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, slew their host.



14:25. And overthrew the wheels of the chariots, and they were carried into the deep. And the Egyptians said: Let us flee from Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them against us.



14:26. And the Lord said to Moses: Stretch forth thy hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots and horsemen.



14:27. And when Moses had stretched forth his hand towards the sea, it returned at the first break of day to the former place: and as the Egyptians were fleeing away, the waters came upon them, and the Lord shut them up in the middle of the waves.



14:28. And the waters returned, and covered the chariots and the horsemen of all the army of Pharao, who had come into the sea after them, neither did there so much as one of them remain.



14:29. But the children of Israel marched through the midst of the sea upon dry land, and the waters were to them as a wall on the right hand and on the left:



14:30. And the Lord delivered Israel in that day out of the hands of the Egyptians.



14:31. And they saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore, and the mighty hand that the Lord had used against them: and the people feared the Lord, and they believed the Lord, and Moses his servant.



Exodus Chapter 15



The canticle of Moses. The bitter waters of Mara are made sweet.



15:1. Then Moses and the children of Israel sung this canticle to the Lord, and said: Let us sing to the Lord: for he is gloriously magnified, the horse and the rider he hath thrown into the sea.



15:2. The Lord is my strength and my praise, and he is become salvation to me: he is my God, and I will glorify him: the God of my father, and I will exalt him.



15:3. The Lord is as a man of war, Almighty is his name.



15:4. Pharao's chariots and his army he hath cast into the sea: his chosen captains are drowned in the Red Sea.



15:5. The depths have covered them, they are sunk to the bottom like a stone.



15:6. Thy right hand, O Lord, is magnified in strength: thy right hand, O Lord, hath slain the enemy.



15:7. And in the multitude of thy glory thou hast put down thy adversaries: thou hast sent thy wrath, which hath devoured them like stubble.



15:8. And with the blast of thy anger the waters were gathered together: the flowing water stood, the depths were gathered together in the midst of the sea.



15:9. The enemy said: I will pursue and overtake, I will divide the spoils, my soul shall have its fill: I will draw my sword, my hand shall slay them.



15:10. Thy wind blew and the sea covered them: they sunk as lead in the mighty waters.



15:11. Who is like to thee, among the strong, O Lord? who is like to thee, glorious in holiness, terrible and praise-worthy, doing wonders?



15:12. Thou stretchedst forth thy hand, and the earth swallowed them.



15:13. In thy mercy thou hast been a leader to the people which thou hast redeemed: and in thy strength thou hast carried them to thy holy habitation.



15:14. Nations rose up, and were angry: sorrows took hold on the inhabitants of Philisthiim.



15:15. Then were the princes of Edom troubled, trembling seized on the stout men of Moab: all the inhabitants of Chanaan became stiff.



15:16. Let fear and dread fall upon them, in the greatness of thy arm: let them become immoveable as a stone, until thy people, O Lord, pass by: until this thy people pass by, which thou hast possessed.



15:17. Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of thy inheritance, in thy most firm habitation, which thou hast made, O Lord; thy sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hands have established.



15:18: The Lord shall reign for ever and ever.



15:19. For Pharao went in on horseback with his chariots and horsemen into the sea: and the Lord brought back upon them the waters of the sea: but the children of Israel walked on dry ground in the midst thereof.



15:20. So Mary the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand: and all the women went forth after her with timbrels and with dances.



15:21. And she began the song to them, saying: Let us sing to the Lord, for he is gloriously magnified, the horse and his rider he hath thrown into the sea.



15:22. And Moses brought Israel from the Red Sea, and they went forth into the wilderness of Sur: and they marched three days through the wilderness, and found no water.



15:23. And they came into Mara, and they could not drink the waters of Mara because they were bitter: whereupon he gave a name also agreeable to the place, calling it Mara, that is, bitterness.



15:24. And the people murmured against Moses, saying: What shall we drink?



15:25. But he cried to the Lord, and he shewed him a tree, which when he had cast into the waters, they were turned into sweetness. There he appointed him ordinances, and judgments, and there he proved him,



15:26. Saying: If thou wilt hear the voice of the Lord thy God, and do what is right before him, and obey his commandments, and keep all his precepts, none of the evils that I laid upon Egypt, will I bring upon thee: for I am the Lord thy healer.



15:27. And the children of Israel came into Elim, where there were twelve fountains of water, and seventy palm trees: and they encamped by the waters.



Exodus Chapter 16



The people murmur for want of meat: God giveth them quails and manna.



16:1. And they set forward from Elim, and all the multitude of the children of Israel came into the desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai: the fifteenth day of the second month, after they came out of the land of Egypt.



16:2. And all the congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness.



16:3. And the children of Israel said to them: Would to God we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat over the fleshpots, and ate bread to the full: Why have you brought us into this desert, that you might destroy all the multitude with famine?



16:4. And the Lord said to Moses: Behold I will rain bread from heaven for you; let the people go forth, and gather what is sufficient for every day: that I may prove them whether they will walk in my law, or not.



16:5. But the sixth day let them provide for to bring in: and let it be double to that they were wont to gather every day.



16:6. And Moses and Aaron said to the children of Israel In the evening you shall know that the Lord hath brought you forth out of the land of Egypt:



16:7. And in the morning you shall see the glory of the Lord: for he hath heard your murmuring against the Lord: but as for us, what are we, that you mutter against us?



16:8. And Moses said: In the evening the Lord will give you flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full: for he hath heard your murmurings, with which you have murmured against him, for what are we? your murmuring is not against us, but against the Lord.



16:9. Moses also said to Aaron: Say to the whole congregation of the children of Israel: Come before the Lord; for he hath heard your murmuring.



16:10. And when Aaron spoke to all the assembly of the children of Israel, they looked towards the wilderness; and behold the glory of the Lord appeared in a cloud.



16:11. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



16:12. I have heard the murmuring of the children of Israel, say to them: In the evening you shall eat flesh, and in the morning you shall have your fill of bread; and you shall know that I am the Lord your God.



16:13. So it came to pass in the evening, that quails coming up, covered the camp: and in the morning a dew lay round about the camp.



16:14. And when it had covered the face of the earth, it appeared in the wilderness small, and as it were beaten with a pestle, like unto the hoar frost on the ground.



16:15. And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another: Manhu! which signifieth: What is this! for they knew not what it was. And Moses said to them: This is the bread which the Lord hath given you to eat.



16:16. This is the word that the Lord hath commanded: Let every one gather of it as much as is enough to eat; a gomor for every man, according to the number of your souls that dwell in a tent, so shall you take of it.



16:17. And the children of Israel did so: and they gathered, one more, another less.



16:18: And they measured by the measure of a gomor: neither had he more that had gathered more; nor did he find less that had provided less: but every one had gathered, according to what they were able to eat.



16:19. And Moses said to them: Let no man leave thereof till the morning.



16:20. And they hearkened not to him, but some of them left until the morning, and it began to be full of worms, and it putrified, and Moses was angry with them.



16:21. Now every one of them gathered in the morning, as much as might suffice to eat: and after the sun grew hot, it melted.



16:22. But on the sixth day they gathered twice as much, that is, two gomors every man: and all the rulers of the multitude came, and told Moses.



16:23. And he said to them: This is what the Lord hath spoken: To morrow is the rest of the sabbath sanctified to the Lord. Whatsoever work is to be done, do it; and the meats that are to be dressed, dress them; and whatsoever shall remain, lay it up until the morning.



16:24. And they did so as Moses had commanded, and it did not putrify, neither was there worm found in it.



16:25. And Moses said: Eat it to day, because it is the sabbath of the Lord: to day it shall not be found in the field.



16:26. Gather it six days; but on the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord, therefore it shall not be found.



16:27. And the seventh day came; and some of the people going forth to gather, found none.



16:28. And the Lord said to Moses: How long will you refuse to keep my commandments, and my law?



16:29. See that the Lord hath given you the sabbath, and for this reason on the sixth day he giveth you a double provision: let each man stay at home, and let none go forth out of his place the seventh day.



16:30. And the people kept the sabbath on the seventh day.



16:31. And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like coriander seed, white, and the taste thereof like to flour with honey.



16:32. And Moses said: This is the word which the Lord hath commanded: Fill a gomor of it, and let it be kept unto generations to come hereafter; that they may know the bread, wherewith I fed you in the wilderness when you were brought forth out of the land of Egypt.



16:33. And Moses said to Aaron: Take a vessel, and put manna into it, as much as a gomor can hold; and lay it up before the Lord, to keep unto your generations,



16:34. As the Lord commanded Moses. And Aaron put it in the tabernacle to be kept.



16:35. And the children of Israel ate manna forty years, till they came to a habitable land: with this meat were they fed, until they reached the borders of the land of Chanaan.



16:36. Now a gomor is the tenth part of an ephi.



Exodus Chapter 17



The people murmur again for want of drink; the Lord giveth them water out of a rock. Moses lifting up his hand in prayer, Amalec is overcome.



17:1. Then all the multitude of the children of Israel setting forward from the desert of Sin, by their mansions, according to the word of the Lord, encamped in Raphidim, where there was no water for the people to drink.



17:2. And they chode with Moses, and said: Give us water, that we may drink. And Moses answered them: Why chide you with me? Wherefore do you tempt the Lord?



17:3. So the people were thirsty there for want of water, and murmured against Moses, saying: Why didst thou make us go forth out of Egypt, to kill us and our children, and our beasts with thirst?



17:4. And Moses cried to the Lord, saying: What shall I do to this people? Yet a little more and they will stone me.



17:5. And the Lord said to Moses: Go before the people, and take with thee of the ancients of Israel: and take in thy hand the rod wherewith thou didst strike the river, and go.



17:6. Behold I will stand there before thee, upon the rock Horeb, and thou shalt strike the rock, and water shall come out of it that the people may drink. Moses did so before the ancients of Israel:



17:7. And he called the name of that place Temptation, because of the chiding of the children of Israel, and for that they tempted the Lord, saying: Is the Lord amongst us or not?



17:8. And Amalec came, and fought against Israel in Raphidim.



17:9. And Moses said to Josue: Choose out men; and go out and fight against Amalec: tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill, having the rod of God in my hand.



17:10. Josue did as Moses had spoken, and he fought against Amalec; but Moses, and Aaron, and Hur, went up upon the top of the hill.



17:11. And when Moses lifted up his hands, Israel overcame; but if he let them down a little, Amalec overcame.



17:12. And Moses's hands were heavy: so they took a stone, and put under him, and he sat on it: and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands on both sides. And it came to pass, that his hands were not weary until sunset.



17:13. And Josue put Amalec and his people to flight, by the edge of the sword.



17:14. And the Lord said to Moses: Write this for a memorial in a book, and deliver it to the ears of Josue; for I will destroy the memory of Amalec from under heaven.



17:15. And Moses built an altar; and called the name thereof, The Lord, my exaltation, saying:



17:16. Because the hand of the throne of the Lord, and the war of the Lord shall be against Amalec, from generation to generation.



Exodus Chapter 18



Jethro bringeth to Moses his wife and children. His counsel.



18:1. And when Jethro the priest of Madian, the kinsman of Moses, had heard all the things that God had done to Moses, and to Israel his people, and that the Lord had brought forth Israel out of Egypt:



18:2. He took Sephora, the wife of Moses, whom he had sent back:



18:3. And her two sons, of whom one was called Gersam: his father saying, I have been a stranger in a foreign country.



18:4. And the other Eliezer: For the God of my father, said he, is my helper, and hath delivered me from the sword of Pharao.



18:5. And Jethro, the kinsman of Moses, came with his sons, and his wife to Moses into the desert, where he was camped by the mountain of God.



18:6. And he sent word to Moses, saying: I Jethro, thy kinsman, come to thee, and thy wife, and thy two sons with her.



18:7. And he went out to meet his kinsman, and worshipped and kissed him: and they saluted one another with words of peace. And when he was come into the tent,



18:8. Moses told his kinsman all that the Lord had done to Pharao, and the Egyptians in favour of Israel: and all the labour which had befallen them in the journey, and that the Lord had delivered them.



18:9. And Jethro rejoiced for all the good things that the Lord had done to Israel, because he had delivered them out of the hands of the Egyptians.



18:10. And he said: Blessed is the Lord, who hath delivered his people out of the hand of Egypt.



18:11. Now I know, that the Lord is great above all gods; because they dealt proudly against them.



18:12. So Jethro, the kinsman of Moses, offered holocausts and sacrifices to God: and Aaron and all the ancients of Israel came, to eat bread with him before God.



18:13. And the next day Moses sat to judge the people, who stood by Moses from morning until night.



18:14. And when his kinsman had seen all things that he did among the people, he said: What is it that thou dost among the people? Why sittest thou alone, and all the people wait from morning till night?



18:15. And Moses answered him: The people come to me to seek the judgment of God?



18:16. And when any controversy falleth out among them, they come to me to judge between them, and to shew the precepts of God, and his laws.



18:17. But he said: The thing thou dost is not good.



18:18: Thou art spent with foolish labour, both thou, and this people that is with thee; the business is above thy strength, thou alone canst not bear it.



18:19. But hear my words and counsels, and God shall be with thee. Be thou to the people in those things that pertain to God, to bring their words to him:



18:20. And to shew the people the ceremonies, and the manner of worshipping; and the way wherein they ought to walk, and the work that they ought to do.



18:21. And provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, in whom there is truth, and that hate avarice, and appoint of them rulers of thousands, and of hundreds, and of fifties, and of tens,



18:22. Who may judge the people at all times: and when any great matter soever shall fall out, let them refer it to thee, and let them judge the lesser matters only: that so it may be lighter for thee, the burden being shared out unto others.



18:23. If thou dost this, thou shalt fulfil the commandment of God, and shalt be able to bear his precepts: and all this people shall return to their places with peace.



18:24. And when Moses heard this, he did all things that he had suggested unto him.



18:25. And choosing able men out of all Israel, he appointed them rulers of the people, rulers over thousands, and over hundreds, and over fifties, and over tens.



18:26. And they judged the people at all times: and whatsoever was of greater difficulty they referred to him, and they judged the easier cases only.



18:27. And he let his kinsman depart: and he returned and went into his own country.



Exodus Chapter 19



They come to Sinai: the people are commanded to be sanctified. The Lord, coming in thunder and lightning, speaketh with Moses.



19:1. In the third month of the departure of Israel out of the land of Egypt, on this day they came into the wilderness of Sinai:



19:2. For departing out of Raphidim, and coming to the desert of Sinai, they camped in the same place, and there Israel pitched their tents over against the mountain.



19:3. And Moses went up to God; and the Lord called unto him from the mountain, and said: Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:



And Moses went up to God. . .Moses went up to mount Sinai, where God spoke to him.



19:4. You have seen what I have done to the Egyptians, how I have carried you upon the wings of eagles, and have taken you to myself.



19:5. If therefore you will hear my voice, and keep my covenant, you shall be my peculiar possession above all people: for all the earth is mine.



19:6. And you shall be to me a priestly kingdom, and a holy nation. These are the words thou shalt speak to the children of Israel.



19:7. Moses came; and calling together the elders of the people, he declared all the words which the Lord had commanded.



19:8. And all the people answered together: All that the Lord hath spoken, we will do. And when Moses had related the people's words to the Lord,



19:9. The Lord said to him: Lo, now will I come to thee in the darkness of a cloud, that the people may hear me speaking to thee, and may believe thee for ever. And Moses told the words of the people to the Lord.



19:10. And he said to him: Go to the people, and sanctify them to day, and to morrow, and let them wash their garments.



19:11. And let them be ready against the third day; for on the third day the Lord will come down in the sight of all the people, upon Mount Sinai.



19:12. And thou shalt appoint certain limits to the people round about, and thou shalt say to them: Take heed ye go not up into the mount, and that ye touch not the borders thereof: every one that toucheth the mount, dying he shall die.



19:13. No hands shall touch him, but he shall be stoned to death, or he shall be shot through with arrows: whether it be beast, or man, he shall not live. When the trumpet shall begin to sound, then let them go up into the mount.



19:14. And Moses came down from the mount to the people, and sanctified them. And when they had washed their garments,



19:15. He said to them: Be ready against the third day, and come not near your wives.



19:16. And now the third day was come, and the morning appeared: and behold thunders began to be heard, and lightning to flash, and a very thick cloud to cover the mount, and the noise of the trumpet sounded exceeding loud; and the people that was in the camp, feared.



19:17. And when Moses had brought them forth to meet God, from the place of the camp, they stood at the bottom of the mount.



19:18. And all Mount Sinai was on a smoke: because the Lord was come down upon it in fire, and the smoke arose from it as out of a furnace: and all the mount was terrible.



19:19. And the sound of the trumpet grew by degrees louder and louder, and was drawn out to a greater length: Moses spoke, and God answered him.



19:20. And the Lord came down upon Mount Sinai, in the very top of the mount, and he called Moses unto the top thereof. And when he was gone up thither,



19:21. He said unto him: Go down, and charge the people; lest they should have a mind to pass the limits to see the Lord, and a very great multitude of them should perish.



19:22. The priests also that come to the Lord, let them be sanctified, lest he strike them.



19:23. And Moses said to the Lord: The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai: for thou didst charge, and command, saying: Set limits about the mount, and sanctify it.



19:24. And the Lord said to him: Go, get thee down; and thou shalt come up, thou and Aaron with thee: but let not the priests and the people pass the limits, nor come up to the Lord, lest he kill them.



19:25. And Moses went down to the people and told them all.







Exodus Chapter 20



The ten commandments.



20:1. And the Lord spoke all these words:



20:2. I am the Lord thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.



20:3. Thou shalt not have strange gods before me.



20:4. Thou shalt not make to thyself a graven thing, nor the likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or in the earth beneath, nor of those things that are in the waters under the earth.



A graven thing, nor the likeness of any thing, etc. . .All such images, or likenesses, are forbidden by this commandment, as are made to be adored and served; according to that which immediately follows, thou shalt not adore them, nor serve them. That is, all such as are designed for idols or image-gods, or are worshipped with divine honour. But otherwise images, pictures, or representations, even in the house of God, and in the very sanctuary so far from being forbidden, are expressly authorized by the word of God. See Ex. 25.15, and etc.; chap. 38.7; Num. 21.8, 9; 1 Chron. or Paralip. 28.18, 19; 2 Chron. or Paralip. 3.10.



20:5. Thou shalt not adore them, nor serve them: I am the Lord thy God, mighty, jealous, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me:



20:6. And shewing mercy unto thousands to them that love me, and keep my commandments.



20:7. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that shall take the name of the Lord his God in vain.



20:8. Remember that thou keep holy the sabbath day.



20:9. Six days shalt thou labour, and shalt do all thy works.



20:10. But on the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: thou shalt do no work on it, thou nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy beast, nor the stranger that is within thy gates.



20:11. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them, and rested on the seventh day: therefore the Lord blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it.



20:12. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thou mayst be longlived upon the land which the Lord thy God will give thee.



20:13. Thou shalt not kill.



20:14. Thou shalt not commit adultery.



20:15. Thou shalt not steal.



20:16. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.



20:17. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house; neither shalt thou desire his wife, nor his servant, nor his handmaid, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is his.



20:18. And all the people saw the voices and the flames, and the sound of the trumpet, and the mount smoking; and being terrified and struck with fear, they stood afar off,



20:19. Saying to Moses: Speak thou to us, and we will hear: let not the Lord speak to us, lest we die.



20:20. And Moses said to the people: Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that the dread of him might be in you, and you should not sin.



20:21. And the people stood afar off. But Moses went to the dark cloud wherein God was.



20:22. And the Lord said to Moses: Thus shalt thou say to the children of Israel: You have seen that I have spoken to you from heaven.



20:23. You shall not make gods of silver, nor shall you make to yourselves gods of gold.



20:24. You shall make an altar of earth unto me, and you shall offer upon it your holocausts and peace offerings, your sheep and oxen, in every place where the memory of my name shall be: I will come to thee, and will bless thee.



20:25. And if thou make an altar of stone unto me, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones; for if thou lift up a tool upon it, it shall be defiled.



20:26. Thou shalt not go up by steps unto my altar, lest thy nakedness be discovered.



Exodus Chapter 21



Laws relating to Justice.



21:1. These are the judgments which thou shalt set before them.



21:2. If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years shall he serve thee; in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing.



21:3. With what raiment he came in, with the like let him go out: if having a wife, his wife also shall go out with him.



21:4. But if his master gave him a wife, and she hath borne sons and daughters; the woman and her children shall be her master's: but he himself shall go out with his raiment.



21:5. And if the servant shall say: I love my master and my wife and children, I will not go out free:



21:6. His master shall bring him to the gods, and he shall be set to the door and the posts, and he shall bore his ear through with an awl: and he shall be his servant for ever.



To the gods. . .Elohim. That is, to the judges, or magistrates, authorized by God.



21:7. If any man sell his daughter to be a servant, she shall not go out as bondwomen are wont to go out.



21:8. If she displease the eyes of her master to whom she was delivered, he shall let her go: but he shall have no power to sell her to a foreign nation, if he despise her.



21:9. But if he have betrothed her to his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters.



21:10. And if he take another wife for him, he shall provide her a marriage, and raiment, neither shall he refuse the price of her chastity.



21:11. If he do not these three things, she shall go out free without money.



21:12. He that striketh a man with a will to kill him, shall be put to death.



21:13. But he that did not lie in wait for him, but God delivered him into his hands: I will appoint thee a place to which he must flee.



21:14. If a man kill his neighbour on set purpose, and by lying in wait for him: thou shalt take him away from my altar that he may die.



21:15. He that striketh his father or mother, shall be put to death.



21:16. He that shall steal a man, and sell him, being convicted of the guilt, shall be put to death.



21:17. He that curseth his father or mother, shall die the death.



21:18. If men quarrel, and the one strike his neighbour with a stone, or with his fist, and he die not, but keepeth his bed:



21:19. If he rise again and walk abroad upon his staff, he that struck him shall be quit, yet so that he make restitution for his work, and for his expenses upon the physicians.



21:20. He that striketh his bondman, or bondwoman, with a rod, and they die under his hands, shall be guilty of the crime.



21:21. But if the party remain alive a day or two, he shall not be subject to the punishment, because it is his money.



21:22. If men quarrel, and one strike a woman with child and she miscarry indeed, but live herself: he shall be answerable for so much damage as the woman's husband shall require, and as arbiters shall award.



21:23. But if her death ensue thereupon, he shall render life for life,



21:24. Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,



21:25. Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.



21:26. If any man strike the eye of his manservant or maidservant, and leave them but one eye, he shall let them go free for the eye which he put out.



21:27. Also if he strike out a tooth of his manservant or maidservant, he shall in like manner make them free.



21:28. If an ox gore a man or a woman, and they die, he shall be stoned: and his flesh shall not be eaten, but the owner of the ox shall be quit.



21:29. But if the ox was wont to push with his horn yesterday, and the day before, and they warned his master, and he did not shut him up, and he shall kill a man or a woman: then the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death.



21:30. And if they set a price upon him, he shall give for his life whatsoever is laid upon him.



21:31. If he have gored a son, or a daughter, he shall fall under the like sentence.



21:32. If he assault a bondman or bondwoman, he shall give thirty sicles of silver to their master, and the ox shall be stoned.



21:33. If a man open a pit, and dig one, and cover it not, and an ox or an ass fall into it,



21:34. The owner of the pit shall pay the price of the beasts: and that which is dead shall be his own.



21:35. If one man's ox gore another man's ox, and he die: they shall sell the live ox, and shall divide the price, and the carcass of that which died they shall part between them:



21:36. But if he knew that his ox was wont to push yesterday, and the day before, and his master did not keep him in; he shall pay ox for ox, and shall take the whole carcass.



Exodus Chapter 22



The punishment of theft, and other trespasses. The law of lending without usury, of taking pledges of reverences to superiors, and of paying tithes.



22:1. If any man steal an ox or a sheep, and kill or sell it: he shall restore five oxen for one ox, and four sheep for one sheep.



22:2. If a thief be found breaking open a house or undermining it, and be wounded so as to die: he that slew him shall not be guilty of blood.



22:3. But if he did this when the sun is risen, he hath committed murder, and he shall die. If he have not wherewith to make restitution for the theft, he shall be sold.



22:4. If that which he stole be found with him, alive, either ox, or ass, or sheep: he shall restore double.



22:5. If any man hurt a field or a vineyard, and put in his beast to feed upon that which is other men's: he shall restore the best of whatsoever he hath in his own field, or in his vineyard, according to the estimation of the damage.



22:6. If a fire breaking out light upon thorns, and catch stacks of corn, or corn standing in the fields, he that kindled the fire shall make good the loss.



22:7. If a man deliver money, or any vessel unto his friend to keep, and they be stolen away from him that received them: if the thief be found, he shall restore double:



22:8. If the thief be not known, the master of the house shall be brought to the gods, and shall swear that he did not lay his hand upon his neighbour's goods,



22:9. To do any fraud, either in ox, or in ass, or sheep, or raiment, or any thing that may bring damage: the cause of both parties shall come to the gods: and if they give judgment, he shall restore double to his neighbour.



22:10. If a man deliver ass, ox, sheep, or any beast, to his neighbour's custody, and it die, or be hurt, or be taken by enemies, and no man saw it:



22:11. There shall be an oath between them, that he did not put forth his hand to his neighbour's goods: and the owner shall accept of the oath, and he shall not be compelled to make restitution.



22:12. But if it were taken away by stealth, he shall make the loss good to the owner.



22:13. If it were eaten by a beast, let him bring to him that which was slain, and he shall not make restitution.



22:14. If a man borrow of his neighbour any of these things, and it be hurt or die, the owner not being present, he shall be obliged to make restitution.



22:15. But if the owner be present, he shall not make restitution, especially if it were hired, and came for the hire of his work.



22:16. If a man seduce a virgin not yet espoused, and lie with her: he shall endow her, and have her to wife.



22:17. If the maid's father will not give her to him, he shall give money according to the dowry, which virgins are wont to receive.



22:18. Wizards thou shalt not suffer to live.



22:19. Whosoever copulateth with a beast; shall be put to death.



22:20. He that sacrificeth to gods, shall be put to death, save only to the Lord.



22:21. Thou shalt not molest a stranger, nor afflict him: for yourselves also were strangers in the land of Egypt.



22:22. You shall not hurt a widow or an orphan.



22:23. If you hurt them, they will cry out to me, and I will hear their cry:



22:24. And my rage shall be enkindled, and I will strike you with the sword, and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.



22:25. If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor, that dwelleth with thee, thou shalt not be hard upon them as an extortioner, nor oppress them with usuries.



22:26. If thou take of thy neighbour a garment in pledge, thou shalt give it him again before sunset.



22:27. For that same is the only thing, wherewith he is covered, the clothing of his body, neither hath he any other to sleep in: if he cry to me, I will hear him, because I am compassionate.



22:28. Thou shalt not speak ill of the gods, and the prince of thy people thou shalt not curse.



22:29. Thou shalt not delay to pay thy tithes and thy firstfruits: thou shalt give the firstborn of thy sons to me.



22:30. Thou shalt do the same with the firstborn of thy oxen also and sheep: seven days let it be with its dam: the eighth day thou shalt give it to me.



22:31. You shall be holy men to me: the flesh that beasts have tasted of before, you shall not eat, but shall cast it to the dogs.



Exodus Chapter 23



Laws for judges; the rest of the seventh year, and day: three principal feasts to be solemnized every year; the promise of an angel, to conduct and protect them: idols are to be destroyed.



23:1. Thou shalt not receive the voice of a lie: neither shalt thou join thy hand to bear false witness for a wicked person.



23:2. Thou shalt not follow the multitude to do evil: neither shalt thou yield in judgment, to the opinion of the most part, to stray from the truth.



23:3. Neither shalt thou favour a poor man in judgment.



23:4. If thou meet thy enemy's ox or ass going astray, bring it back to him.



23:5. If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lie underneath his burden, thou shalt not pass by, but shalt lift him up with him.



23:6. Thou shalt not go aside in the poor man's judgment.



23:7. Thou shalt fly lying. The innocent and just person thou shalt not put to death: because I abhor the wicked.



23:8. Neither shalt thou take bribes, which even blind the wise, and pervert the words of the just.



23:9. Thou shalt not molest a stranger, for you know the hearts of strangers: for you also were strangers in the land of Egypt.



23:10. Six years thou shalt sow thy ground, and shalt gather the corn thereof.



23:11. But the seventh year thou shalt let it alone, and suffer it to rest, that the poor of thy people may eat, and whatsoever shall be left, let the beasts of the field eat it: so shalt thou do with thy vineyard and thy oliveyard.



23:12. Six days thou shalt work: the seventh day thou shalt cease, that thy ox and thy ass may rest: and the son of thy handmaid and the stranger may be refreshed.



23:13. Keep all things that I have said to you. And by the name of strange gods you shall not swear, neither shall it be heard out of your mouth.



23:14. Three times every year you shall celebrate feasts to me.



23:15. Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread. Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time of the month of new corn, when thou didst come forth out of Egypt: thou shalt not appear empty before me.



23:16. And the feast of the harvest of the firstfruits of thy work, whatsoever thou hast sown in the field. The feast also in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in all thy corn out of the field.



23:17. Thrice a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God.



23:18. Thou shalt not sacrifice the blood of my victim upon leaven, neither shall the fat of my solemnity remain until the morning.



23:19. Thou shalt carry the first-fruits of the corn of thy ground to the house of the Lord thy God. Thou shalt not boil a kid in the milk of his dam.



23:20. Behold I will send my angel, who shall go before thee, and keep thee in thy journey, and bring thee into the place that I have prepared.



23:21. Take notice of him, and hear his voice, and do not think him one to be contemned: for he will not forgive when thou hast sinned, and my name is in him.



23:22. But if thou wilt hear hi voice, and do all that I speak, I will be an enemy to thy enemies, and will afflict them that afflict thee.



23:23. And my angel shall go before thee, and shall bring thee in unto the Amorrhite, and the Hethite, and the Pherexite, and the Chanaanite, and the Hevite, and the Jebuzite, whom I will destroy.



23:24. Thou shalt not adore their gods, nor serve them. Thou shalt not do their works, but shalt destroy them, and break their statues.



23:25. And you shall serve the Lord your God, that I may bless your bread and your waters, and may take away sickness from the midst of thee.



23:26. There shall not be one fruitless nor barren in thy land: I will fill the number of thy days.



23:27. I will send my fear before thee, and will destroy all the people to whom thou shalt come: and will turn the backs of all thy enemies before thee:



23:28. Sending out hornets before, that shall drive away the Hevite, and the Chanaanite, and the Hethite, before thou come in.



23:29. I will not cast them out from thy face in one year; lest the land be brought into a wilderness, and the beasts multiply against thee.



23:30. By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, till thou be increased, and dost possess the land.



23:31. And I will set thy bounds from the Red Sea to the sea of the Palestines, and from the desert to the river: I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hands, and will drive them out from before you.



23:32. Thou shalt not enter into league with them, nor with their gods.



23:33. Let them not dwell in thy land, lest perhaps they make thee sin against me, if thou serve their gods; which, undoubtedly, will be a scandal to thee.



Exodus Chapter 24



Moses writeth his law; and after offering sacrifices, sprinkleth the blood of the testament upon the people: then goeth up the mountain which God covereth with a fiery cloud.



24:1. And he said to Moses: Come up to the Lord, thou, and Aaron, Nadab and Abiu, and seventy of the ancients of Israel, and you shall adore afar off.



24:2. And Moses alone shall come up to the Lord, but they shall not come nigh; neither shall the people come up with him.



24:3. So Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice: We will do all the words of the Lord, which he hath spoken.



24:4. And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord: and rising in the morning, he built an altar at the foot of the mount, and twelve titles according to the twelve tribes of Israel.



Titles. . .That is, pillars.



24:5. And he sent young men of the children of Israel, and they offered holocausts, and sacrificed pacific victims of calves to the Lord.



Holocausts. . .Whole burnt offerings, in which the whole sacrifice was consumed with fire upon the altar.



24:6. Then Moses took half of the blood, and put it into bowls; and the rest he poured upon the altar.



24:7. And taking the book of the covenant, he read it in the hearing of the people: and they said: All things that the Lord hath spoken, we will do, we will be obedient.



24:8. And he took the blood and sprinkled it upon the people, and he said: This is the blood of the covenant, which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words.



24:9. Then Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abiu, and seventy of the ancients of Israel went up:



24:10. And they saw the God of Israel: and under his feet as it were a work of sapphire stone, and as the heaven, when clear.



24:11. Neither did he lay his hand upon those of the children of Israel, that retired afar off, and they saw God, and they did eat and drink.



24:12. And the Lord said to Moses: Come up to me into the mount, and be there; and I will give thee tables of stone, and the law, and the commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them.



24:13. Moses rose up, and his minister Josue: and Moses going up into the mount of God,



24:14. Said to the ancients: Wait ye here till we return to you. You have Aaron and Hur with you: if any question shall arise, you shall refer it to them.



24:15. And when Moses was gone up, a cloud covered the mount.



24:16. And the glory of the Lord dwelt upon Sinai, covering it with a cloud six days: and the seventh day he called him out of the midst of the cloud.



24:17. And the sight of the glory of the Lord, was like a burning fire upon the top of the mount, in the eyes of the children of Israel.



24:18. And Moses entering into the midst of the cloud, went up into the mountain: And he was there forty days and forty nights.



Exodus Chapter 25



Offerings prescribed for making the tabernacle, the ark, the candlestick, etc.



25:1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



25:2. Speak to the children of Israel, that they bring firstfruits to me: of every man that offereth of his own accord, you shall take them.



Firstfruits. . .Offerings of some of the best and choicest of their goods.



25:3. And these are the things you must take: Gold, and silver, and brass,



25:4. Violet and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine linen, and goats' hair,



25:5. And rams' skins dyed red, and violet skins, and setim wood:



Setim wood. . .The wood of a tree that grows in the wilderness, which is said to be incorruptible.



25:6. Oil to make lights: spices for ointment, and for sweetsmelling incense:



25:7. Onyx stones, and precious stones to adorn the ephod and the rational.



The ephod and the rational. . .The ephod was the high priest's upper vestment; and the rational his breastplate, in which were twelve gems, etc.



25:8. And they shall make me a sanctuary, and I will dwell in the midst of them:



25:9. According to all the likeness of the tabernacle which I will shew thee, and of all the vessels for the service thereof: and thus you shall make it:



25:10. Frame an ark of setim wood, the length whereof shall be of two cubits and a half; the breadth, a cubit and a half; the height, likewise, a cubit and a half.



25:11. And thou shalt overlay it with the purest gold, within and without; and over it thou shalt make a golden crown round about:



25:12. And four golden rings, which thou shalt put at the four corners of the ark: let two rings be on the one side, and two on the other.



25:13. Thou shalt make bars also of setim wood, and shalt overlay them with gold.



25:14. And thou shalt put them in through the rings that are in the sides of the ark, that it may be carried on them:



25:15. And they shall be always in the rings, neither shall they at any time be drawn out of them.



25:16. And thou shalt put in the ark the testimony which I will give thee.



25:17. Thou shalt make also a propitiatory of the purest gold: the length thereof shall be two cubits and a half, and the breadth a cubit and a half.



A propitiatory. . .a covering for the ark: called a propitiatory, or mercy seat, because the Lord, who was supposed to sit there upon the wings of the cherubims, with the ark for his footstool, from thence shewed mercy. It is also called the oracle, ver. 18 and 20; because from thence God gave his orders and his answers.



25:18. Thou shalt make also two cherubims of beaten gold, on the two sides of the oracle.



25:19. Let one cherub be on the one side, and the other on the other.



25:20. Let them cover both sides of the propitiatory, spreading their wings, and covering the oracle, and let them look one towards the other, their faces being turned towards the propitiatory wherewith the ark is to be covered.



25:21. In which thou shalt put the testimony that I will give thee.



25:22. Thence will I give orders, and will speak to thee over the propitiatory, and from the midst of the two cherubims, which shall be upon the ark of the testimony, all things which I will command the children of Israel by thee.



25:23. Thou shalt make a table also of setim wood, of two cubits in length, and a cubit in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height.



A table. . .On which were to be placed the twelve loaves of proposition: or, as they are called in the Hebrew, the face bread, because they were always to stand before the face of the Lord in his temple: as a figure of the eucharistic sacrifice and sacrament, in the church of Christ.



25:24. And thou shalt overlay it with the purest gold: and thou shalt make to it a golden ledge round about.



25:25. And to the ledge itself a polished crown, four inches high; and over the same another little golden crown.



25:26. Thou shalt prepare also four golden rings, and shalt put them in the four corners of the same table, over each foot.



25:27. Under the crown shall the golden rings be, that the bars may be put through them, and the table may be carried.



25:28. The bars also themselves thou shalt make of setim wood, and shalt overlay them with gold, to bear up the table.



25:29. Thou shalt prepare also dishes, and bowls, censers, and cups, wherein the libations are to be offered, of the purest gold.



Libations. . .That is, drink offerings.



25:30. And thou shalt set upon the table loaves of proposition in my sight always.



25:31. Thou shalt make also a candlestick of beaten work, of the finest gold, the shaft thereof, and the branches, the cups, and the bowls, and the lilies going forth from it.



A candlestick. . .This candlestick, with its seven lamps, which was always to give light in the house of God, was a figure of the light of the Holy Ghost, and his sevenfold grace, in the sanctuary of the church of Christ.



25:32. Six branches shall come out of the sides, three out of one side, and three out of the other.



25:33. Three cups as it were nuts to every branch, and a bowl withal, and a lily: and three cups likewise of the fashion of nuts in the other branch, and a bowl withal, and a lily. Such shall be the work of the six branches, that are to come out from the shaft:



25:34. And in the candlestick itself shall be four cups in the manner of a nut, and at every one bowls and lilies.



25:35. Bowls under two branches in three places, which together make six, coming forth out of one shaft.



25:36. And both the bowls and the branches shall be of the same beaten work of the purest gold.



25:37. Thou shalt make also seven lamps, and shalt set them upon the candlestick, to give light over against.



25:38. The snuffers also, and where the snuffings shall be put out, shall be made of the purest gold.



25:39. The whole weight of the candlestick, with all the furniture thereof, shall be a talent of the purest gold.



25:40. Look, and make it according to the pattern that was shewn thee in the mount.



Exodus Chapter 26



The form of the tabernacle with its appurtenances.



26:1. And thou shalt make the tabernacle in this manner: Thou shalt make ten curtains of fine twisted linen, and violet and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, diversified with embroidery.



26:2. The length of one curtain shall be twenty-eight cubits; the breadth shall be four cubits. All the curtains shall be of one measure.



26:3. Five curtains shall be joined one to another, and the other five shall be coupled together in like manner.



26:4. Thou shalt make loops of violet in the sides and tops of the curtains, that they may be joined one to another.



26:5. Every curtain shall have fifty loops on both sides, so set on, that one loop may be against another loop, and one may be fitted to the other.



26:6. Thou shalt make also fifty rings of gold, wherewith the veils of the curtains are to be joined, that it may be made one tabernacle.



26:7. Thou shalt make also eleven curtains of goats' hair, to cover the top of the tabernacle.



26:8. The length of one hair-curtain shall be thirty cubits; and the breadth, four: the measure of all the curtains shall be equal.



26:9. Five of which thou shalt couple by themselves, and the six others thou shalt couple one to another, so as to double the sixth curtain in the front of the roof.



26:10. Thou shalt make also fifty loops in the edge of one curtain, that it may be joined with the other: and fifty loops in the edge of the other curtain, that it may be coupled with its fellow.



26:11. Thou shalt make also fifty buckles of brass, wherewith the loops may be joined, that of all there may be made one covering.



26:12. And that which shall remain of the curtains, that are prepared for the roof, to wit, one curtain that is over and above, with the half thereof thou shalt cover the back parts of the tabernacle.



26:13. And there shall hang down a cubit on the one side, and another on the other side, which is over and above in the length of the curtains, fencing both sides of the tabernacle.



26:14. Thou shalt make also another cover to the roof of rams' skins dyed red: and over that again another cover of violet coloured skins.



26:15. Thou shalt make also the boards of the tabernacle standing upright of setim wood.



26:16. Let every one of them be ten cubits in length, and in breadth one cubit and a half.



26:17. In the sides of the boards shall be made two mortises, whereby one board may be joined to another board: and after this manner shall all the boards be prepared.



26:18. Of which twenty shall be in the south side southward.



26:19. For which thou shalt cast forty sockets of silver, that under every board may be put two sockets at the two corners.



26:20. In the second side also of the tabernacle that looketh to the north, there shall be twenty boards,



26:21. Having forty sockets of silver, two sockets shall be put under each board.



26:22. But on the west side of the tabernacle thou shalt make six boards.



26:23. And again other two which shall be erected in the corners at the back of the tabernacle.



26:24. And they shall be joined together from beneath unto the top, and one joint shall hold them all. The like joining shall be observed for the two boards also that are to be put in the corners.



26:25. And they shall be in all eight boards, and their silver sockets sixteen, reckoning two sockets for each board.



26:26. Thou shalt make also five bars of setim wood, to hold together the boards on one side of the tabernacle.



26:27. And five others on the other side, and as many at the west side:



26:28. And they shall be put along by the midst of the boards, from one end to the other.



26:29. The boards also themselves thou shalt overlay with gold, and shalt cast rings of gold to be set upon them, for places for the bars to hold together the boardwork: which bars thou shalt cover with plates of gold.



26:30. And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle according to the pattern that was shewn thee in the mount.



26:31. Thou shalt make also a veil of violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine twisted linen, wrought with embroidered work and goodly variety:



26:32. And thou shalt hang it up before four pillars of setim wood, which themselves also shall be overlaid with gold, and shall have heads of gold, but sockets of silver.



26:33. And the veil shall be hanged on with rings, and within it thou shalt put the ark of the testimony, and the sanctuary and the holy of the holies shall be divided with it.



The sanctuary, etc. . .That part of the tabernacle, which was without the veil, into which the priests daily entered, is here called the sanctuary, or holy place; that part which was within the veil, into which no one but the high priest ever went, and he but once a year, is called the holy of holies, (literally, the sanctuary of the sanctuaries,) as being the most holy of all holy places.



26:34. And thou shalt set the propitiatory upon the ark of the testimony, in the holy of holies.



26:35. And the table without the veil, and over against the table the candlestick in the south side of the tabernacle: for the table shall stand in the north side.



26:36. Thou shalt make also a hanging in the entrance of the tabernacle of violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine twisted linen with embroidered work.



26:37. And thou shalt overlay with gold five pillars of setim wood, before which the hanging shall be drawn: their heads shall be of gold, and the sockets of brass.



Exodus Chapter 27



The altar; and the court of the tabernacle with its hangings and pillars. Provision of oil for lamps.



27:1. Thou shalt make also an altar of setim wood, which shall be five cubits long, and as many broad, that is four square, and three cubits high.



27:2. And there shall be horns at the four corners of the same: and thou shalt cover it with brass.



27:3. And thou shalt make for the uses thereof pans to receive the ashes, and tongs and fleshhooks, and firepans: all its vessels thou shalt make of brass.



27:4. And a grate of brass in manner of a net; at the four corners of which, shall be four rings of brass,



27:5. Which thou shalt put under the hearth of the altar: and the grate shall be even to the midst of the altar.



27:6. Thou shalt make also two bars for the altar, of setim wood, which thou shalt cover with plates of brass:



27:7. And thou shalt draw them through rings, and they shall be on both sides of the altar to carry it.



27:8. Thou shalt not make it solid, but empty and hollow in the inside, as it was shewn thee in the mount.



27:9. Thou shalt make also the court of the tabernacle, in the south side whereof southward there shall be hangings of fine twisted linen of a hundred cubits long for one side.



27:10. And twenty pillars with as many sockets of brass, the heads of which, with their engraving, shall be of silver.



27:11. In like manner also on the north side there shall be hangings of a hundred cubits long, twenty pillars, and as many sockets of brass, and their heads with their engraving of silver.



27:12. But in the breadth of the court, that looketh to the west, there shall be hangings of fifty cubits, and ten pillars, and as many sockets.



27:13. In that breadth also of the court, which looketh to the east, there shall be fifty cubits.



27:14. In which there shall be for one side, hangings of fifteen cubits, and three pillars, and as many sockets.



27:15. And in the other side, there shall be hangings of fifteen cubits, with three pillars, and as many sockets.



27:16. And in the entrance of the court there shall be made a hanging of twenty cubits of violet and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine twisted linen, with embroidered work: it shall have four pillars, with as many sockets.



27:17. All the pillars of the court round about shall be garnished with plates of silver, silver heads, and sockets of brass.



27:18. In length the court shall take up a hundred cubits, in breadth fifty, the height shall be of five cubits, and it shall be made of fine twisted linen, and shall have sockets of brass.



27:19. All the vessels of the tabernacle for all uses and ceremonies, and the pins both of it and of the court, thou shalt make of brass.



27:20. Command the children of Israel that they bring thee the purest oil of the olives, and beaten with a pestle: that a lamp may burn always,



27:21. In the tabernacle of the testimony, without the veil that hangs before the testimony. And Aaron and his sons shall order it, that it may give light before the Lord until the morning. It shall be a perpetual observance throughout their successions among the children of Israel.



Exodus Chapter 28



The holy vestments for Aaron and his sons.



28:1. Take unto thee also Aaron thy brother with his sons, from among the children of Israel, that they may minister to me in the priest's office: Aaron, Nadab, and Abiu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.



28:2. And thou shalt make a holy vesture for Aaron, thy brother, for glory and for beauty.



28:3. And thou shalt speak to all the wise of heart, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's vestments, in which he being consecrated, may minister to me.



28:4. And these shall be the vestments that they shall make: A rational and an ephod, a tunic and a strait linen garment, a mitre and a girdle. They shall make the holy vestments for thy brother Aaron and his sons, that they may do the office of priesthood unto me.



28:5. And they shall take gold, and violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine linen.



28:6. And they shall make the ephod of gold, and violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine twisted linen, embroidered with divers colours.



28:7. It shall have the two edges joined in the top on both sides, that they may be closed together.



28:8. The very workmanship also, and all the variety of the work, shall be of gold, and violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine twisted linen.



28:9. And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and shalt grave on them the names of the children of Israel:



28:10. Six names on one stone, and the other six on the other, according to the order of their birth.



28:11. With the work of an engraver, and the graving of a jeweller, thou shalt engrave them with the names of the children of Israel, set in gold and compassed about:



28:12. And thou shalt put them in both sides of the ephod, a memorial for the children of Israel. And Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord upon both shoulders, for a remembrance.



28:13. Thou shalt make also hooks of gold.



28:14. And two little chains of the purest gold, linked one to another, which thou shalt put into the hooks.



28:15. And thou shalt make the rational of judgment with embroidered work of divers colours, according to the workmanship of the ephod, of gold, violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine twisted linen.



The rational of judgment. . .This part of the priest's attire, which he wore at his breast, was called the rational of judgment; partly because it admonished both priest and people of their duty to God, by carrying the names of all their tribes in his presence; and by the Urim and the Thummim, that is, doctrine and truth, which were written upon it; and partly because it gave divine answers and oracles, as if it were rational and endowed with judgment.



28:16. It shall be four square and doubled: it shall be the measure of a span both in length and in breadth.



28:17. And thou shalt set in it four rows of stones . In the first row shall be a sardius stone, and a topaz, and an emerald:



28:18. In the second a carbuncle, a sapphire, and a jasper:



28:19. In the third a ligurius, an agate, and an amethyst:



28:20. In the fourth a chrysolite, an onyx, and a beryl. They shall be set in gold by their rows.



28:21. And they shall have the names of the children of Israel: with twelve names shall they be engraved, each stone with the name of one according to the twelve tribes.



28:22. And thou shalt make on the rational chains, linked one to another, of the purest gold:



28:23. And two rings of gold, which thou shalt put in the two ends at the top of the rational.



28:24. And the golden chains thou shalt join to the rings, that are in the ends thereof.



28:25. And the ends of the chains themselves, thou shalt join together with two hooks, on both sides of the ephod, which is towards the rational.



28:26. Thou shalt make also two rings of gold, which thou shalt put in the top parts of the rational, in the borders that are over against the ephod, and look towards the back parts thereof.



28:27. Moreover also other two rings of gold, which are to be set on each side of the ephod beneath, that looketh towards the nether joining, that the rational may be fitted with the ephod,



28:28. And may be fastened by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a violet fillet, that the joining artificially wrought may continue, and the rational and the ephod may not be loosed one from the other.



28:29. And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the rational of judgment upon his breast, when he shall enter into the sanctuary, a memorial before the Lord for ever.



28:30. And thou shalt put in the rational of judgment doctrine and truth, which shall be on Aaron's breast, when he shall go in before the Lord: and he shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel on his breast, in the sight of the Lord always.



Doctrine and Truth. . .Hebrew, Urim and Thummim: illuminations and perfections. These words, written on the rational, seem to signify the light of doctrine and the integrity of life, with which the priests of God ought to approach him.



28:31. And thou shalt make the tunic of the ephod all of violet,



28:32. In the midst whereof above shall be a hole for the head, and a border round about it woven, as is wont to be made in the outmost parts of garments, that it may not easily be broken.



28:33. And beneath at the feet of the same tunic, round about, thou shalt make as it were pomegranates, of violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, with little bells set between:



28:34. So that there shall be a golden bell and a pomegranate, and again another golden bell and a pomegranate.



28:35. And Aaron shall be vested with it in the office of his ministry, that the sound may be heard, when he goeth in and cometh out of the sanctuary, in the sight of the Lord, and that he may not die.



28:36. Thou shalt make also a plate of the purest gold: wherein thou shalt grave with engraver's work, Holy to the Lord.



28:37. And thou shalt tie it with a violet fillet, and it shall be upon the mitre,



28:38. Hanging over the forehead of the high priest. And Aaron shall bear the iniquities of those things, which the children of Israel have offered and sanctified, in all their gifts and offerings. And the plate shall be always on his forehead, that the Lord may be well pleased with them.



28:39. And thou shalt gird the tunic with fine linen, and thou shalt make a fine linen mitre, and a girdle of embroidered work.



28:40. Moreover, for the sons of Aaron thou shalt prepare linen tunics, and girdles and mitres for glory and beauty:



28:41. And with all these things thou shalt vest Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him. And thou shalt consecrate the hands of them all, and shalt sanctify them, that they may do the office of priesthood unto me.



28:42. Thou shalt make also linen breeches, to cover the flesh of their nakedness, from the reins to the thighs:



28:43. And Aaron and his sons shall use them when they shall go into the tabernacle of the testimony, or when they approach to the altar to minister in the sanctuary. lest being guilty of iniquity they die. It shall be a law for ever to Aaron, and to his seed after him.



Exodus Chapter 29



The manner of consecrating Aaron and other priests; the institution of the daily sacrifice of two lambs, one in the morning, the other at evening.



29:1. And thou shalt also do this, that they may be consecrated to me in priesthood. Take a calf from the herd, and two rams without blemish,



29:2. And unleavened bread, and a cake without leaven, tempered with oil, wafers also unleavened, anointed with oil: thou shalt make them all of wheaten flour.



29:3. And thou shalt put them in a basket, and offer them: and the calf and the two rams.



29:4. And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons to the door of the tabernacle of the testimony. And when thou hast washed the father and his sons with water,



29:5. Thou shalt clothe Aaron with his vestments, that is, with the linen garment and the tunic, and the ephod and the rational, which thou shalt gird with the girdle.



29:6. And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and the holy plate upon the mitre,



29:7. And thou shalt pour the oil of unction upon his head: and by this rite shall he be consecrated.



29:8. Thou shalt bring his sons also, and shalt put on them the linen tunics, and gird them with a girdle:



29:9. To wit, Aaron and his children, and thou shalt put mitres upon them; and they shall be priests to me by a perpetual ordinance. After thou shalt have consecrated their hands,



29:10. Thou shalt present also the calf before the tabernacle of the testimony. And Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon his head,



29:11. And thou shalt kill him in the sight of the Lord, beside the door of the tabernacle of the testimony.



29:12. And taking some of the blood of the calf, thou shalt put it upon the horns of the altar with thy finger, and the rest of the blood thou shalt pour at the bottom thereof.



29:13. Thou shalt take also all the fat that covereth the entrails, and the caul of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and shalt offer a burn offering upon the altar:



29:14. But the flesh of the calf, and the hide and the dung, thou shalt burn abroad, without the camp, because it is for sin.



29:15. Thou shalt take also one ram, upon the head whereof Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands.



29:16. And when thou hast killed him, thou shalt take of the blood thereof, and pour round about the altar.



29:17. And thou shalt cut the ram in pieces, and having washed his entrails and feet, thou shalt put them upon the flesh that is cut in pieces, and upon his head.



29:18. And thou shalt offer the whole ram for a burnt offering upon the altar: it is an oblation to the Lord, a most sweet savour of the victim of the Lord.



29:19. Thou shalt take also the other ram, upon whose head Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands.



29:20. And when thou hast sacrificed him, thou shalt take of his blood, and put upon the tip of the right ear of Aaron and of his sons, and upon the thumbs and great toes of their right hand and foot, and thou shalt pour the blood upon the altar round about.



29:21. And when thou hast taken of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the oil of unction, thou shalt sprinkle Aaron and his vesture, his sons and their vestments. And after they and their vestments are consecrated,



29:22. Thou shalt take the fat of the ram, and the rump, and the fat that covereth the lungs, and the caul of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder, because it is the ram of consecration:



29:23. And one roll of bread, a cake tempered with oil, a wafer out of the basket of unleavened bread, which is set in the sight of the Lord:



29:24. And thou shalt put all upon the hands of Aaron and of his sons, and shalt sanctify them elevating before the Lord.



29:25. And thou shalt take all from their hands; and shalt burn them upon the altar for a holocaust, a most sweet savour in the sight of the Lord, because it is his oblation.



29:26. Thou shalt take also the breast of the ram, wherewith Aaron was consecrated, and elevating it thou shalt sanctify it before the Lord, and it shall fall to thy share.



29:27. And thou shalt sanctify both the consecrated breast, and the shoulder that thou didst separate of the ram,



29:28. Wherewith Aaron was consecrated and his sons, and they shall fall to Aaron's share, and his sons', by a perpetual right from the children of Israel: because they are the choicest and the beginnings of their peace victims which they offer to the Lord.



29:29. And the holy vesture, which Aaron shall use, his sons shall have after him, that they may be anointed, and their hands consecrated in it.



29:30. He of his sons that shall be appointed high priest in his stead, and that shall enter into the tabernacle of the testimony to minister in the sanctuary, shall wear it seven days.



29:31. And thou shalt take the ram of the consecration, and shalt boil the flesh thereof in the holy place:



29:32. And Aaron and his sons shall eat it. The loaves also, that are in the basket, they shall eat in the entry of the tabernacle of the testimony,



29:33. That it may be an atoning sacrifice, and the hands of the offerers may be sanctified. A stranger shall not eat of them, because they are holy.



29:34. And if there remain of the consecrated flesh, or of the bread, till the morning, thou shalt burn the remainder with fire: they shall not be eaten, because they are sanctified.



29:35. All that I have commanded thee, thou shalt do unto Aaron and his sons. Seven days shalt thou consecrate their hands:



29:36. And thou shalt offer a calf for sin every day for expiation. And thou shalt cleanse the altar when thou hast offered the victim of expiation, and shalt anoint it to sanctify it.



29:37. Seven days shalt thou expiate the altar and sanctify it, and it shall be most holy. Every one, that shall touch it, shall be holy.



29:38. This is what thou shalt sacrifice upon the altar: Two lambs of a year old every day continually,



29:39. One lamb in the morning, and another in the evening.



29:40. With one lamb a tenth part of flour tempered with beaten oil, of the fourth part of a hin, and wine for libation of the same measure.



29:41. And the other lamb thou shalt offer in the evening, according to the rite of the morning oblation, and according to what we have said, for a savour of sweetness:



29:42. It is a sacrifice to the Lord, by perpetual oblation unto your generations, at the door of the tabernacle of the testimony before the Lord, where I will appoint to speak unto thee.



29:43. And there will I command the children of Israel, and the altar shall be sanctified by my glory.



29:44. I will sanctify also the tabernacle of the testimony with the altar, and Aaron with his sons, to do the office of priesthood unto me.



29:45. And I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel, and will be their God:



29:46. And they shall know that I am the Lord their God, who have brought them out of the land of Egypt, that I might abide among them, I the Lord their God.







Exodus Chapter 30



The altar of incense: money to be gathered for the use of the tabernacle: the brazen laver: the holy oil of unction, and the composition of the perfume.



30:1. Thou shalt make also an altar to burn incense, of setim wood.



An altar to burn incense. . .This burning of incense was an emblem of prayer, ascending to God from an inflamed heart. See Ps. 140.2; Apoc. 5.8, and 8.4.



30:2. It shall be a cubit in length, and another in breadth, that is, four square, and two in height. Horns shall go out of the same.



30:3. And thou shalt overlay it with the purest gold, as well the grate thereof, as the walls round about, and the horns. And thou shalt make to it a crown of gold round about,



30:4. And two golden rings under the crown on either side, that the bars may be put into them, and the altar be carried.



30:5. And thou shalt make the bars also of setim wood, and shalt overlay them with gold.



30:6. And thou shalt set the altar over against the veil, that hangeth before the ark of the testimony before the propitiatory wherewith the testimony is covered, where I will speak to thee.



30:7. And Aaron shall burn sweet smelling incense upon it in the morning. When he shall dress the lamps, he shall burn it:



30:8. And when he shall place them in the evening, he shall burn an everlasting incense before the Lord throughout your generations.



30:9. You shall not offer upon it incense of another composition, nor oblation, and victim, neither shall you offer libations.



30:10. And Aaron shall pray upon the horns thereof once a year, with the blood of that which was offered for sin; and shall make atonement upon it in your generations. It shall be most holy to the Lord.



30:11. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



30:12. When thou shalt take the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, every one of them shall give a price for their souls to the Lord, and there shall be no scourge among them, when they shall be reckoned.



30:13. And this shall every one give that passeth at the naming, half a sicle according to the standard of the temple. A sicle hath twenty obols. Half a sicle shall be offered to the Lord.



Half a sicle. . .A sicle or shekel of silver, (which was also called a stater,) according to the standard or weight of the sanctuary, which was the most just and exact, was half an ounce of silver, that is, about half a crown of English money. The obol, or gerah, was about three halfpence.



30:14. He that is counted in the number from twenty years and upwards, shall give the price.



30:15. The rich man shall not add to half a sicle, and the poor man shall diminish nothing.



30:16. And the money received, which was contributed by the children of Israel, thou shalt deliver unto the uses of the tabernacle of the testimony, that it may be a memorial of them before the Lord, and he may be merciful to their souls.



30:17. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



30:18. Thou shalt make also a brazen laver with its foot to wash in: and thou shalt set it between the tabernacle of the testimony and the altar. And water being put into it:



30:19. Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and feet in it:



30:20. When they are going into the tabernacle of the testimony, and when they are to come to the altar, to offer on it incense to the Lord,



30:21. Lest perhaps they die. It shall be an everlasting law to him, and to his seed by successions.



30:22. And the Lord spoke to Moses,



30:23. Saying: Take spices, of principal and chosen myrrh five hundred sicles, and of cinnamon half so much; that is, two hundred and fifty sicles, of calamus in like manner two hundred and fifty,



30:24. And of cassia five hundred sicles by the weight of the sanctuary, of oil of olives the measure hin:



30:25. And thou shalt make the holy oil of unction, an ointment compounded after the art of the perfumer,



30:26. And therewith thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of the testimony, and the ark of the testament,



30:27. And the table with the vessels thereof, the candlestick and furniture thereof, the altars of incense,



30:28. And of holocaust, and all the furniture that belongeth to the service of them.



30:29. And thou shalt sanctify all, and they shall be most holy: he that shall touch them shall be sanctified.



30:30. Thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and shalt sanctify them, that they may do the office of priesthood unto me.



30:31. And thou shalt say to the children of Israel: This oil of unction shall be holy unto me throughout your generations.



30:32. The flesh of man shall not be anointed therewith, and you shall make none other of the same composition, because it is sanctified, and shall be holy unto you.



30:33. What man soever shall compound such, and shall give thereof to a stranger, he shall be cut off from his people.



30:34. And the Lord said to Moses: Take unto thee spices, stacte, and onycha, galbanum of sweet savour, and the clearest frankincense, all shall be of equal weight.



30:35. And thou shalt make incense compounded by the work of the perfumer, well tempered together, and pure, and most worthy of sanctification.



30:36. And when thou hast beaten all into very small powder, thou shalt set of it before the tabernacle of the testimony, in the place where I will appear to thee. Most holy shall this incense be unto you.



30:37. You shall not make such a composition for your own uses, because it is holy to the Lord.



30:38. What man soever shall make the like, to enjoy the smell thereof, he shall perish out of his people.



Exodus Chapter 31



Beseleel and Ooliab are appointed by the Lord to make the tabernacle, and the things belonging thereto. The observation of the sabbath day is again commanded. And the Lord delivereth to Moses two tables written with the finger of God.



31:1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



31:2. Behold, I have called by name Beseleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Juda,



31:3. And I have filled him with the spirit of God, with wisdom and understanding, and knowledge in all manner of work,



31:4. To devise whatsoever may be artificially made of gold, and silver, and brass,



31:5. Of marble, and precious stones, and variety of wood.



31:6. And I have given him for his companion Ooliab, the son of Achisamech, of the tribe of Dan. And I have put wisdom in the heart of every skilful man, that they may make all things which I have commanded thee,



31:7. The tabernacle of the covenant, and the ark of the testimony, and the propitiatory, that is over it, and all the vessels of the tabernacle,



31:8. And the table and the vessels thereof, the most pure candlestick with the vessels thereof, and the altars of incense,



31:9. And of holocaust, and all their vessels, the laver with its foot,



31:10. The holy vestments in the ministry for Aaron the priest, and for his sons, that they may execute their office, about the sacred things:



31:11. The oil of unction, and the incense of spices in the sanctuary, all things which I have commanded thee, shall they make.



31:12. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



31:13. Speak to the children of Israel, and thou shalt say to them: See that you keep my sabbath; because it is a sign between me and you in your generations that you may know that I am the Lord, who sanctify you.



31:14. keep you my sabbath: for it is holy unto you: he that shall profane it, shall be put to death: he that shall do any work in it, his soul shall perish out of the midst of his people.



31:15. Six days shall you do work: in the seventh day is the sabbath, the rest holy to the Lord. Every one that shall do any work on this day, shall die.



31:16. Let the children of Israel keep the sabbath, and celebrate it in their generations. It is an everlasting covenant



31:17. Between me and the children of Israel, and a perpetual sign. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and in the seventh he ceased from work.



31:18. And the Lord, when he had ended these words in Mount Sinai, gave to Moses two stone tables of testimony, written with the finger of God.



Exodus Chapter 32



The people fall into idolatry. Moses prayeth for them. He breaketh the tables: destroyeth the idol: blameth Aaron, and causeth many of the idolaters to be slain.



32:1. And the people seeing that Moses delayed to come down from the mount, gathering together against Aaron, said: Arise, make us gods, that may go before us: For as to this Moses, the man that brought us out of the land of Egypt, we know not what has befallen him.



32:2. And Aaron said to them: Take the golden earrings from the ears of your wives, and your sons and daughters, and bring them to me.



32:3. And the people did what he had commanded, bringing the earrings to Aaron.



32:4. And when he had received them, he fashioned them by founders' work, and made of them a molten calf. And they said: These are thy gods, O Israel, that have brought thee out of the land of Egypt.



32:5. And when Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it, and made proclamation by a crier's voice, saying To morrow is the solemnity of the Lord.



32:6. And rising in the morning, they offered holocausts, and peace victims, and the people sat down to eat and drink, and they rose up to play.



32:7. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: Go, get thee down: thy people, which thou hast brought out of the land of Egypt, hath sinned.



32:8. They have quickly strayed from the way which thou didst shew them: and they have made to themselves a molten calf, and have adored it, and sacrificing victims to it, have said: These are thy gods, O Israel, that have brought thee out of the land of Egypt.



32:9. And again the Lord said to Moses: I see that this people is stiffnecked:



32:10. Let me alone, that my wrath may be kindled against them, and that I may destroy them, and I will make of thee a great nation.



32:11. But Moses besought the Lord his God, saying: Why, O Lord, is thy indignation enkindled against thy people, whom thou hast brought out of the land of Egypt, with great power, and with a mighty hand?



32:12. Let not the Egyptians say, I beseech thee: He craftily brought them out, that he might kill them in the mountains, and destroy them from the earth: let thy anger cease, and be appeased upon the wickedness of thy people.



32:13. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou sworest by thy own self, saying: I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven: and this whole land that I have spoken of, I will give to your seed, and you shall possess it for ever:



32:14. And the Lord was appeased from doing the evil which he had spoken against his people.



32:15. And Moses returned from the mount, carrying the two tables of the testimony in his hand, written on both sides,



32:16. And made by the work of God; the writing also of God was graven in the tables.



32:17. And Josue hearing the noise of the people shouting, said to Moses: The noise of battle is heard in the camp.



32:18. But he answered: It is not the cry of men encouraging to fight, nor the shout of men compelling to flee: but I hear the voice of singers.



32:19. And when he came nigh to the camp, he saw the calf, and the dances: and being very angry, he threw the tables out of his hand, and broke them at the foot of the mount:



32:20. And laying hold of the calf which they had made, he burnt it, and beat it to powder, which he strewed into water, and gave thereof to the children of Israel to drink.



32:21. And he said to Aaron: What has this people done to thee, that thou shouldst bring upon them a most heinous sin?



32:22. And he answered him: Let not my lord be offended; for thou knowest this people, that they are prone to evil.



32:23. They said to me: make us gods, that may go before us; for as to this Moses, who brought us forth out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is befallen him.



32:24. And I said to them: Which of you hath any gold? and they took and brought it to me; and I cast it into the fire, and this calf came out.



32:25. And when Moses saw that the people were naked, (for Aaron had stripped them by occasion of the shame of the filth, and had set them naked among their enemies)



Naked. . .Having lost not only their gold, and their honour, but what was worst of all, being stripped also of the grace of God, and having lost him.--The shame of the filth. . .That is, of the idol, which they had taken for their god. It is the usual phrase of the scripture to call idols filth and abominations.



32:26. Then standing in the gate of the camp, he said: If any man be on the Lord's side, let him join with me. And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him:



32:27. And he said to them: Thus saith the Lord God of Israel: Put every man his sword upon his thigh: go, and return from gate to gate through the midst of the camp, and let every man kill his brother, and friend, and neighbour.



32:28. And the sons of Levi did according to the words of Moses, and there were slain that day about three and twenty thousand men.



32:29. And Moses said: You have consecrated your hands this day to the Lord, every man in his son and in his brother, that a blessing may be given to you.



32:30. And when the next day was come, Moses spoke to the people: You have sinned a very great sin: I will go up to the Lord, if by any means I may be able to entreat him for your crime.



32:31. And returning to the Lord, he said: I beseech thee: this people hath sinned a heinous sin, and they have made to themselves gods of gold: either forgive them this trespass,



32:32. Or if thou do not, strike me out of the book that thou hast written.



32:33. And the Lord answered him: He that hath sinned against me, him will I strike out of my book:



32:34. But go thou, and lead this people whither I have told thee: my angel shall go before thee. And I in the day of revenge will visit this sin also of theirs.



32:35. The Lord therefore struck the people for the guilt, on occasion of the calf which Aaron had made.



Exodus Chapter 33



The people mourn for their sin. Moses pitcheth the tabernacle without the camp. He converseth familiarly with God. Desireth to see his glory.



33:1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: Go, get thee up from this place, thou and thy people which thou hast brought out of the land of Egypt, into the land concerning which I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying: To thy seed I will give it:



33:2. And I will send an angel before thee, that I may cast out the Chanaanite, and the Amorrhite, and the Hethite, and the Pherezite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite,



33:3. That thou mayst enter into the land that floweth with milk and honey. For I will not go up with thee, because thou art a stiffnecked people; lest I destroy thee in the way.



33:4. And the people hearing these very bad tidings, mourned: and no man put on his ornaments according to custom.



33:5. And the Lord said to Moses: Say to the children of Israel: Thou art a stiffnecked people, once I shall come up in the midst of thee, and shall destroy thee. Now presently lay aside thy ornaments, that I may know what to do to thee.



33:6. So the children of Israel laid aside their ornaments by Mount Horeb.



33:7. Moses also taking the tabernacle, pitched it without the camp afar off, and called the name thereof, The tabernacle of the covenant. And all the people, that had any question, went forth to the tabernacle of the covenant, without the camp.



33:8. And when Moses went forth to the tabernacle, all the people rose up, and every one stood in the door of his pavilion, and they beheld the back of Moses, till he went into the tabernacle.



33:9. And when he was gone into the tabernacle of the covenant, the pillar of the cloud came down, and stood at the door, and he spoke with Moses.



33:10. And all saw that the pillar of the cloud stood at the door of the tabernacle. And they stood and worshipped at the doors of their tent.



33:11. And the Lord spoke to Moses face to face, as a man is wont to speak to his friend. And when he returned into the camp, his servant Josue, the son of Nun, a young man, departed not from the tabernacle.



Face to face. . .That is, in a most familiar manner. Though as we learn from this very chapter, Moses could not see the face of the Lord.



33:12. And Moses said to the Lord: Thou commandest me to lead forth this people; and thou dost not let me know whom thou wilt send with me, especially whereas thou hast said: I know thee by name, and thou hast found favour in my sight.



I know thee by name. . .In the language of the scriptures, God is said to know such as he approves and loves: and to know by name, those whom he favours in a most singular manner, as he did his servant Moses.



33:13. If therefore I have found favour in thy sight, shew me thy face, that I may know thee, and may find grace before thy eyes: look upon thy people this nation.



33:14. And the Lord said: My face shall go before thee, and I will give thee rest.



33:15. And Moses said: If thou thyself dost not go before, bring us not out of this place.



33:16. For how shall we be able to know, I and thy people, that we have found grace in thy sight, unless thou walk with us, that we may be glorified by all people that dwell upon the earth?



33:17. And the Lord said to Moses: This word also, which thou hast spoken, will I do; for thou hast found grace before me, and thee I have known by name.



33:18. And he said: Shew me thy glory.



33:19. He answered: I will shew thee all good, and I will proclaim in the name of the Lord before thee: and I will have mercy on whom I will, and I will be merciful to whom it shall please me.



33:20. And again he said: Thou canst not see my face: for man shall not see me, and live.



33:21. And again he said: Behold there is a place with me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock.



33:22. And when my glory shall pass, I will set thee in a hole of the rock, and protect thee with my righthand till I pass:



33:23. And I will take away my hand, and thou shalt see my back parts: but my face thou canst not see.



See my back parts. . .The Lord by his angel, usually spoke to Moses in the pillar of the cloud; so that he could not see the glory of him that spoke familiarly with him. In the vision here mentioned he was allowed to see something of him, in an assumed corporeal form: not in the face, the rays of which were too bright for mortal eye to bear, but to view him as it were behind, when his face was turned from him.



Exodus Chapter 34



The tables are renewed: all society with the Chanaanites is forbid: some precepts concerning the firstborn, the sabbath, and other feasts: after forty days' fast, Moses returneth to the people with the commandments, and his face appearing horned with rays of light, he covereth it, whensoever he speaketh to the people.



34:1. And after this he said: Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the former, and I will write upon them the words, which were in the tables, which thou brokest.



34:2. Be ready in the morning, that thou mayst forthwith go up into Mount Sinai, and thou shalt stand with me upon the top of the mount.



34:3. Let no man go up with thee, and let not any man be seen throughout all the mount; neither let the oxen nor the sheep feed over against it.



34:4. Then he cut out two tables of stone, such as had been before; and rising very early he went up into the Mount Sinai, as the Lord had commanded him, carrying with him the tables.



34:5. And when the Lord was come down in a cloud, Moses stood with him, calling upon the name of the Lord.



34:6. And when he passed before him, he said: O the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, patient and of much compassion, and true,



34:7. Who keepest mercy unto thousands: who takest away iniquity, and wickedness, and sin, and no man of himself is innocent before thee. Who renderest the iniquity of the fathers to the children, and to the grandchildren unto the third and fourth generation.



34:8. And Moses making haste, bowed down prostrate unto the earth, and adoring,



34:9. Said: If I have found grace in thy sight, O Lord, I beseech thee that thou wilt go with us, (for it is a stiffnecked people) and take away our iniquities and sin, and possess us.



34:10. The Lord answered: I will make a covenant in the sight of all, I will do signs such as were never seen upon the earth, nor in any nations; that this people, in the midst of whom thou art, may see the terrible work of the Lord which I will do.



34:11. Observe all things which this day I command thee: I myself will drive out before thy face the Amorrhite, and the Chanaanite, and the Hethite, and the Pherezite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite.



34:12. Beware thou never join in friendship with the inhabitants of that land, which may be thy ruin:



34:13. But destroy their altars, break their statues and cut down their groves:



34:14. Adore not any strange god. The Lord his name is jealous, he is a jealous God.



34:15. Make no covenant with the men of those countries; lest, when they have committed fornication with their gods, and have adored their idols, some one call thee to eat of the things sacrificed.



34:16. Neither shalt thou take of their daughters a wife for thy son, lest after they themselves have committed fornication, they make thy sons also to commit fornication with their gods.



34:17. Thou shalt not make to thyself any molten gods.



34:18: Thou shalt keep the feast of the unleavened bread. Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee in the time of the month of the new corn: for in the month of the spring time thou camest out from Egypt.



34:19. All of the male kind that openeth the womb, shall be mine. Of all beasts; both of oxen and of sheep, it shall be mine.



34:20. The firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a sheep: but if thou wilt not give a price for it, it shall be slain. The firstborn of thy sons thou shalt redeem: neither shalt thou appear before me empty.



34:21. Six days shalt thou work, the seventh day thou shalt cease to plough and to reap.



34:22. Thou shalt keep the feast of weeks with the firstfruits of the corn of thy wheat harvest, and the feast when the time of the year returneth that all things are laid in.



34:23. Three times in the year all thy males shall appear in the sight of the almighty Lord the God of Israel.



34:24. For when I shall have taken away the nations from thy face, and shall have enlarged thy borders, no man shall lie in wait against thy land when thou shalt go up, and appear in the sight of the Lord thy God thrice in a year.



34:25. Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice upon leaven; neither shall there remain in the morning any thing of the victim of the solemnity of the Phase.



34:26. The first of the fruits of thy ground thou shalt offer in the house of the Lord thy God. Thou shalt not boil a kid in the milk of his dam.



34:27. And the Lord said to Moses: Write thee these words, by which I have made a covenant both with thee and with Israel.



34:28. And he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights: he neither ate bread nor drank water, and he wrote upon the tables the ten words of the covenant.



34:29. And when Moses came down from the Mount Sinai, he held the two tables of the testimony, and he knew not that his face was horned from the conversation of the Lord.



Horned. . .That is, shining, and sending forth rays of light like horns.



34:30. And Aaron and the children of Israel seeing the face of Moses horned, were afraid to come near.



34:31. And being called by him, they returned, both Aaron and the rulers of the congregation. And after that he spoke to them,



34:32. And all the children of Israel came to him: and he gave them in commandment all that he had heard of the Lord on Mount Sinai.



34:33. And having done speaking, he put a veil upon his face.



34:34. But when he went in to the Lord, and spoke with him, he took it away until he came forth, and then he spoke to the children of Israel all things that had been commanded him.



34:35. And they saw that the face of Moses when he came out was horned, but he covered his face again, if at any time he spoke to them.



Exodus Chapter 35



The sabbath. Offerings for making the tabernacle. Beseleel and Ooliab are called to the work.



35:1. And all the multitude of the children of Israel being gathered together, he said to them: These are the things which the Lord hath commanded to be done:



35:2. Six days you shall do work; the seventh day shall be holy unto you, the sabbath and the rest of the Lord: he that shall do any work on it, shall be put to death.



35:3. You shall kindle no fire in any of your habitations on the sabbath day.



35:4. And Moses said to all the assembly of the children of Israel: This is the word the Lord hath commanded, saying:



35:5. Set aside with you firstfruits to the Lord. Let every one that is willing and hath a ready heart, offer them to the Lord: gold, and silver, and brass,



35:6. Violet and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine linen, goats' hair,



35:7. And rams' skins dyed red, and violet coloured skins, setim wood,



35:8. And oil to maintain lights, and to make ointment, and most sweet incense,



35:9. Onyx stones, and precious stones, for the adorning of the ephod and the rational.



35:10. Whosoever of you is wise, let him come, and make that which the Lord hath commanded:



35:11. To wit, the tabernacle, and the roof thereof, and the cover, the rings, and the board-work with the bars, the pillars and the sockets:



35:12. The ark and the staves, the propitiatory, and the veil that is drawn before it:



35:13. The table with the bars and the vessels, and the loaves of proposition:



35:14. The candlestick to bear up the lights, the vessels thereof and the lamps, and the oil for the nourishing of fires:



35:15. The altar of incense, and the bars, and the oil of unction, and the incense of spices: the hanging at the door of the tabernacle:



35:16. The altar of holocaust, and its grate of brass, with the bars and vessels thereof: the laver and its foot:



35:17. The curtains of the court, with the pillars and the sockets, the hanging in the doors of the entry.



35:18. The pins of the tabernacle, and of the court, with their little cords:



35:19. The vestments that are to be used in the ministry of the sanctuary, the vesture of Aaron the high priest, and of his sons, to do the office of priesthood to me.



35:20. And all the multitude of the children of Israel going out from the presence of Moses,



35:21. Offered firstfruits to the Lord with a most ready and devout mind, to make the work of the tabernacle of the testimony. Whatever was necessary to the service and to the holy vestments,



35:22. Both men and women gave bracelets and earrings, rings and tablets: every vessel of gold was set aside to be offered to the Lord.



35:23. If any man had violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, fine linen and goats' hair, ramskins dyed red, and violet coloured skins,



35:24. Metal of silver and brass, they offered it to the Lord, and setim wood for divers uses.



35:25. The skilful women also gave such things as they had spun, violet, purple, and scarlet, and fine linen,



35:26. And goats' hair, giving all of their own accord.



35:27. But the princes offered onyx stones, and precious stones, for the ephod and the rational,



35:28. And spices and oil for the lights, and for the preparing of ointment, and to make the incense of most sweet savour.



35:29. All, both men and women, with devout mind offered gifts, that the works might be done which the Lord had commanded by the hand of Moses. All the children of Israel dedicated voluntary offerings to the Lord.



35:30. And Moses said to the children of Israel: Behold, the Lord hath called by name Beseleel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Juda,



35:31. And hath filled him with the spirit of God, with wisdom and understanding, and knowledge, and all learning,



35:32. To devise and to work in gold and silver and brass,



35:33. And in engraving stones, and in carpenters' work. Whatsoever can be devised artificially,



35:34. He hath given in his heart: Ooliab also, the son of Achisamech, of the tribe of Dan:



35:35. Both of them hath he instructed with wisdom, to do carpenters' work, and tapestry, and embroidery in blue and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine linen, and to weave all things, and to invent all new things.



Exodus Chapter 36



The offerings are delivered to the workmen, the curtains, coverings, boards, bars, veil, pillars, and hanging are made.



36:1. Beseleel therefore, and Ooliab, and every wise man, to whom the Lord gave wisdom and understanding, to know how to work artificially, made the things that are necessary for the uses of the sanctuary, and which the Lord commanded.



36:2. And when Moses had called them, and every skilful man, to whom the Lord had given wisdom, and such as of their own accord had offered themselves to the making of the work,



36:3. He delivered all the offerings of the children of Israel unto them. And while they were earnest about the work, the people daily in the morning offered their vows.



36:4. Whereupon the workmen being constrained to come,



36:5. Said to Moses: The people offereth more than is necessary.



36:6. Moses therefore commanded proclamation to be made by the crier's voice: Let neither man nor woman offer any more for the work of the sanctuary. And so they ceased from offering gifts,



36:7. Because the things that were offered did suffice, and were too much.



36:8. And all the men that were wise of heart, to accomplish the work of the tabernacle, made ten curtains of twisted fine linen, and violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, with varied work, and the art of embroidering:



36:9. The length of one curtain was twenty-eight cubits, and the breadth four: all the curtains were of the same size.



36:10. And he joined five curtains, one to another, and the other five he coupled one to another.



36:11. He made also loops of violet in the edge of one curtain on both sides, and in the edge of the other curtain in like manner,



36:12. That the loops might meet one against another, and might be joined each with the other.



36:13. Whereupon also he cast fifty rings of gold, that might catch the loops of the curtains, and they might be made one tabernacle.



36:14. He made also eleven curtains of goats' hair, to cover the roof of the tabernacle:



36:15. One curtain was thirty cubits long, and four cubits broad: all the curtains were of one measure.



36:16. Five of which he joined apart, and the other six apart.



36:17. And he made fifty loops in the edge of one curtain, and fifty in the edge of another curtain, that they might be joined one to another.



36:18. And fifty buckles of brass wherewith the roof might be knit together, that of all the curtains there might be made one covering.



36:19. He made also a cover for the tabernacle of rams' skins dyed red; and another cover over that of violet skins.



36:20. He made also the boards of the tabernacle of setim wood standing.



36:21. The length of one board was ten cubits; and the breadth was one cubit and a half.



36:22. There were two mortises throughout every board, that one might be joined to the other. And in this manner he made for all the boards of the tabernacle.



36:23. Of which twenty were at the south side southward,



36:24. With forty sockets of silver, two sockets were put under one board on the two sides of the corners, where the mortises of the sides end in the corners.



36:25. At that side also of the tabernacle, that looketh towards the north, he made twenty boards,



36:26. With forty sockets of silver, two sockets for every board.



36:27. But against the west, to wit, at that side of the tabernacle, which looketh to the sea, he made six boards,



36:28. And two others at each corner of the tabernacle behind:



36:29. Which were also joined from beneath unto the top, and went together into one joint. Thus he did on both sides at the corners:



36:30. So there were in all eight boards, and they had sixteen sockets of silver, to wit, two sockets under every board.



36:31. He made also bars of setim wood, five to hold together the boards of one side of the tabernacle,



36:32. And five others to join together the boards of the other side; and besides these, five other bars at the west side of the tabernacle towards the sea.



36:33. He made also another bar, that might come by the midst of the boards from corner to corner.



36:34. And the boards themselves he overlaid with gold casting for them sockets of silver. And their rings he made of gold, through which the bars might be drawn: and he covered the bars themselves with plates of gold.



36:35. He made also a veil of violet, and purple, scarlet and fine twisted linen, varied and distinguished with embroidery:



36:36. And four pillars of setim wood, which with their heads he overlaid with gold, casting for them sockets of silver.



36:37. He made also a hanging in the entry of the tabernacle of violet, purple, scarlet, and fine twisted linen, with the work of an embroiderer.



36:38. And five pillars with their heads, which he covered with gold, and their sockets he cast of brass.



Exodus Chapter 37



Beseleel maketh the ark: the propitiatory, and cherubims, the table, the candlestick, the lamps, and the altar of incense, and compoundeth the incense.



37:1. And Beseleel made also, the ark of setim wood: it was two cubits and a half in length, and a cubit and a half in breadth, and the height was of one cubit and a half: and he overlaid it with the purest gold within and without.



37:2. And he made to it a crown of gold round about,



37:3. Casting four rings of gold at the four corners thereof: two rings in one side, and two in the other.



37:4. And he made bars of setim wood, which he overlaid with gold,



37:5. And he put them into the rings that were at the sides of the ark to carry it.



37:6. He made also the propitiatory, that is, the oracle, of the purest gold, two cubits and a half in length, and a cubit and a half in breadth.



37:7. Two cherubims also of beaten gold, which he set on the two sides of the propitiatory:



37:8. One cherub in the top of one side, and the other cherub in the top of the other side: two cherubims at the two ends of the propitiatory,



37:9. Spreading their wings, and covering the propitiatory, and looking one towards the other, and towards it.



37:10. He made also the table of setim wood, in length two cubits, and in breadth one cubit, and in height it was a cubit and a half.



37:11. And he overlaid it with the finest gold, and he made to it a golden ledge round about,



37:12. And to the ledge itself he made a polished crown of gold, of four fingers breadth, and upon the same another golden crown.



37:13. And he cast four rings of gold, which he put in the four corners at each foot of the table,



37:14. Over against the crown: and he put the bars into them, that the table might be carried.



37:15. The bars also themselves he made of setim wood, and overlaid them with gold.



37:16. And the vessels for the divers uses of the table, dishes, bowls, and cups, and censers of pure gold, wherein the libations are to be offered.



37:17. He made also the candlestick of beaten work of the finest gold. from the shaft whereof its branches, its cups, and bowls, and lilies came out:



37:18: Six on the two sides: three branches on one side, and three on the other.



37:19. Three cups in manner of a nut on each branch, and bowls withal and lilies: and three cups of the fashion of a nut in another branch, and bowls withal and lilies. The work of the six branches, that went out from the shaft of the candlestick was equal.



37:20. And in the shaft itself were four cups after the manner of a nut, and bowls withal at every one, and lilies:



37:21. And bowls under two branches in three places, which together made six branches going out from one shaft.



37:22. So both the bowls, and the branches were of the same, all beaten work of the purest gold.



37:23. He made also the seven lamps with their snuffers, and the vessels where the snuffings were to be put out, of the purest gold.



37:24. The candlestick with all the vessels thereof weighed a talent of gold.



37:25. He made also the alter of incense of setim wood, being a cubit on every side foursquare, and in height two cubits: from the corners of which went out horns.



37:26. And he overlaid it with the purest gold, with its grate, and the sides, and the horns.



37:27. And he made to it a crown of gold round about, and two golden rings under the crown at each side, that the bars might be put into them, and the altar be carried.



37:28. And the bars themselves he made also of setim wood, and overlaid them with plates of gold.



37:29. He compounded also the oil for the ointment of sanctification, and incense of the purest spices, according to the work of a perfumer.



Exodus Chapter 38



He maketh the altar of holocaust. The brazen laver. The court with its pillars and hangings. The sum of what the people offered.



38:1. He made also the altar of holocaust of setim wood, five cubits square, and three in height:



38:2. The horns whereof went out from the corners, and he overlaid it with plates of brass.



38:3. And for the uses thereof, he prepared divers vessels of brass, cauldrons, tongs, fleshhooks, pothooks and firepans.



38:4. And he made the grate thereof of brass, in manner of a net, and under it in the midst of the altar a hearth,



38:5. Casting four rings at the four ends of the net at the top, to put in bars to carry it:



38:6. And he made the bars of setim wood, and overlaid them with plates of brass:



38:7. And he drew them through the rings that stood out in the sides of the altar. And the altar itself was not solid, but hollow, of boards, and empty within.



38:8. He made also the laver of brass, with the foot thereof, of the mirrors of the women that watched at the door of the tabernacle.



38:9. He made also the court, in the south side whereof were hangings of fine twisted linen of a hundred cubits.



38:10. Twenty pillars of brass with their sockets, the beads of the pillars, and the whole graving of the work, of silver.



38:11. In like manner at the north side the hangings, the pillars, and the sockets and heads of the pillars were of the same measure, and work and metal.



38:12. But on that side that looketh to the west, there were hangings of fifty cubits, ten pillars of brass with their sockets, and the heads of the pillars, and all the graving of the work, of silver.



38:13. Moreover, towards the east he prepared hangings of fifty cubits:



38:14. Fifteen cubits of which, were on one side with three pillars, and their sockets:



38:15. And on the other side (for between the two he made the entry of the tabernacle) there were hangings equally of fifteen cubits, and three pillars, and as many sockets.



38:16. All the hangings of the court were woven with twisted linen.



38:17. The sockets of the pillars were of brass, and their heads with all their gravings of silver: and he overlaid the pillars of the court also with silver.



38:18. And he made in the entry thereof an embroidered hanging of violet, purple, scarlet, and fine twisted linen, that was twenty cubits long, and five cubits high, according to the measure of all the hangings of the court.



38:19. And the pillars in the entry were four, with sockets of brass, and their heads and gravings of silver.



38:20. The pins also of the tabernacle and of the court round about he made of brass.



38:21. These are the instruments of the tabernacle of the testimony, which were counted according to the commandment of Moses, in the ceremonies of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, son of Aaron the priest:



38:22. Which Beseleel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur of the tribe of Juda, had made, as the Lord commanded by Moses.



38:23. Having for his companion Ooliab, the son of Achisamech, of the tribe of Dan: who also was an excellent artificer in wood, and worker in tapestry and embroidery in violet, purple, scarlet, and fine linen.



38:24. All the gold that was spent in the work of the sanctuary, and that was offered in gifts, was nine and twenty talents, and seven hundred and thirty sicles according to the standard of the sanctuary.



38:25. And it was offered by them that went to be numbered, from twenty years old and upwards, of six hundred and three thousand five hundred and fifty men able to bear arms.



38:26. There were moreover a hundred talents of silver, whereof were cast the sockets of the sanctuary, and of the entry where the veil hangeth.



38:27. A hundred sockets were made of a hundred talents, one talent being reckoned for every socket.



38:28. And of the thousand seven hundred and seventy-five he made the heads of the pillars, which also he overlaid with silver.



38:29. And there were offered of brass also seventy-two thousand talents, and four hundred sicles besides,



38:30. Of which were cast the sockets in the entry of the tabernacle of the testimony, and the altar of brass with the grate thereof, and also the vessels that belong to the use thereof.



38:31. And the sockets of the court as well round about as in the entry thereof, and the pins of the tabernacle, and of the court round about.



Exodus Chapter 39



All the ornaments of Aaron and his sons are made. And the whole work of the tabernacle is finished.



39:1. And he made, of violet and purple, scarlet and fine linen, the vestments for Aaron to wear when he ministered in the holy places, as the Lord commanded Moses.



39:2. So he made an ephod of gold, violet, and purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine twisted linen,



39:3. With embroidered work, and he cut thin plates of gold, and drew them small into threads, that they might be twisted with the woof of the foresaid colours,



39:4. And two borders coupled one to the other in the top on either side,



39:5. And a girdle of the same colours, as the Lord had commanded Moses.



39:6. He prepared also two onyx stones, fast set and closed in gold, and graven, by the art of a lapidary, with the names of the children of Israel:



39:7. And he set them in the sides of the ephod, for a memorial of the children of Israel, as the Lord had commanded Moses.



39:8. He made also a rational with embroidered work, according to the work of the ephod, of gold, violet, purple, and scarlet twice dyed, and fine twisted linen:



39:9. Foursquare, double, of the measure of a span.



39:10. And he set four rows of precious stones in it. In the first row was a sardius, a topaz, an emerald.



39:11. In the second, a carbuncle, a sapphire, and a jasper.



39:12. In the third, a ligurius, an agate, and an amethyst.



39:13. In the fourth, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a beryl, set and enclosed in gold by their rows.



39:14. And the twelve stones, were engraved with the names of the twelve tribes of Israel, each one with its several name.



39:15. They made also in the rational little chains, linked one to another, of the purest gold,



39:16. And two hooks, and as many rings of gold. And they set the rings on either side of the rational,



39:17. On which rings the two golden chains should hang, which they put into the hooks that stood out in the corners of the ephod.



39:18. These both before and behind so answered one another, that the ephod and the rational were bound together,



39:19. Being fastened to the girdle, and strongly coupled with rings, which a violet fillet joined, lest they should flag loose, and be moved one from the other, as the Lord commanded Moses.



39:20. They made also the tunic of the ephod all of violet,



39:21. And a hole for the head in the upper part at the middle, and a woven border round about the hole:



39:22. And beneath at the feet pomegranates of violet, purple, scarlet, and fine twisted linen:



39:23. And little bells of the purest gold, which they put between the pomegranates at the bottom of the tunic round about:



39:24. To wit, a bell of gold, and a pomegranate, wherewith the high priest went adorned, when he discharged his ministry, as the Lord had commanded Moses.



39:25. They made also fine linen tunics with woven work for Aaron and his sons:



39:26. And mitres with their little crowns of fine linen:



39:27. And linen breeches of fine linen:



39:28. And a girdle of fine twisted linen, violet, purple, and scarlet twice dyed, of embroidery work, as the Lord had commanded Moses.



39:29. They made also the plate of sacred veneration of the purest gold, and they wrote on it with the engraving of a lapidary: The Holy of the Lord:



39:30. And they fastened it to the mitre with a violet fillet, as the Lord had commanded Moses.



39:31. So all the work of the tabernacle and of the roof of the testimony was finished: and the children of Israel did all things which the Lord had commanded Moses.



39:32. And they offered the tabernacle, and the roof, and the whole furniture, the rings, the boards, the bars, the pillars and their sockets,



39:33. The cover of rams' skins dyed red, and the other cover of violet skins,



39:34. The veil, the ark, the bars, the propitiatory,



39:35. The table, with the vessels thereof, and the loaves of proposition:



39:36. The candlestick, the lamps, and the furniture of them, with the oil:



39:37. The altar of gold, and the ointment, and the incense of spices:



39:38. And the hanging in the entry of the tabernacle:



39:39. The altar of brass, the grate, the bars, and all the vessels thereof: the laver, with the foot thereof: the hangings of the court, and the pillars, with their sockets:



39:40. The hanging in the entry of the court, and the little cords, and the pins thereof. Nothing was wanting of the vessels, that were commanded to be made for the ministry of the tabernacle, and for the roof of the covenant.



39:41. The vestments also, which the priests, to wit, Aaron and his sons, use in the sanctuary,



39:42. The children of Israel offered, as the Lord had commanded.



39:43. And when Moses saw all things finished, he blessed them.



Exodus Chapter 40



The tabernacle is commanded to be set up and anointed. God filleth it with his majesty.



40:1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:



40:2. The first month, the first day of the month, thou shalt set up the tabernacle of the testimony,



40:3. And shalt put the ark in it, and shalt let down the veil before it:



40:4. And thou shalt bring in the table, and set upon it the things that are commanded according to the rite. The candlestick shall stand with its lamps,



40:5. And the altar of gold, whereon the incense is burnt before the ark of the testimony. Thou shalt put the hanging in the entry of the tabernacle,



40:6. And before it the altar of holocaust.



40:7. The laver between the altar and the tabernacle, and thou shalt fill it with water.



40:8. And thou shalt encompass the court with hangings, and the entry thereof.



40:9. And thou shalt take the oil of unction and anoint the tabernacle with its vessels, that they may be sanctified:



40:10. The altar of holocaust and all its vessels:



40:11. The laver with its foot: thou shalt consecrate all with the oil of unction, that they may be most holy.



40:12. And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons to the door of the tabernacle of the testimony, and having washed them with water,



40:13. Thou shalt put on them the holy vestments, that they may minister to me, and that the unction of them may prosper to an everlasting priesthood.



40:14. And Moses did all that the Lord had commanded.



40:15. So in the first month of the second year, the first day of the month, the tabernacle was set up.



40:16. And Moses reared it up, and placed the boards and the sockets and the bars, and set up the pillars,



40:17. And spread the roof over the tabernacle, putting over it a cover, as the Lord had commanded.



40:18. And he put the testimony in the ark, thrusting bars underneath, and the oracle above.



40:19. And when he had brought the ark into the tabernacle, he drew the veil before it to fulfil the commandment of the Lord.



40:20. And he set the table in the tabernacle of the testimony, at the north side, without the veil,



40:21. Setting there in order the loaves of proposition, as the Lord had commanded Moses.



40:22. He set the candlestick also in the tabernacle of the testimony, over against the table on the south side,



40:23. Placing the lamps in order, according to the precept of the Lord.



40:24. He set also the altar of gold under the roof of the testimony, over against the veil,



40:25. A